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Amit H. Varma

Assistant Professor

School of Civil Engineering

Purdue University

Ph. No. (765) 496 3419

Email: ahvarma@purdue.edu

Office hours: M-W-F 9:00-11:30 a.m.

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

STABILITY DEFINITION

under compression resulting in loss of ability to resist loading

is defined as instability in the book.

in design. Instability is a strength-related limit state.

equilibrium, the body will be in motion or a mechanism.

A mechanism cannot resist loads and is of no use to the civil

engineer.

Stability qualifies the state of equilibrium of a structure. Whether it

is in stable or unstable equilibrium.

STABILITY DEFINITION

not cause large movements like a mechanism. Structure

vibrates about it equilibrium position.

produce large movements and the structure never returns to

its original equilibrium position.

it is in stable or unstable equilibrium. Small perturbation cause

large movements but the structure can be brought back to its

original equilibrium position with no work.

geometry of the structure under compression seems strange!

STABILITY DEFINITION

results in its ability to resist loads called instability.

compressive loads.

As the load increases, the structure suddenly changes to

deformation state-2 at some critical load Pcr.

The structure buckles from state-1 to state-2, where state-2 is

orthogonal (has nothing to do, or independent) with state-1.

Usually, state-2 after buckling is either neutral or unstable

equilibrium

BUCKLING

P<Pcr

P=Pcr

P>Pcr

Stability of equilibrium As the loads acting on the structure are

increased, when does the equilibrium state become unstable?

The equilibrium state becomes unstable due to:

Inelasticity of the structural materials

Columns

Beams

Beam-Columns

Structural Frames

TYPES OF INSTABILITY

Structure subjected to compressive forces can undergo:

1.

state-2.

2.

deformations or material inelasticity

frames under gravity loads only

to gravity and lateral loads.

Inelastic instability can occur for all members and the frame.

our designed structure to buckle or fail by instability both of

which are strength limit states.

TYPES OF INSTABILITY

BIFURCATION BUCKLING

increased, it reaches a critical value where:

And, the equilibrium load-deformation path bifurcates.

Secondary load-deformation path post buckling

Is the post-buckling path stable or unstable?

SYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

bifurcation.

If the load capacity decreases after buckling then unstable

symmetric bifurcation.

ASYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

INSTABILITY FAILURE

deformation stays in state-1 throughout

The change is stiffness is due to large deformations and / or

material inelasticity.

The load capacity is reached when the stiffness becomes zero.

Neutral equilibrium when stiffness becomes zero and unstable

equilibrium when stiffness is negative.

Structural stability failure when stiffness becomes negative.

INSTABILITY FAILURE

FAILURE OF BEAM-COLUMNS

P

K=0

K<0

P

No bifurcation.

Instability due to material

and geometric nonlinearity

INSTABILITY FAILURE

Snap-through buckling

P

Snap-through

INSTABILITY FAILURE

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

equilibrium and solving it to determine the onset of buckling.

the complete potential energy of the system. Analyzing this total

potential energy to establish equilibrium and examine stability of

the equilibrium state.

equilibrium of the system. Solving the equation to determine the

natural frequency () of the system. Instability corresponds to

the reduction of to zero.

STABILITY ANALYSES

you can use different methods to answer different questions

critical buckling load for a (perfect) system subjected to loads.

The system must not have any imperfections.

It cannot provide any information regarding the post-buckling loaddeformation path.

equilibrium equation and examining its stability

The system can have imperfections.

It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large

deformations are assumed

The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the

deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of

freedom.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

The dynamic method is very powerful, but we will not use it in this class

at all.

engineering

In this class, you will learn that the loads acting on a structure change its

stiffness. This is significant you have not seen it before.

Ma

Ma

Mb

4E I

a

L

Mb

2E I

b

L

Instead, it will decrease. The reduced stiffness will reduce the

natural frequency and period elongation.

You will see these in your dynamics and earthquake engineering

class.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

NEED TO DRAW THE FREE BODY DIAGRAM OF THE DEFORMED

STRUCTURE.

DEFORMED STATE

BODY DIAGRAM IS IN THE UNDEFORMED STATE

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

k

Rotationally restrained at end

L

k

L cos

L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

L

k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

k P L sin 0

k

L sin

For small deformations sin

k k

Pcr

L L

P

when P = Pcr = k/L

When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed state. The

structure will buckle into the deformed state when P=Pcr

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end

P

k

L

Draw FBD in the deformed state

L

O

P

L sin

k L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state

P

L sin

k L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

(k L sin ) L P L sin 0

k L2 sin

P

L sin

For small deformations sin

k L2

Pcr

kL

L

when P = Pcr = k L. When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Example 3 Three rigid bar system with two rotational springs

P

A

B

L

Draw FBD in the deformed state

P

A

1 2)

L sin 1

L

B

1 2)

L sin 2

2

L

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state

P

1

1 2)

L sin 1

1 2)

L sin 2

1 2)

2

L

C

k(22-1)

L sin 1

L sin 2

1+(1-2)

k(21-2)

k ( 21 2 ) P L sin 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L sin 2 0

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k ( 2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

k

2k PL

k

2

k

PL

1 0

2 0

coefficient matrix is equal to zero.

When 1 and 2 are not equal to zero that is when buckling occurs

the coefficient matrix determinant has to be equal to zero for equil.

Take a look at the matrix equation. It is of the form [A] {x}={0}. It can

also be rewritten as [K]-[I]){x}={0}

2k

L

k

k

0

1

0

1

L P

0 1 0

2k

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

We are searching for the eigenvalues () of the stiffness matrix [K].

These eigenvalues cause the stiffness matrix to become singular

Singular stiffness matrix means that it has a zero value, which means that

the determinant of the matrix is equal to zero.

2k PL

k

0

k

2k PL

(2k PL) 2 k 2 0

(2k PL k ) (2k PL k ) 0

(3k PL) (k PL) 0

3k

k

Pcr

or

L

L

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

that can be determined as follows

Pcr=k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to determine 1 and 2

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

Let P Pcr k

Let P Pcr k

L

k (21 2 ) k1 0

L

k (2 2 1 ) k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.

Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are

negligible. What we have found is the buckling shape not its magnitude.

P

The buckling

mode

is such that 1=2 Symmetric =buckling

modeD

A

1

L

B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

determine 1 and 2

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

Let P Pcr 3k

Let P Pcr 3k

L

L

k (21 2 ) 3k1 0

k (2 2 1 ) 3k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.

Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are

negligible. What we have found is the bucklingCshape not its magnitude.

The buckling mode is such that 1=-2 AntisymmetricL buckling mode

P

2=-1

L

B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Homework No. 1

Problem 1.1

Problem 1.3

Problem 1.4

All problems from the textbook on Stability by W.F. Chen

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

Energy method

Examples large deflection analyses

Examples imperfect systems

ENERGY METHOD

elastic system subjected to conservative forces.

Total potential energy of the system depends on the work

done by the external forces (We) and the strain energy stored in

the system (U).

=U - We.

For the system to be in equilibrium, its total potential energy

must be stationary. That is, the first derivative of must be

equal to zero.

Investigate higher order derivatives of the total potential energy

to examine the stability of the equilibrium state, i.e., whether the

equilibrium is stable or unstable

ENERGY METHD

equation and examining its stability

The system can have imperfections.

It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large

deformations are assumed

The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the

deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of

freedom.

ENERGY METHOD

k

Rotationally restrained at end

L

k

L cos

L (1-cos)

L

k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

U We

1

U k2

2

We P L (1 cos )

1

k 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k P L sin 0

For small deflections; k P L 0

k

Therefore , Pcr

L

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same load

Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

potential energy

In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the stability of

the initial state-1 (when =0)

1

k 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k P L sin k P L

d

d2

k PL

2

d

When P Pcr

When P Pcr

When P Pcr

d2

d 2

d2

d 2

d2

d 2

0 Stable equilibrium

0 Unstable equilibrium

0 Not sure

P

Unstable

Indeterminate

Pcr

Stable

U We

1

U k2

L

2

We P L (1 cos )

k

1

k 2 P L (1 cos )

2

L cos

d

k P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k P L sin 0

k

Therefore ,

P

for equilibrium

L sin

The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

P

L sin

L (1-cos)

The load carrying capacity increases after buckling at Pcr

Pcr is where 0

k

for equilibrium

L sin

P

Pcr sin

P

higher order derivatives of

1

k 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k P L sin

d

d2

k P L cos

d 2

k

But , P

L sin

d2

k

L cos

L sin

d 2

d2

k

(

1

)

tan

d 2

d2

d 2

Always STABLE

d2

But ,

0 for 0

2

d

d

1 d2

1 d3

1 d4

1 dn

2

3

4

.....

n

2

3

4

n

d 0

2! d 0

3! d 0

4! d 0

n! d 0

1

k 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k P L sin

d

d2

k P L cos

d 2

d3

P L sin

d 3

d4

P L cos

d 4

0 0

d

0

d 0

d2

0

d 2 0

1 d4

1

4

k4 0

4

4! d 0

24

d3

P L sin 0

d 3 0

d4

P L cos PL k

d 4 0

Since the first non-zero term is > 0, the state is stable at P=Pcr and =0

STABL

E

STABL

E

STABL

E

0

L cos(0)

L

k(

P

L sin

0

L cos

L (cos0-cos)

L

k(

L sin

U We

1

k ( 0 ) 2

2

We P L (cos 0 cos )

U

L cos

1

k ( 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )

2

d

k ( 0 ) P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k ( 0 ) P L sin 0

k ( 0 )

for equilibrium

L sin

The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above

Therefore ,

L (cos0-cos)

P

k ( 0 )

L sin

P 0

Pcr

sin

applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for

imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the

same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path

imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but

will be there

Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be

close for an imperfect system with small imperfections

derivatives of

1

2

k ( 0 ) P L (cos 0 cos )

d

k ( 0 ) P L sin

d

d2

k P L cos

d 2

Equilibrium path will be stable

d2

if

0

2

d

i.e., if k P L cos 0

k

i.e., if P

L cos

k ( 0 )

k

i.e., if

L sin

L cos

i.e., 0 tan

Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end

P

k

L

Draw FBD in the deformed state

L

O

P

L sin

k L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system

U We

1

1

k ( L sin ) 2 k L2 2

2

2

We P L (1 cos )

U

L sin

O

1

k L2 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k L2 P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k L2 P L sin 0

For small deflections; k L2 P L 0

Therefore , Pcr k L

k L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same

load Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

Examine the stability by considering further derivatives of the

total potential energy

In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the

stability of the initial state-1 (when =0)

1

k L2 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k L2 P L sin

d

d2

k L2 P L cos

2

d

For small deflections and 0

d

2

k

L

P L

2

d

2

When, P k L

When, P k L

When P kL

d2

0 STABLE

2

d

d2

0 UNSTABLE

d 2

d2

0 INDETERMINATE

d 2

Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system

U We

1

U k ( L sin ) 2

2

We P L (1 cos )

L sin

O

1

k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k L2 sin cos P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k L2 sin cos P L sin 0

Therefore ,

P k L cos for equilibrium

The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

L cos

L (1-cos)

The load carrying capacity decreases after buckling at Pcr

Pcr is where 0

P k L cos

P

cos

Pcr

for equilibrium

higher order derivatives of

1

k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )

2

d

k L2 sin cos P L sin

d

d2

k L2 cos 2 P L cos

2

d

For equilibrium P k L cos

d2

d 2

d2

d 2

d2

d 2

d2

d 2

k L2 cos 2 k L2 cos 2

k L2 (cos 2 sin 2 ) k L2 cos 2

k L2 sin 2

0

d

1 d2

1 d3

1 d4

1 dn

2

3

4

.....

n

2

3

4

n

d 0

2! d 0

3! d 0

4! d 0

n! d 0

1

k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos ) 0

2

d 1

k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0

d

2

d2

2

k

L

cos 2 P L cos 0

2

d

d3

2k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0

3

d

d4

2

4

k

L

cos 2 P L cos

4

d

d4

2

2

2

4

k

L

k

L

3

k

L

d 4

d4

0

4

d

UNSTABLE at 0 when buckling occurs

Since the first non-zero term is < 0, the state is unstable at P=Pcr and =

UNSTABL

E

UNSTABL

E

UNSTABLE

0

k

L cos(0)

L

P

L sin

L sin

L cos

L (cos0-cos)

L

P

L sin

U We

1

k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2

2

We P L (cos 0 cos )

U

L cos

1

k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )

2

d

k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin

d

d

For equilibrium;

0

d

Therefore ,

k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin 0

sin 0

) for equilibrium

sin

The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above

Therefore ,

P k L cos (1

L sin

L (cos0-cos)

P k L cos (1

sin 0

)

sin

P

sin 0

cos (1

)

Pcr

sin

sin

dP

0 k L( sin 2 0 ) 0 sin 0 sin 3

d

sin

k L cos 3

Envelope of peak

Pmax

Pmax

loads Pmax

applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for

imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the

same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path.

imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but

will be there

Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be

close for an imperfect system with small imperfections.

may be too large.

derivatives of 1 k L (sin sin ) P L (cos cos )

2

d

k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin

d

d2

k L2 (cos 2 sin 0 sin ) P L cos

2

d

sin 0

For equilibrium P k L 1

sin

sin 0

d2

2

2

k

L

(cos

2

sin

sin

k

L

1

cos 2

0

2

sin

d

sin 0 cos 2

d2

2

2

2

2

sin

d 2

sin 0 cos 2

d2

2

2

sin

d 2

3

2

2

d2

2 sin sin 0 (sin cos )

kL

sin

d 2

3

d2

2 sin sin 0

kL

sin

d 2

3

d2

2 sin sin 0

kL

sin

d 2

d2

0 when P Pmax Stable

d 2

d2

0 when P Pmax Unstable

d 2

P k L cos (1

When P Pmax

sin 0

)

sin

k L cos (1

Pmax k L cos 3

and

sin 0

) k L cos 3

sin

sin 0

cos 2

sin

sin 0

1

1 sin 2

sin

1

sin 0 sin

3

and

3

d2

2 sin 0 sin

k L

0

sin

d 2

When P Pmax

k L cos (1

sin 0

) k L cos 3

sin

sin 0

cos 2

sin

sin 0

1

1 sin 2

sin

1

sin 0 sin

3

and

3

d2

2 sin 0 sin

k L

0

sin

d 2

equations governing the behavior of elastic members

Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory

Equations of equilibrium in undeformed state

forces

according to the right-hand rule

My

P Mx

y

x

A Ix

Iy

y dA x dA x y dA 0

A

dA A;

A

Centroidal axis

2

x

dA I y ;

A

2

y

dA I x

A

My

P Mx

y

x

A Ix

Iy

My

Mx

P

y

x

The corresponding strain is

A E E Ix

E Iy

If P=My=0, then

Mx

y

E Ix

perpendicular to centroidal axis before and

after bending

The measure of bending is curvature which

denotes thechange in the slope of the

tan y axis between two point dz apart

centroidal

y

For small deformations tan y y

y

Mx

y

E Ix

M x E I x y

y

and similarly M y E I y x

Vy

Ix

y t ds

Vx s

t x t ds

Iy O

plane seperately

Both the end shears and qy act in a plane

parallel to the y-z plane through the shear

center S

dV y

q y

dz

dM x

Vy

dz

d 2M x

q y

2

dz

d 2 (E I x y )

q y

dz 2

E I x y q y

E I x y q y

1 (v)

2 3/ 2

y v

E I x v iv q y

Similarly E I y u iv q x

u deflection in positive x direction

v deflection in positive y direction

The cross-section will undergo pure and warping torsion behavior.

Pure torsion will produce only shear stresses in the section

Warping torsion will produce both longitudinal and shear stresses

The internal moment produced by the pure torsion response will be

equal to Msv and the internal moment produced by the warping

torsion response will be equal to Mw.

The external moment will be equilibriated by the produced internal

moments

MZ=MSV + MW

MZ=MSV + MW

Where,

MSV = G KT

KT = J = Torsional constant =

and

MW = - E Iw "

new cross-sectional property you may not have seen before.

Lets look closely at pure or Saint Venants torsion. This occurs when

the warping of the cross-section is unrestrained or absent

dz r d

d

r

r

dz

G r

M SV r dA G r 2 dA

A

M SV G K T

where, K T J r 2 dA

A

cross-sections, warping will occur.

equation I will not show.

The torsional shear stresses vary linearly about the center of the thin

plate

SV G r

SV max G t

sv

Warping deformations

(a) end conditions, or (b) variation in the applied torsional

moment (non-uniform moment)

longitudinal stresses (w) , and their variation along the length

will produce warping shear stresses (w) .

torsion differential equation.

h

2

where u f flange lateral displacement

uf

V f Shear force in the flange

E I f u f M f

E I f u f V f

MW Vf h

M W E I f u f h

MW

MW

h2

E I f

2

E I W

G K T E I w M Z

G KT

M

Z

E IW

E IW

MZ

E IW

2

C1 C 2 cosh z C 3 sinh z

Mz z

2 E I W

dM Z

dz

G K T E I w iv m Z

mZ

G KT

m

iv

Z

E IW

E IW

iv 2

mz z 2

C 4 C 5 z C 6 cosh z C 7 sinh z

2 G KT

mZ

E IW

0

These imply that twisting and warping at the fixed end are fully

restrained. Therefore, equal to zero.

These imply that at the pinned end twisting is fully restrained ( =0) and

warping is unrestrained or free. Therefore, W =0 =0

Torsionally free end conditions given by = = = 0

These imply that at the free end, the section is free to warp and there

are no warping normal or shear stresses.

Design Guide 9 can be obtained from my private site

W E Wn

W t E SW

where,

Wn Normalized Unit Warping Section Pr operty

SW Warping Statical Moment Section Pr operty

section property Wn and Sw

The variation of these stresses along the length of the beam is defined

by the derivatives of

which cannot be obtained using force equilibrium.

The stress variation along length for bending is defined by derivatives of v,

which can be obtained using force equilibrium (M, V diagrams).

Torsional Stresses

Torsional Stresses

E I x v M x

E I y u M y

(1)

G K T E I W M z

(3)

(2)

NOTES:

(1) Three uncoupled differential equations

(2) Elastic material first order force-deformation theory

(3) Small deflections only

(4) Assumes no influence of one force on other deformations

(5) Equations of equilibrium in the undeformed state.

HOMEWORK # 3

shown in Figure 1 below. It is subjected to a uniformly distributed load

of 1k/ft that is placed with an eccentricity of 3 in. with respect to the

centroid (and shear center).

magnitude and distribution of:

Shear stresses due to pure torsion

Warping normal and shear stresses over the cross-section.

Provide sketches and tables of the individual normal and shear stress

distributions for each case.

magnitude and location of maximum stresses.

HOMEWORK # 2

22 ft.

Span

3in.

W18x65

Cross-section

equations governing the behavior of elastic members

Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory

Equations of equilibrium in deformed state

The deformations and internal forces are no longer independent.

They must be combined to consider effects.

forces and bending moments at the ends. No torsional forces

are applied explicitly because that is very rare for CE

structures.

It has a thin-walled open cross-section

from translation.

member ends

moment forces P, MTX, MTY, MBX, MBY

deflections

reactions and P assumed positive.

through centroid C

It has coordinates (x, y).

(xo, y0)

are u, v, and

Displacements of Q are:

uQ = u + a sin

vQ = v a cos

where a is the distance from Q to S

But, sin = (y0-y) / a

cos = (x0-x) / a

uQ = u + (y0-y)

vQ = v (x0 x)

uc = u + (y0)

vc = v - (x0)

the member in the deformed state.

and y-z planes in this Figure.

distance z from the lower end are:

Mx = - MBX + Ry z + P vc

My = - MBY + Rx z - P uc

Rx = (MTY + MBY) / L

Ry = (MTX + MBX) / L

Therefore,

z

M TX M BX P v x0

L

z

M TY M BY P u y0

L

M x M BX

M y M BY

In the deformed state, the cross-section is such that the principal

coordinate systems are changed from x-y-z to the system

uc

vc

z

y

MBx

Ry

MBY

uc

vc

Rx

M +d

Mx

Rx

My

Ry

axes

MMx + My

M = M y Mx

z

M TX M BX P v x0

L

z

M TY M BY P u y0

L

M x M BX

M y M BY

M M BX

z

M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY z M TY M BY

L

L

M M BY

z

M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX

L

L

forces

(1) Contribution from Mx and My M

(2) Contribution from axial force P M

(3) Contribution from normal stress M

(4) Contribution from end reactions Rx and Ry M

Twisting component 1 of 4

M = Mx u + My v

Twisting component 2 of 4

In the deformed state of the member, the longitudinal axis is not

vertical. Hence P will have components producing shears.

These components will act at the centroid where P acts and will have

values as shown above assuming small angles

Twisting component 2 of 4

respect to the shear center S. Therefore, they will produce

secondary twisting.

Therefore, M = P (y0 u x0 v)

Twisting component 3 of 4

at the ends. But, along the member ends, the shear center will

move by u, v, and .

by their eccentricity with respect to the shear center S.

M + Ry u + Rx v = 0

Therefore,

Twisting component 4 of 4

complicated.

Two cross-sections that are d

apart will warp with respect to

each other.

The stress element dA will

become inclined by angle (a

d/d with respect to d axis.

Twist produced by each stress

element about S is equal to

d

dM 3 a dA a

d

d

M 3

a 2 dA

d A

Twisting component 4 of 4

Let , a 2 dA K

A

d

d

d

K

for small angles

dz

M 3 K

M 3

Twisting component 4 of 4

Let , a 2 dA K

A

d

d

d

K

for small angles

dz

M 3 K

M 3

M = M + M + M + M

M = Mx u + My v

M = P (y0 u x0 v)

M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L

M= -K

Therefore,

While,

z

z

M M BX M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY

L

L

M M BY

z

M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX

L

L

M = M + M + M + M

M = Mx u + My v

M = P (y0 u x0 v)

M= -K

Therefore,

v

u

M TX M BX K

L

L

v

u

M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K

L

L

M M x u M y v P y0 u x0 v M TY M BY

M ( M x P y0 ) u ( M y P x0 ) v ( M TY

z

( M BX M TX ) P (v x0 )

L

z

( M BY M TY ) P (u y0 )

L

But , M x M BX

and , M y M BY

z

z

( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v

L

L

v

u

M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K

L

L

M ( M BX

( M TY

Thus, now we have the internal moments about the axes for the

deformed member cross-section.

M M BX

z

z

M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY

L

L

z

z

MTY

P

u

P

y

MTX

M BX

M

M

TX+MBY

BX

0

BX

TY +M

BY

L

L

z

z

M ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v

L

L

v

u

( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K

L

L

M M BY

x

z

about the centroidal principal axis and twisting about the shear center.

linearly varying longitudinal stresses.

stresses due to warping and pure torsion.

still valid. Therefore,

M = - E I v ..(I = Ix)

M = E I u ..(I= Iy)

M = G KT E Iw

Therefore,

M E I x v M BX

z

z

M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY

L

L

z

z

M TX

P

u

P

y

M

M

MTX

BX

0

BX

TY +MBY

TY+MBY

BX

L

L

z

M G KT E I w ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u

L

z

v

u

( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K

L

L

L

M E I y u M BY

You end up with three coupled differential equations that relate

the applied forces and moments to the deformations u, v, and .

Therefore,

E I x v P v P x0 M BY

z

z

M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX

L

L

z

z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX M

MM

+M

M BYB M BY MTY

MBYBX

+M

TYTX

TX+M

TX

B

L

L

X

Xz

E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )

L

z

v

u

v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0

L

L

L

These differential equations can be used to investigate the elastic

behavior and buckling of beams, columns, beam-columns and

also complete frames that will form a major part of this course.

Chapter 2. Substitute P=P and MTY = MBY = MTX = MBX = 0

1

2

3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w (G KT K ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

deal with Wagners effect which is a little complicated.

K a 2 dA

A

where,

P M y M x

E Wn

A

Ix

Iy

M P (v x0 )

M P (u y0 )

P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA

A

Ix

Iy

P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA

A

Ix

Iy

P

a 2 dA

A A

But , a 2 ( x0 x ) 2 ( y0 y ) 2

a 2 dA ( x0 x) 2 ( y0 y ) 2 dA

A

a 2 dA x02 y02 x 2 y 2 2 x0 x 2 y0 y dA

A

a 2 dA x02 y02

A

dA x dA y dA 2 x x dA 2 y y dA

2

a 2 dA ( x02 y02 ) A I x I y

A

Finally ,

P

( x02 y02 ) A I x I y

A

I x I y

K P ( x02 y02 )

A

I x I y

2

2

2

Let r0 ( x0 y0 )

K P r02

Simplify to:

1

2

3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

Where

r0 x y

2

2

0

2

0

Ix I y

A

centroid xo= y0 = 0. Therefore, the three equations become uncoupled

1

2

3

E I x v P v 0

E I y u P u 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) 0

Take two derivatives of the first two equations and one more derivative

of the third equation.

1

E I x v iv P v 0

E I y u iv P u 0

P

Let , Fv2

E Ix

E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) 0

P

Fu2

E Iy

2

P

r

G KT

F2 0

E Iw

1

v iv Fv2 v 0

u iv Fu2 u 0

iv F2 0

All three equations are similar and of the fourth order. The

solution will be of the form C1 sin z + C2 cos z + C3 z + C4

u= u=0; v= v=0; = =0

Lets solve one differential equation the solution will be valid for

all three.

v iv Fv2 v 0

Solution is

v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4

v C1 Fv2 sin Fv z C2 Fv2 cos Fv z

Boundary conditions :

v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0

Fv2 sin Fv L 0

sin Fv L 0

C2 C4 0

C2 0

L L v (0) 0

L L v(0) 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4

L L v( L) 0

L L v( L) 0

0

0

sin Fv L

Fv2 sin Fv L

1

1

cos Fv L

Fv2 cos Fv L

0

0

L

0

1

0

1

0

C 1

C 2

C

3

C 4

0

0

0

0

Fv L n

Fv

P

n

E Ix

L

n2 2

Px 2 E I x

L

Smallest value of n 1:

2 E Ix

Px

L2

sin Fu L 0

Similarly,

sin F L 0

Fu L n

F L n

Similarly ,

Fu

P

n

E Iy

L

n2 2

Py 2 E I y

L

Smallest value of n 1:

Summary

n2 2

1

P

E I w G KT 2

2

L

r0

2 E Iy

Py

L2

2 E Ix

Px

L2

2 E Iy

Py

L2

2 E Iw

1

P

G

K

T

2

L2

r0

P r02 G KT n

E Iw

L

Smallest value of n 1:

n2 2

1

P

E I w G KT 2

2

L

r0

1

buckling loads Px, Py, and Pz.

v = C1 sin(z/L), u =C2 sin(z/L), and = C3 sin(z/L).

These are, flexural buckling about the x and y axes and torsional

buckling about the z axis.

As you can see, the three buckling modes are uncoupled. You must

compute all three buckling load values.

The smallest of three buckling loads will govern the buckling of the

column.

Consider the case of fix-fix boundary conditions:

viv Fv2 v 0

Solution is

v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4

v C1 Fv cos Fv z C2 Fv sin Fv z C3

Boundary conditions :

v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0

C2 C 4 0

Fv L sin Fv L 2 cos Fv L 2 0

2 sin

L v(0) 0

L v(0) 0

C1 Fv C3 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4 L v( L ) 0

C1 Fv cos Fv L C2 Fv sin Fv L C3 L v( L) 0

0

Fv

sin Fv L

Fv cos Fv L

1

0

cos Fv L

Fv sin Fv L

0

1

L

1

1

0

1

0

C 1

C 2

C

3

C 4

0

0

0

0

Fv L

Fv L

Fv L

F

L

cos

2sin

0

v

2

2

2

Fv L

n

2

2 n

Fv

L

4 n2 2

Px

E Ix

L2

Smallest value of n 1:

Px

2 E Ix

0.5 L

2 E Ix

K L

conditions can be expressed as:

Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E I

w

K z L

1

G KT

2

r0

Consider a wide flange column W27 x 84. The boundary conditions are:

v=v=u=u===0 at z=0, and v=v=u=u===0 at z=L

For flexural buckling about the y-axis fixed at both ends Ky = 0.5

For torsional buckling about the z-axis pin-fix at two ends - K z=0.7

Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E A rx 2

Kx L

2 E A ry 2

K L

2 E A

L

K

x

rx

2 E A ry

2

L rx

Ky

rx

2 E I

w

K z L

G KT

2

E Iw

G KT

2

2

r0

K L

z rx

rx2

rx2 I x I y

Px

2 E A

1

2 E

5823.066

2

2

2

PY

A Y

L L

L

Y K x

Kx

r

r

x

x rx

2

2

2

Py

2 E A (ry / rx ) E (ry / rx )

791.02

2

2

2

PY

A Y

L L

L

Y K y

Ky

r

x

rx rx

2

E Iw

A

1

2

G

K

r

T

x

2

r2 I I

PY

A Y

L

x

x

y

K

z rx

P 2 E I w

1

2

G

K

r

T x

2

PY

rx2 I x I y Y

K z

rx

P

PY

578.26

L

rx

0.2333

Flexural buckling

about y-axis

Flexural buckling

about x-axis

Yield load PY

Cannot be exceeded

z-axis governs

Torsional buckling

about z-axis

Flexural buckling about

y-axis governs

When L is such that L/rx < 31; torsional buckling will govern

Typical column length =10 15 ft. Therefore, typical L/r x= 11.2 16.8

But, the predicted load is much greater than PY. Therefore, inelastic

buckling will govern.

determine which one governs. However, for common steel buildings

made using wide flange sections the minor (y-axis) flexural buckling

usually governs.

conditions for minor axis flexural buckling were fixed. This is very

rarely achieved in common building construction.

Well, what if the column has only one axis of symmetry. Like the xaxis or the y-axis or so.

is the axis of symmetry.

on this axis.

Therefore x0= 0.

simplify to:

E I x v P v 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

The first equation for flexural buckling about the x-axis (axis of

non-symmetry) becomes uncoupled.

E I x v P v 0 L L (1)

E I x v P v 0

coupled in terms of u and .

iv

v iv Fv 2 v 0

where, Fv 2

P

E Ix

v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4

Boundary conditions

sin Fv L 0

2 E Ix

Px

( K x Lx ) 2

Buckling mod v C1 sin Fv z

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

the solutions of the form

u=C2 sin (z/L) and =C3 sin (z/L)

E I y u P u P y0 0

L L L (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0L L L (3)

E I y u iv P u P y0 0

E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

z

z

; C3 sin

L

L

Therefore, substituting these in equations 2 and 3

Let ,

u C2 sin

4

z

z

z

E I y C2 sin

P C2 sin

P y0 C3 sin

0

L

L

L

L

L

L

4

z

z

E I w C3 sin

( P r02 G KT ) C3 sin

P

L

L

L

L

y0

L

C2 sin

z

0

L

E I y P C2 P y0 C3 0

L

and E I w ( P r02 G KT ) C3 P y0 C2 0

L

2 E Iy

Let , Py

L2

and

2 E Iw

1

P

G

K

T

2

2

L

r0

Py P C2 P y0 C3 0

P P r02C3 P y0 C2 0

Py P

P y0

P y0 C 2

0

( P P ) r02 C 3

Py P

P y0

P y0

( P P ) r02

( Py P)( P P) r02 P 2 y02 0

Py P P ( Py P ) P 2 r02 P 2 y02 0

P 2 (1

2

0

2

0

y

) P ( Py P ) Py P 0

r

y02

( Py P ) ( Py P ) 4 Py P (1 2 )

r0

P

y02

2 (1 2 )

r0

2

y02

4 Py P (1 2 )

r0

( Py P ) ( Py P ) 2 1

( Py P ) 2

P

2

y

2 (1 02 )

r0

y02

4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )

r0

P

1

y02

( Py P ) 2

2 (1 2 )

r0

Smaller value will govern

y02

4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )

r0

P P

1

y02

( Py P ) 2

2 (1 2 )

r0

The critical buckling load will the lowest of Px and the two roots

shown on the previous slide.

mode will be C2 sin (z/L) x C3 sin (z/L)

deformations hence flexural-torsional buckling mode.

neither xo not yo are zero.

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

K K K K K K K K K K K (1)

K K K K K K K K K K K (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

K (3)

solutions to the differential equations can be assumed to be:

u = C1sin (z/L)

v = C2 sin (z/L)

= C3 sin (z/L)

Substitute the solutions into the d.e. and assume that it satisfied too:

2

z

E I x C1 sin

2

z

E I y C2 sin

z

E I w C3 cos

z

P x0 C3 sin

z

P C2 sin

L

z

P y0 C3 sin

0

0

z

2

( P r0 G KT ) C3 cos P y0

L

L

E Ix P

0

z

P C1 sin

L

P x0

P x0

0

L

E Iy P

P y0

C1

z

cos

L

L

z

P x0 C2 cos

L L

P y0

2

E I w ( P r0 G K T )

z

L

z

C2 sin

z

C3 cos

L

L

C1 sin

P P

x

0

Py P

P x0

P y0

z

L

z

C2 sin

z

C3 cos

L

L

C1 sin

P x0

P y0

P P r02

where,

Px

L

Py

L

EI x

EI y

2 E Iw

1

P

G

K

T

2

2

L

r0

matrix =0 at buckling.

y 2

x 2

2

2

o

P Px P Py P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0

ro

ro

P Px P Py

y 2

x 2

2

o

P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0

r

o

ro

asymmetric section.

roots Pcr1, Pcr2, Pcr3.

The smallest of the three roots will govern the buckling of the column.

The critical buckling load will always be smaller than Px, Py, and P

The buckling mode will always include all three deformations u, v, and

. Hence, it will be a flexural-torsional buckling mode.

corresponding Px, Py, and P can be modified to include end condition

effects Kx, Ky, and K

Homework No. 4

Problem No. 1

Problem No. 2

for flexural buckling are simply supported at one end and fixed at the other end.

Solve the differential equation for flexural buckling for these boundary conditions

and determine the eigenvalue (buckling load) and the eigenmode (buckling shape).

Plot the eigenmode.

How the eigenvalue compare with the effective length approach for predicting

buckling?

What is the relationship between the eigenmode and the effective length of the

column (Refer textbook).

Consider an A992 steel W14 x 68 column cross-section. Develop the normalized

buckling load (Pcr/PY) vs. slenderness ratio (L/rx) curves for the column crosssection. Assume that the boundary conditions are simply supported for buckling

about the x, y, and z axes.

Which buckling mode dominates for different column lengths?

Is torsional buckling a possibility for practical columns of this length?

Will elastic buckling occur for most practical lengths of this column?

Problem No. 3

Consider a C10 x 30 column section. The length of the column is 15 ft. What is the

buckling capacity of the column if it is simply supported for buckling about the yaxis (of non-symmetry), pin-fix for flexure about the x-axis (of symmetry) and

simply supported in torsion about the z-axis. Which buckling mode dominates?

A long topic

EIx v Pv 0

EIy u Pu 0

perfect doubly-symmetric columns

M x P(v v o ) 0

EIxv P(v v o ) 0

v Fv2 (v v o ) 0

v o o sin

z

L

vo

Mx

v Fv2v Fv2v o

v Fv2v Fv2 (o sin

Solution v c v p

z

)

L

v c A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)

z

z

v p C sin Dcos

L

L

Solve for C and D first

z

L

2

z

z

z

z

z

C sin Dcos Fv2 C sin Dcos Fv2o sin 0

L

L

L

L

L

L

2

2

z

z

2

2

2

sin C Fv C Fv o cos D Fv D 0

L L

L L

2

2

2

2

C Fv C Fv o 0 and D Fv D 0

L

L

Fv2o

C

2

2

Fv

L

Solution becomes

and D 0

Fv2o

z

v A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)

sin

L

2

2

Fv

L

Geometric Imperfection

Solve for A and B

Boundary conditions v(0) v(L) 0

v(0) B 0

v(L) A sin Fv L 0

A0

Solution becomes

Fv2o

z

v

sin

2

L

2

Fv

L

Fv2

o

2

P

z PE o

z

L

v

sin

sin

Fv2

L 1 P

L

1

2

PE

L

P

z

PE

v

o sin

P

L

1

PE

Total Deflection

P

z

z

PE

v vo

o sin o sin

P

L

L

1

PE

P

z

1

z

E 1 o sin

o sin

L 1 P

L

1 P

PE

PE

z

AFo sin

L

AF = amplification factor

Geometric Imperfection

1

AF

amplification factor

P

1

PE

M x P(v v o )

z

M x AF (Po sin )

L

i.e., M x AF (moment due to initial crooked)

12

10

Amplification Factor A F

Increases exponentially

Limit AF for design

Limit P/PE for design

This will give AF = 8.13

Have to live with it.

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

P/PE

0.8

million other things he did).

An amazing mathematician

buckling occurs with no increase in load.

dP/dv=0

buckling occurs with no

increase in load, and the

relation between stress

and strain is defined by

tangent modulus Et

reasonably with experimental results.

PT=ETI / (KL)2

theory.

incremental strains that will vary linearly and have a zero value at

the centroid (neutral axis).

The linear strain variation will have compressive and tensile

values. The tangent modulus for the incremental compressive

strain is equal to Et and that for the tensile strain is E.

for the different tangent modulus of the tensile increment.

The assumptions are the same as before. That is, there is no

increase in load as buckling occurs.

stress R=Pr/A

is introduced

The unloaded

side

d ( y

y has

y) dd

U and dU

L

dU ( y y y1 ) d

d L E t ( y y1 y) d

dU E( y y y1 ) d

Q d v

d L E t ( y y1 y) v

dU E( y y y1 ) v

But, the assumption is dP 0

y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

dU dA d L dA 0

y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

E( y y y1 ) dA E t ( y y1 y) dA 0

ES1 E t S2 0

y

where, S1 ( y y y1 ) dA

yy1

and S 2

yy1

( y y1 y) dA

( d y)

S1 and S2 are the statical moments of the areas to the left and

right of the neutral axis.

Note that the neutral axis does not coincide with the centroid any

more.

The location of the neutral axis is calculated using the equation

derived ES1 - EtS2 = 0

M Pv

y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

M dU ( y y y1) dA d L ( y y1 y) dA

M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )

y

where, I1 ( y y y1 ) 2 dA

yy1

and I 2

yy1

( y y1 y) 2 dA

( d y)

M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )

Pv ( EI1 E t I2 )v 0

v

P

v 0

EI1 E t I2

v Fv2v 0

P

P

EI1 E t I2 EIx

I

I

and E E 1 E t 2

Ix

Ix

where, Fv2

2 EIx

PR

(KL) 2

PR is the reduced modulus buckling load

For 50 years, engineers were faced with the dilemma that the

reduced modulus theory is correct, but the experimental data

was closer to the tangent modulus theory. How to resolve?

conducted very careful experiments on small aluminum

columns.

tangent modulus load and the load capacity increased with

increasing lateral deflections.

The column axial load capacity never reached the calculated

reduced or double modulus load.

phenomenon

Tangent modulus

Reduced modulus

Shanley model

dP/dv=0

assumes

Ends are pinned

Small deformations

No strain reversal during

buckling

P=0 with increasing v

v

Elastic buckling analysis

PT

Assumes that the column buckles at the tangent modulus load such

that there is an increase in P (axial force) and M (moment).

Strain and stress state just before buckling

PT

T

Mx - Pv = 0

v

v

T=PT/A

Mx

T=ETT

T

h

h

T y

where y dis tan ce from centroid

2

T y E T

2

PT

M x ydA

A

T T

T ( y h / 2) E T

M x T ( y h / 2)E T ydA

A

M x T y dA E T y 2 dA h / 2)E T y dA

A

M x 0 E T Ix 0

M x E T Ix v

strain curve

40.15 ksi

0.2

0.002

E

0.2

1 0.002 n1

n n

E 0.2

0.002

1 n nE n1

0.2

E

n1

0.002

1

nE

0.2

0.2

n1 E T

0.002

1

nE

0.2

0.2

0.000E+00

1.980E-04

3.960E-04

5.941E-04

7.921E-04

9.901E-04

1.188E-03

1.386E-03

1.584E-03

1.782E-03

1.980E-03

2.178E-03

2.376E-03

2.575E-03

2.775E-03

2.979E-03

3.198E-03

3.458E-03

3.829E-03

4.483E-03

5.826E-03

8.771E-03

1.529E-02

2.949E-02

5.967E-02

1.221E-01

18.55

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

ET

ET

differences

equation

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10100.0

10099.9

10099.8

10099.5

10098.8

10097.6

10094.2

10088.7

10075.1

10054.2

10005.7

9934.0

9779.8

9563.7

9142.0

8602.6

7697.4

6713.6

5394.2

4251.9

3056.9

2218.6

1488.8

1037.0

679.2

468.1

306.9

212.4

140.8

98.5

66.3

46.9

32.1

23.0

Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain

60

12000

Tangent Modulus (ksi)

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i)

50

40

30

20

10

0

0.000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

0.010

0.020

0.030

Strain (in./in.)

0.040

0.050

10

20

30

40

Stress (ksi)

ET differences

ET equation

50

(KL/r)cr

223.2521046

157.8630771

128.8946627

111.6260523

99.84137641

91.1422898

84.3813604

78.93150275

74.41710153

70.59690679

67.3048795

64.4113691

61.77857434

59.17430952

56.09208286

51.5097656

44.14566415

34.1419685

24.00464013

15.9961201

10.48827475

6.902516144

4.596633406

3.105440361

2.129145204

60

Tangent Modulus Buckling Stress

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

38

40

42

44

46

48

50

2 E T Ix

PT

L2

PT

2 E T Ix

2 ET

T

2

A

AL2

KL / r

50

40

2 ET

KL / rcr

T

30

20

10

0

0

30

60

90

KL/r

120

150

with a simple residual stress

distribution

x

d

has elastic-plastic stress-strain

curve.

conditions

for residual stresses

rc

rt

y/b

rc

y

y

stresses is that they must be such

that

dA 0

r

2

0.5 y y

b

b / 2

b / 2

2 y

x d dx 0.5 y

x d dx

b

0

2d y b 2 2d y b 2

0.5 y d b 2 0.5 y d b 2

b 8

b 8

0

0

uneven cooling but no load is

present

b

x

d

0.5 y

2 EIy

2 EIx

Px

and Py

L2

L2

Yielding occurs when

0.5 y i.e., P 0.5PY

2

Y Y b Y (1 2 )

Y

Y/b

Total axial force corresponding to the yielded sec tion

Y (1 2 )

Y b 2bd Y

bd 2

2

Y 1 2 bd Y (2 2 )bd

Y bd 2bd Y 2 Y bd 2 2bd Y

Y bd(1 2 2 ) PY (1 2 2 )

If inelastic buckling were to occur at this load

Pcr PY (1 2 2 )

1

Pcr

1

2

PY

2E

d3

Pcr PTx 2 (2b)

L

12

2 EIx

PTx

2

L2

1 Pcr

PTx Px 2

1

2

PY

PTx Px 2

1 PTx

1

2

PY

PTx Px

1 PTx

2

1

PY PY

2

PY

PTx 1

1 PTx

2

1

PY 2x

2

PY

2x

P

2 1 Tx

PY

PTx

PY

b

x

y

Q Pcr PTx

2

P

1

E

r

Let, x 2 2

x

PY x

Y K x L x

2E

d

Pcr PTy 2 (2b) 3

L

12

2 EIy

3

PTy

2

L2

3

1

P

PTy Py 2 1 cr

PY

2

Q Pcr PTy

PTy Py PTy

2 1

PY PY

PY

PTy 1 PTy

2 1

PY 2y

PY

x

y

P 3

PTy Py 2 1 Ty

PY

P

2 1 Ty

PY

2

y

PTy

PY

P

1

E

Let, y 2 2

PY y

Y

r 2

y

K y L y

P/PY

0.200

0.250

0.300

0.350

0.400

0.450

0.500

0.550

0.600

0.650

0.700

0.750

0.800

0.850

0.900

0.950

0.995

x

2.236

2.000

1.826

1.690

1.581

1.491

1.414

1.313

1.221

1.135

1.052

0.971

0.889

0.803

0.705

0.577

0.317

y

2.236

2.000

1.826

1.690

1.581

1.491

1.414

1.246

1.092

0.949

0.815

0.687

0.562

0.440

0.315

0.182

0.032

1

Think about the discretization. Do you need the flange

To be discretized along the length and width?

distances from the centroid y fib and xfib,

Ix-fib and Iy-fib the fiber number in the matrix.

Afib

yfib

Centroidal axis

3

each fiber

Section = zero

6

strain (r) for each fiber

r=r/E

14

13

(KL)X-cr = sqrt [(EI)Tx/P]

(KL)y-cr = sqrt [(EI)Ty/P]

(EI)TX = sum(ET-fib{yfib2 Afib+Ix-fib})

(EI)Ty = sum(ET-fib{xfib2 Afib+ Iy-fib})

8

tot=+r

curve for each fiber

Sum (fibAfib)

12

11

10

Section Dimension

b

d

y

12

4

50

No. of fibers

20

A

Ix

Iy

48

64

576.00

fiber no.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Afib

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

2.4

xfib

-5.7

-5.1

-4.5

-3.9

-3.3

-2.7

-2.1

-1.5

-0.9

-0.3

0.3

0.9

1.5

2.1

2.7

3.3

3.9

4.5

5.1

5.7

yfib

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

r-fib

-22.5

-17.5

-12.5

-7.5

-2.5

2.5

7.5

12.5

17.5

22.5

22.5

17.5

12.5

7.5

2.5

-2.5

-7.5

-12.5

-17.5

-22.5

r-fib

-7.759E-04

-6.034E-04

-4.310E-04

-2.586E-04

-8.621E-05

8.621E-05

2.586E-04

4.310E-04

6.034E-04

7.759E-04

7.759E-04

6.034E-04

4.310E-04

2.586E-04

8.621E-05

-8.621E-05

-2.586E-04

-4.310E-04

-6.034E-04

-7.759E-04

Ixfib

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

Iyfib

78.05

62.50

48.67

36.58

26.21

17.57

10.66

5.47

2.02

0.29

0.29

2.02

5.47

10.66

17.57

26.21

36.58

48.67

62.50

78.05

Strain Increment

Fiber no.

-0.0003

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

tot

fib

-1.076E-03

-9.034E-04

-7.310E-04

-5.586E-04

-3.862E-04

-2.138E-04

-4.138E-05

1.310E-04

3.034E-04

4.759E-04

4.759E-04

3.034E-04

1.310E-04

-4.138E-05

-2.138E-04

-3.862E-04

-5.586E-04

-7.310E-04

-9.034E-04

-1.076E-03

-31.2

-26.2

-21.2

-16.2

-11.2

-6.2

-1.2

3.8

8.8

13.8

13.8

8.8

3.8

-1.2

-6.2

-11.2

-16.2

-21.2

-26.2

-31.2

Efib

Tx-fib

Ty-fib

Pfib

29000

92800 2.26E+06

-74.88

29000

92800 1.81E+06

-62.88

29000

92800 1.41E+06

-50.88

29000

92800 1.06E+06

-38.88

29000

92800 7.60E+05

-26.88

29000

92800 5.09E+05

-14.88

29000

92800 3.09E+05

-2.88

29000

92800 1.59E+05

9.12

29000

92800 5.85E+04

21.12

29000

92800 8.35E+03

33.12

29000

92800 8.35E+03

33.12

29000

92800 5.85E+04

21.12

29000

92800 1.59E+05

9.12

29000

92800 3.09E+05

-2.88

29000

92800 5.09E+05

-14.88

29000

92800 7.60E+05

-26.88

29000

92800 1.06E+06

-38.88

29000

92800 1.41E+06

-50.88

29000

92800 1.81E+06

-62.88

29000

92800 2.26E+06

-74.88

Tx

-0.0005

-0.0006

-0.0007

-0.0008

-0.0009

-0.001

-0.0011

-0.0012

-0.0013

-0.0014

-0.0015

-0.0016

-0.0017

-0.0018

-0.0019

-0.002

-0.0021

-0.0022

-0.0023

-0.0024

-0.00249

-417.6

-556.8

-696

-835.2

-974.4

-1113.6

-1252.8

-1384.8

-1510.08

-1624.32

-1734.72

-1832.16

-1924.8

-2008.32

-2083.2

-2152.8

-2209.92

-2263.2

-2304.96

-2340.48

-2368.32

-2386.08

-2398.608

Ty

1856000

1856000

1856000

1856000

1856000

1670400

1670400

1484800

1299200

1299200

1113600

1113600

928000

928000

742400

556800

556800

371200

371200

185600

185600

16704000

16704000

16704000

16704000

16704000

12177216

12177216

8552448

5729472

5729472

3608064

3608064

2088000

2088000

1069056

451008

451008

133632

133632

16704

16704

KLx-cr

209.4395102

181.3799364

162.231147

148.0960979

137.1103442

128.254983

120.9199576

109.11051

104.4864889

94.98347542

85.97519823

83.65775001

75.56517263

73.97722346

66.30684706

65.22619108

57.58118233

49.27629185

48.8278711

39.56410897

39.33088015

27.70743725

27.63498414

KLy-cr

T/Y

628.3185307

0.174

544.1398093

0.232

486.6934411

0.29

444.2882938

0.348

411.3310325

0.406

384.764949

0.464

362.7598728

0.522

294.5983771

0.577

282.1135199

0.6292

227.960341

0.6768

180.5479163

0.7228

175.681275

0.7634

136.0173107

0.802

133.1590022

0.8368

99.46027059

0.868

97.83928663

0.897

69.0974188

0.9208

44.34866267

0.943

43.94508399

0.9604

23.73846538

0.9752

23.59852809

0.9868

8.312231176

0.9942

8.290495243

0.99942

(KL/r)x

181.3799364

157.0796327

140.4962946

128.254983

118.7410412

111.0720735

104.7197551

94.49247352

90.48795371

82.25810265

74.45670576

72.44973673

65.44135914

64.06615482

57.423414

56.48753847

49.86676668

42.67452055

42.28617679

34.26352344

34.06154136

23.99534453

23.9325983

(KL/r)y

181.3799364

157.0796327

140.4962946

128.254983

118.7410412

111.0720735

104.7197551

85.04322617

81.43915834

65.80648212

52.11969403

50.71481571

39.26481548

38.43969289

28.711707

28.24376924

19.94670667

12.80235616

12.68585304

6.852704688

6.812308273

2.399534453

2.39325983

Inelastic Column Buckling

( T/ Y)

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

KL/r ratio

(KL/r)x

(KL/r)y

140

160

180

200

1.2

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

Num-x

Elastic

1.0

Num-y

Lambda

AISC-Design

1.5

Analytical-x

Analytical-y

2.0

equations:

Therefore,

1

z

z

E I x v P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX

L

L

z

z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX (M

M BY

M TX

M BX

M TYTX+M

(M

)

BY

TY+M

BY)

BX

L

L

z

E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )

L

z

v

u

v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0

L

L

L

Beams under biaxial bending do not undergo elastic buckling

P=0;

MTY=MBY=0

z

M TX M BX

L

z

E I y u M BX M TX M BX

L

z

u

E I w (G KT K ) u M BX ( M BX M TX ) ( M TX M BX ) 0

L

L

E I x v M BX

Equation (1) is an uncoupled differential equation describing inplane bending behavior caused by MTX and MBX

describe the lateral bending and torsional behavior of the beam.

In fact they define the lateral torsional buckling of the beam.

The beam must satisfy all three equations (1, 2, and 3). Hence,

beam in-plane bending will occur UNTIL the lateral torsional

buckling moment is reached, when it will take over.

in the top flange. This will mean that

-MBX = MTX = Mo

E I y u M o 0

E I w (G KT K ) u M o 0

where :

K Wagner ' s effect due to warping caused by torsion

K a 2 dA

A

Mo

But ,

y neglecting higher order terms

Ix

Mo

y ( xo x) 2 ( yo y ) 2 dA

Ix

A

K

K

K

Mo

Ix

Mo

Ix

2

2

2

2

y

x

2

xx

y

2 yy0 dA

o

0

o

2

2

2

2

2

x

y

dA

y

x

y

dA

x

2

xy

dA

y

y

dA

2

y

y

dA

o

0

o

o

A

A

A

A

A

Mo

K

Ix

2

2

A y x y dA 2 yo I x

2

2

dA

y

x

K Mo

K M ox

Ix

2 yo

where, x

2

2

dA

y

x

y

A

Ix

2 yo

(2) E I y u M o 0

(3) E I w (G KT M o x ) u M o 0

Equation (2) gives u

Mo

E Iy

2

M

E I w iv (G KT M o x ) o 0

E Iy

2

M

G

K

T

iv

2 o 0

E Iw

E I y Iw

G KT

Let , 1

E Iw

and

M o2

2 2

E I y Iw

Assume solution is of the form e z

4 1 2 2 e z 0

4 1 2 2 0

1 12 42

2

2

1 12 42

2

Let , 1 , and

12 42 1

,

2

1 12 42

, i

2

i 2

C1e1z C2e 1 z C3ei 2 z C4e i 2 z

collecting real and imaginary terms

G1 cosh(1 z ) G2 sinh(1 z ) G3 sin( 2 z ) G4 cos( 2 z )

(0) (0) ( L) ( L) 0

Solution for must satisfy all four b.c.

G 1

2

G

2

2 0

cos( 2 L)

G 3

G 4

22 cos( 2 L)

For buckling coefficient matrix must be sin gular :

det er min ant of matrix 0

1

12

cosh(1 L)

12 cosh(1 L)

0

0

sinh(1 L)

12 sinh(1L)

0

0

sin( 2 L)

22 sin( 2 L)

12 22 sinh(1 L) sinh( 2 L) 0

Of these :

only sinh( 2 L) 0

2 L n

2

n

L

12 42 1

2

L

2 2

2

1 42 1 2

L

2

2 2

2 2

2 2

2

21

2 1 1

2

2

L

L

L

4

4

2

2

2 2 1 2

L

L

2 G KT 2

M o2

2 2

2

E I y Iw L

E I w L2

Mo

G KT

2

2

L

E

I

w L

E2 I y Iw

2E I y

Mo

L2

2E Iw

G KT

2

L

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