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# CE 579: STRUCTRAL STABILITY AND DESIGN

Amit H. Varma
Assistant Professor
School of Civil Engineering
Purdue University
Ph. No. (765) 496 3419
Email: ahvarma@purdue.edu
Office hours: M-W-F 9:00-11:30 a.m.

## Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

## Design of steel structures

STABILITY DEFINITION

## Change in geometry of a structure or structural component

is defined as instability in the book.

## Instability can lead to catastrophic failure must be accounted

in design. Instability is a strength-related limit state.

## Every structure is in equilibrium static or dynamic. If it is not in

equilibrium, the body will be in motion or a mechanism.
A mechanism cannot resist loads and is of no use to the civil
engineer.
Stability qualifies the state of equilibrium of a structure. Whether it
is in stable or unstable equilibrium.

STABILITY DEFINITION

## Structure is in stable equilibrium when small perturbations do

not cause large movements like a mechanism. Structure

## Structure is in unstable equilibrium when small perturbations

produce large movements and the structure never returns to
its original equilibrium position.

## Structure is in neutral equilibrium when we cant decide whether

it is in stable or unstable equilibrium. Small perturbation cause
large movements but the structure can be brought back to its
original equilibrium position with no work.

## The definition of stability had nothing to do with a change in the

geometry of the structure under compression seems strange!

STABILITY DEFINITION

## Change in geometry of structure under compression that

results in its ability to resist loads called instability.

## The structure deforms and is in stable equilibrium in state-1.

As the load increases, the structure suddenly changes to
deformation state-2 at some critical load Pcr.
The structure buckles from state-1 to state-2, where state-2 is
orthogonal (has nothing to do, or independent) with state-1.

## The question is - Is the equilibrium in state-2 stable or unstable?

Usually, state-2 after buckling is either neutral or unstable
equilibrium

BUCKLING

P<Pcr

P=Pcr

P>Pcr

## Buckling Sudden change in deformation from state-1 to state-2

Stability of equilibrium As the loads acting on the structure are
increased, when does the equilibrium state become unstable?
The equilibrium state becomes unstable due to:

## Large deformations of the structure

Inelasticity of the structural materials

## We will look at both of these topics for

Columns
Beams
Beam-Columns
Structural Frames

TYPES OF INSTABILITY
Structure subjected to compressive forces can undergo:
1.

state-2.

2.

## Failure due to instability of equilibrium state-1 due to large

deformations or material inelasticity

## Elastic instability occurs for beam-columns, and frames subjected

Inelastic instability can occur for all members and the frame.

## We will study all of this in this course because we dont want

our designed structure to buckle or fail by instability both of
which are strength limit states.

TYPES OF INSTABILITY
BIFURCATION BUCKLING

increased, it reaches a critical value where:

## The deformation changes suddenly from state-1 to state-2.

And, the equilibrium load-deformation path bifurcates.

## Primary load-deformation path before buckling

Is the post-buckling path stable or unstable?

SYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

## If the load capacity increases after buckling then stable symmetric

bifurcation.
If the load capacity decreases after buckling then unstable
symmetric bifurcation.

ASYMMETRIC BIFURCATION

INSTABILITY FAILURE

## There is no bifurcation of the load-deformation path. The

deformation stays in state-1 throughout

## The structure stiffness decreases as the loads are increased.

The change is stiffness is due to large deformations and / or
material inelasticity.

## The structure stiffness decreases to zero and becomes negative.

The load capacity is reached when the stiffness becomes zero.
Neutral equilibrium when stiffness becomes zero and unstable
equilibrium when stiffness is negative.
Structural stability failure when stiffness becomes negative.

INSTABILITY FAILURE

FAILURE OF BEAM-COLUMNS
P

K=0

K<0

P
No bifurcation.
Instability due to material
and geometric nonlinearity

INSTABILITY FAILURE

Snap-through buckling
P

Snap-through

INSTABILITY FAILURE

## Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

## Bifurcation approach consists of writing the equation of

equilibrium and solving it to determine the onset of buckling.

## Energy approach consists of writing the equation expressing

the complete potential energy of the system. Analyzing this total
potential energy to establish equilibrium and examine stability of
the equilibrium state.

## Dynamic approach consists of writing the equation of dynamic

equilibrium of the system. Solving the equation to determine the
natural frequency () of the system. Instability corresponds to
the reduction of to zero.

STABILITY ANALYSES

you can use different methods to answer different questions

## The deformations are usually assumed to be small.

The system must not have any imperfections.
It cannot provide any information regarding the post-buckling loaddeformation path.

## The energy approach is the best when establishing the

equilibrium equation and examining its stability

## The deformations can be small or large.

The system can have imperfections.
It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large
deformations are assumed
The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the
deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of
freedom.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

The dynamic method is very powerful, but we will not use it in this class
at all.

## Remember, it though when you take the course in dynamics or earthquake

engineering
In this class, you will learn that the loads acting on a structure change its
stiffness. This is significant you have not seen it before.

Ma

Ma

Mb

4E I
a
L

Mb

2E I
b
L

## The stiffness will no longer remain 4EI/L and 2EI/L.

Instead, it will decrease. The reduced stiffness will reduce the
natural frequency and period elongation.
You will see these in your dynamics and earthquake engineering
class.

STABILITY ANALYSIS

## FOR ANY KIND OF BUCKLING OR STABILITY ANALYSIS

NEED TO DRAW THE FREE BODY DIAGRAM OF THE DEFORMED
STRUCTURE.

DEFORMED STATE

## NO STABILITY ANALYSIS CAN BE PERFORMED IF THE FREE

BODY DIAGRAM IS IN THE UNDEFORMED STATE

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

k

## Rigid bar subjected to axial force P

Rotationally restrained at end

## Step 1 - Assume a deformed shape that activates all possible d.o.f.

L
k

L cos

L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
L
k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

## Write the equation of static equilibrium in the deformed state

k P L sin 0

k
L sin
For small deformations sin
k k
Pcr

L L
P

## Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state

when P = Pcr = k/L

When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed state. The
structure will buckle into the deformed state when P=Pcr

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end
P

k
L

## Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.

Draw FBD in the deformed state
L
O

P
L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state
P

L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

(k L sin ) L P L sin 0

k L2 sin
P
L sin
For small deformations sin
k L2
Pcr
kL
L

## Thus, the structure will be in static equilibrium in the deformed state

when P = Pcr = k L. When P<Pcr, the structure will not be in the deformed

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Example 3 Three rigid bar system with two rotational springs
P
A

B
L

## Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.

Draw FBD in the deformed state
P
A

1 2)

L sin 1

L
B

1 2)

L sin 2

2
L

## Assume small deformations. Therefore, sin=

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS
Write equations of static equilibrium in deformed state
P
1

1 2)

L sin 1

1 2)

L sin 2

1 2)

2
L

C
k(22-1)

L sin 1

L sin 2

1+(1-2)
k(21-2)

k ( 21 2 ) P L sin 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L sin 2 0

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

## Equations of Static Equilibrium

k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k ( 2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

k
2k PL

k
2
k

PL

1 0

2 0

## Therefore either 1 and 2 are equal to zero or the determinant of the

coefficient matrix is equal to zero.
When 1 and 2 are not equal to zero that is when buckling occurs
the coefficient matrix determinant has to be equal to zero for equil.
Take a look at the matrix equation. It is of the form [A] {x}={0}. It can
also be rewritten as [K]-[I]){x}={0}

2k

L
k

k

0
1
0

1
L P

0 1 0
2k

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

## This is the classical eigenvalue problem. [K]-[I]){x}={0}.

We are searching for the eigenvalues () of the stiffness matrix [K].
These eigenvalues cause the stiffness matrix to become singular

Singular stiffness matrix means that it has a zero value, which means that
the determinant of the matrix is equal to zero.

2k PL
k
0
k
2k PL
(2k PL) 2 k 2 0
(2k PL k ) (2k PL k ) 0
(3k PL) (k PL) 0
3k
k
Pcr
or
L
L

## Smallest value of Pcr will govern. Therefore, Pcr=k/L

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

## Each eigenvalue or critical buckling load (Pcr) corresponds to a buckling shape

that can be determined as follows
Pcr=k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to determine 1 and 2
k (21 2 ) P L 1 0

k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0

Let P Pcr k

Let P Pcr k

L
k (21 2 ) k1 0

L
k (2 2 1 ) k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

k1 k 2 0

1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.
Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are
negligible. What we have found is the buckling shape not its magnitude.
P

The buckling
mode
is such that 1=2 Symmetric =buckling
modeD

A
1

L
B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

## Second eigenvalue was Pcr=3k/L. Therefore substitute in the equations to

determine 1 and 2
k (21 2 ) P L 1 0
k (2 2 1 ) P L 2 0
Let P Pcr 3k
Let P Pcr 3k
L
L
k (21 2 ) 3k1 0
k (2 2 1 ) 3k 2 0
k1 k 2 0
k1 k 2 0
1 2

1 2

All we could find is the relationship between 1 and 2. Not their specific values.
Remember that this is a small deflection analysis. So, the values are
negligible. What we have found is the bucklingCshape not its magnitude.
The buckling mode is such that 1=-2 AntisymmetricL buckling mode
P

2=-1

L
B

BIFURCATION ANALYSIS

Homework No. 1

Problem 1.1
Problem 1.3
Problem 1.4
All problems from the textbook on Stability by W.F. Chen

## Chapter 1. Introduction to Structural Stability

OUTLINE

Definition of stability

Types of instability

Energy method

## Examples small deflection analyses

Examples large deflection analyses
Examples imperfect systems

ENERGY METHOD

## We will currently look at the use of the energy method for an

elastic system subjected to conservative forces.
Total potential energy of the system depends on the work
done by the external forces (We) and the strain energy stored in
the system (U).
=U - We.
For the system to be in equilibrium, its total potential energy
must be stationary. That is, the first derivative of must be
equal to zero.
Investigate higher order derivatives of the total potential energy
to examine the stability of the equilibrium state, i.e., whether the
equilibrium is stable or unstable

ENERGY METHD

## The energy method is the best for establishing the equilibrium

equation and examining its stability

## The deformations can be small or large.

The system can have imperfections.
It provides information regarding the post-buckling path if large
deformations are assumed
The major limitation is that it requires the assumption of the
deformation state, and it should include all possible degrees of
freedom.

ENERGY METHOD

k

## Rigid bar subjected to axial force P

Rotationally restrained at end

L
k

L cos

L (1-cos)

L
k

L sin

L cos

L (1-cos)

## Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system

U We
1
U k2
2
We P L (1 cos )
1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2
d
k P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k P L sin 0
For small deflections; k P L 0
k
Therefore , Pcr
L

## ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same load
Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

potential energy

## This is a small deflection analysis. Hence will be zero.

In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the stability of
the initial state-1 (when =0)

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin k P L
d
d2
k PL
2
d

When P Pcr
When P Pcr
When P Pcr

d2
d 2
d2
d 2
d2
d 2

0 Stable equilibrium
0 Unstable equilibrium
0 Not sure

P

Unstable
Indeterminate

Pcr

Stable

## Example 1 Large deflection analysis (rigid bar with rotational spring)

U We
1
U k2
L
2
We P L (1 cos )
k

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2
L cos
d
k P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k P L sin 0
k
Therefore ,
P
for equilibrium
L sin
The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

P
L sin

L (1-cos)

## See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below

The load carrying capacity increases after buckling at Pcr
Pcr is where 0

k
for equilibrium
L sin
P

Pcr sin
P

## Large deflection analysis Examine the stability of equilibrium using

higher order derivatives of

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
k
But , P
L sin
d2
k

L cos
L sin
d 2
d2

k
(
1

)
tan
d 2
d2

d 2
Always STABLE
d2
But ,
0 for 0
2
d

d
1 d2
1 d3
1 d4
1 dn
2
3
4

.....
n
2
3
4
n
d 0
2! d 0
3! d 0
4! d 0
n! d 0

## Determine the first non-zero term of ,

1
k 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
d3
P L sin
d 3
d4
P L cos
d 4

0 0

d
0
d 0
d2
0
d 2 0

1 d4
1
4

k4 0
4
4! d 0
24

d3
P L sin 0
d 3 0
d4
P L cos PL k
d 4 0

Since the first non-zero term is > 0, the state is stable at P=Pcr and =0

STABL
E

STABL
E
STABL
E

0

L cos(0)

L
k(

P
L sin

0
L cos

L (cos0-cos)

## ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

L
k(

L sin

U We
1
k ( 0 ) 2
2
We P L (cos 0 cos )
U

L cos

1
k ( 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )
2

d
k ( 0 ) P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k ( 0 ) P L sin 0
k ( 0 )
for equilibrium
L sin
The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above
Therefore ,

L (cos0-cos)

P

k ( 0 )
L sin

P 0

Pcr
sin

## As shown in the figure, deflection starts as soon as loads are

applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for
imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the
same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path

## The magnitude of load, is influenced significantly by the

imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there

## The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess.

Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be
close for an imperfect system with small imperfections

## Examine the stability of the imperfect system using higher order

derivatives of
1
2

k ( 0 ) P L (cos 0 cos )

d
k ( 0 ) P L sin
d
d2
k P L cos
d 2
Equilibrium path will be stable
d2
if
0
2
d
i.e., if k P L cos 0
k
i.e., if P
L cos
k ( 0 )
k
i.e., if

L sin
L cos
i.e., 0 tan

## ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

Example 2 - Rigid bar supported by translational spring at end
P

k
L

## Assume deformed state that activates all possible d.o.f.

Draw FBD in the deformed state
L
O

P
L sin

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

## ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system
U We
1
1
k ( L sin ) 2 k L2 2
2
2
We P L (1 cos )
U

L sin
O

1
k L2 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 P L sin 0
For small deflections; k L2 P L 0
Therefore , Pcr k L

k L sin

L cos
L (1-cos)

## ENERGY METHOD SMALL DEFLECTIONS

The energy method predicts that buckling will occur at the same
load Pcr as the bifurcation analysis method.

## At Pcr, the system will be in equilibrium in the deformed.

Examine the stability by considering further derivatives of the
total potential energy

## This is a small deflection analysis. Hence will be zero.

In this type of analysis, the further derivatives of examine the
stability of the initial state-1 (when =0)
1
k L2 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 P L sin
d
d2
k L2 P L cos
2
d
For small deflections and 0
d
2

k
L
P L
2
d
2

When, P k L
When, P k L
When P kL

d2
0 STABLE
2
d
d2
0 UNSTABLE
d 2
d2
0 INDETERMINATE
d 2

## ENERGY METHOD LARGE DEFLECTIONS

Write the equation representing the total potential energy of system
U We
1
U k ( L sin ) 2
2
We P L (1 cos )

L sin
O

1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 sin cos P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 sin cos P L sin 0
Therefore ,
P k L cos for equilibrium
The post buckling P relationsh ip is given above

L cos
L (1-cos)

## See the post-buckling load-displacement path shown below

The load carrying capacity decreases after buckling at Pcr
Pcr is where 0
P k L cos
P

cos
Pcr

for equilibrium

## Large deflection analysis Examine the stability of equilibrium using

higher order derivatives of

1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos )
2

d
k L2 sin cos P L sin
d
d2
k L2 cos 2 P L cos
2
d
For equilibrium P k L cos
d2

d 2
d2

d 2
d2

d 2
d2

d 2

k L2 cos 2 k L2 cos 2
k L2 (cos 2 sin 2 ) k L2 cos 2
k L2 sin 2
0

d
1 d2
1 d3
1 d4
1 dn
2
3
4

.....
n
2
3
4
n
d 0
2! d 0
3! d 0
4! d 0
n! d 0

## Determine the first non-zero term of ,

1
k L2 sin 2 P L (1 cos ) 0
2
d 1
k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0
d
2
d2
2

k
L
cos 2 P L cos 0
2
d
d3
2k L2 sin 2 P L sin 0
3
d

d4
2

4
k
L
cos 2 P L cos
4
d
d4
2
2
2

4
k
L

k
L

3
k
L
d 4
d4

0
4
d
UNSTABLE at 0 when buckling occurs

Since the first non-zero term is < 0, the state is unstable at P=Pcr and =

UNSTABL
E

UNSTABL
E

UNSTABLE

0

k
L cos(0)

L

P
L sin

L sin

L cos
L (cos0-cos)

## ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS

L

P
L sin

U We
1
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2
2
We P L (cos 0 cos )
U

L cos

1
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) 2 P L (cos 0 cos )
2

d
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin
d
d
For equilibrium;
0
d
Therefore ,
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin 0
sin 0
) for equilibrium
sin
The equilibrium P relationsh ip is given above
Therefore ,

P k L cos (1

L sin

L (cos0-cos)

## ENERGY METHOD - IMPERFECTIONS

P k L cos (1

sin 0
)
sin

P
sin 0
cos (1
)
Pcr
sin

sin
dP
0 k L( sin 2 0 ) 0 sin 0 sin 3
d
sin
k L cos 3
Envelope of peak

Pmax
Pmax

## As shown in the figure, deflection starts as soon as loads are

applied. There is no bifurcation of load-deformation path for
imperfect systems. The load-deformation path remains in the
same state through-out.

The smaller the imperfection magnitude, the close the loaddeformation paths to the perfect system load deformation path.

## The magnitude of load, is influenced significantly by the

imperfection magnitude.

All real systems have imperfections. They may be very small but
will be there

## The magnitude of imperfection is not easy to know or guess.

Hence if a perfect system analysis is done, the results will be
close for an imperfect system with small imperfections.

## However, for an unstable system the effects of imperfections

may be too large.

## Examine the stability of the imperfect system using higher order

derivatives of 1 k L (sin sin ) P L (cos cos )
2

d
k L2 (sin sin 0 ) cos P L sin
d
d2
k L2 (cos 2 sin 0 sin ) P L cos
2
d
sin 0

For equilibrium P k L 1

sin

sin 0
d2
2
2

k
L
(cos
2

sin

sin

k
L
1

cos 2
0
2
sin
d

sin 0 cos 2
d2
2
2
2
2

sin
d 2

sin 0 cos 2
d2
2
2

## k L sin sin 0 sin

sin
d 2

3
2
2
d2
2 sin sin 0 (sin cos )

kL

sin
d 2

3
d2
2 sin sin 0

kL

sin
d 2

## ENERGY METHOD IMPERFECT SYSTEMS

3
d2
2 sin sin 0
kL

sin
d 2

d2
0 when P Pmax Stable
d 2
d2
0 when P Pmax Unstable
d 2

P k L cos (1
When P Pmax

sin 0
)
sin

k L cos (1

Pmax k L cos 3

and

sin 0
) k L cos 3
sin

sin 0
cos 2
sin
sin 0
1
1 sin 2
sin
1

sin 0 sin
3

and

3
d2
2 sin 0 sin
k L
0
sin

d 2

When P Pmax
k L cos (1

sin 0
) k L cos 3
sin

sin 0
cos 2
sin
sin 0
1
1 sin 2
sin
1

sin 0 sin
3

and

3
d2
2 sin 0 sin
k L
0
sin

d 2

## This chapter focuses on deriving second-order differential

equations governing the behavior of elastic members

## Elastic, Homogenous, and Isotropic

Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory
Equations of equilibrium in undeformed state

forces

## Assume tensile forces are positive and moments are positive

according to the right-hand rule

My

P Mx

y
x
A Ix
Iy

## a centroidal and principal axis system.

y dA x dA x y dA 0
A

dA A;
A

Centroidal axis

2
x
dA I y ;
A

2
y
dA I x
A

My
P Mx

y
x
A Ix
Iy

## 2.1 First-Order Differential Equations

My
Mx
P

y
x
The corresponding strain is
A E E Ix
E Iy

If P=My=0, then

Mx
y
E Ix

## Plane-sections remain plane and

perpendicular to centroidal axis before and
after bending
The measure of bending is curvature which
denotes thechange in the slope of the
tan y axis between two point dz apart
centroidal
y
For small deformations tan y y

y
Mx
y
E Ix
M x E I x y
y

and similarly M y E I y x

Vy
Ix

y t ds

Vx s
t x t ds
Iy O

## Treat forces and deformations in y-z and x-z

plane seperately
Both the end shears and qy act in a plane
parallel to the y-z plane through the shear
center S
dV y

q y
dz
dM x
Vy
dz
d 2M x

q y
2
dz
d 2 (E I x y )

q y
dz 2
E I x y q y

E I x y q y

1 (v)

2 3/ 2

## For small deflections

y v
E I x v iv q y
Similarly E I y u iv q x
u deflection in positive x direction
v deflection in positive y direction

## This moment will cause twisting and warping of the cross-section.

The cross-section will undergo pure and warping torsion behavior.
Pure torsion will produce only shear stresses in the section
Warping torsion will produce both longitudinal and shear stresses
The internal moment produced by the pure torsion response will be
equal to Msv and the internal moment produced by the warping
torsion response will be equal to Mw.
The external moment will be equilibriated by the produced internal
moments

MZ=MSV + MW

MZ=MSV + MW
Where,

MSV = G KT

## MSV = Pure or Saint Venants torsion moment

KT = J = Torsional constant =

and

MW = - E Iw "

## IW is the warping moment of inertia of the cross-section. This is a

new cross-sectional property you may not have seen before.

## Pure Torsion Differential Equation

Lets look closely at pure or Saint Venants torsion. This occurs when
the warping of the cross-section is unrestrained or absent
dz r d
d
r
r
dz
G r
M SV r dA G r 2 dA
A

M SV G K T
where, K T J r 2 dA
A

## For a circular cross-section warping is absent. For thin-walled open

cross-sections, warping will occur.

## The out of plane warping deformation w can be calculated using an

equation I will not show.

## Pure Torsion Stresses

The torsional shear stresses vary linearly about the center of the thin
plate

SV G r
SV max G t
sv

Warping deformations

## The warping produced by pure torsion can be restrained by the:

(a) end conditions, or (b) variation in the applied torsional
moment (non-uniform moment)

## The restraint to out-of-plane warping deformations will produce

longitudinal stresses (w) , and their variation along the length
will produce warping shear stresses (w) .

## Lets take a look at an approximate derivation of the warping

torsion differential equation.

## This is valid only for I and C shaped sections.

h
2
where u f flange lateral displacement

uf

## M f moment in the flange

V f Shear force in the flange
E I f u f M f

E I f u f V f
MW Vf h
M W E I f u f h
MW
MW

h2
E I f

2
E I W

## This differential equation is for the case of concentrated torque

G K T E I w M Z

G KT
M
Z
E IW
E IW

MZ

E IW
2

C1 C 2 cosh z C 3 sinh z

Mz z
2 E I W

## Torsion differential equation for the case of distributed torque

dM Z
dz
G K T E I w iv m Z
mZ

G KT
m
iv
Z
E IW
E IW
iv 2

mz z 2
C 4 C 5 z C 6 cosh z C 7 sinh z
2 G KT

mZ
E IW

0

## Torsionally fixed end conditions are given by

These imply that twisting and warping at the fixed end are fully
restrained. Therefore, equal to zero.

## Torsionally pinned or simply-supported end conditions given by:

These imply that at the pinned end twisting is fully restrained ( =0) and
warping is unrestrained or free. Therefore, W =0 =0
Torsionally free end conditions given by = = = 0

These imply that at the free end, the section is free to warp and there
are no warping normal or shear stresses.

Design Guide 9 can be obtained from my private site

## Restraint to warping produces longitudinal and shear stresses

W E Wn
W t E SW
where,
Wn Normalized Unit Warping Section Pr operty
SW Warping Statical Moment Section Pr operty

## The variation of these stresses over the section is defined by the

section property Wn and Sw

The variation of these stresses along the length of the beam is defined
by the derivatives of

## The stress variation along length for torsion is defined by derivatives of ,

which cannot be obtained using force equilibrium.
The stress variation along length for bending is defined by derivatives of v,
which can be obtained using force equilibrium (M, V diagrams).

Torsional Stresses

Torsional Stresses

## Summary of first order differential equations

E I x v M x
E I y u M y

(1)

G K T E I W M z

(3)

(2)

NOTES:
(1) Three uncoupled differential equations
(2) Elastic material first order force-deformation theory
(3) Small deflections only
(4) Assumes no influence of one force on other deformations
(5) Equations of equilibrium in the undeformed state.

HOMEWORK # 3

## Consider the 22 ft. long simply-supported W18x65 wide flange beam

shown in Figure 1 below. It is subjected to a uniformly distributed load
of 1k/ft that is placed with an eccentricity of 3 in. with respect to the
centroid (and shear center).

## At the mid-span and the end support cross-sections, calculate the

magnitude and distribution of:

## Normal and shear stresses due to bending

Shear stresses due to pure torsion
Warping normal and shear stresses over the cross-section.

Provide sketches and tables of the individual normal and shear stress
distributions for each case.

## Superimpose the bending and torsional stress-states to determine the

magnitude and location of maximum stresses.

HOMEWORK # 2

22 ft.
Span

3in.

W18x65

Cross-section

## This chapter focuses on deriving second-order differential

equations governing the behavior of elastic members

## Elastic, Homogenous, and Isotropic

Strains and deformations are really small small deflection theory
Equations of equilibrium in deformed state
The deformations and internal forces are no longer independent.
They must be combined to consider effects.

## Consider the behavior of a member subjected to combined axial

forces and bending moments at the ends. No torsional forces
are applied explicitly because that is very rare for CE
structures.

## Member is initially straight and prismatic.

It has a thin-walled open cross-section

## Member ends are pinned and prevented

from translation.

member ends

## These consist only of axial and bending

moment forces P, MTX, MTY, MBX, MBY

deflections

## Right-hand rule for positive moments and

reactions and P assumed positive.

## x and y are principal coordinates

through centroid C

## Q is any point on the middle line.

It has coordinates (x, y).

(xo, y0)

are u, v, and

## Member displacements (cross-sectional)

Displacements of Q are:
uQ = u + a sin
vQ = v a cos
where a is the distance from Q to S
But, sin = (y0-y) / a
cos = (x0-x) / a

uQ = u + (y0-y)
vQ = v (x0 x)

uc = u + (y0)
vc = v - (x0)

## Consider the free body diagrams of

the member in the deformed state.

## Look at the deformed state in the x-z

and y-z planes in this Figure.

## The internal resisting moment at a

distance z from the lower end are:
Mx = - MBX + Ry z + P vc
My = - MBY + Rx z - P uc

## The end reactions Rx and Ry are:

Rx = (MTY + MBY) / L
Ry = (MTX + MBX) / L

Therefore,
z
M TX M BX P v x0
L
z
M TY M BY P u y0
L

M x M BX
M y M BY

## Internal forces in the deformed state

In the deformed state, the cross-section is such that the principal
coordinate systems are changed from x-y-z to the system

uc
vc

z
y

MBx
Ry

MBY

uc
vc

Rx

M +d

Mx
Rx

My

Ry

axes

## Since the angle is small

MMx + My

M = M y Mx
z
M TX M BX P v x0
L
z
M TY M BY P u y0
L

M x M BX
M y M BY

M M BX

z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY z M TY M BY
L
L

M M BY

z
M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX
L
L

forces

## There are four components contributing to the total M

(1) Contribution from Mx and My M
(2) Contribution from axial force P M
(3) Contribution from normal stress M
(4) Contribution from end reactions Rx and Ry M

## The total twisting moment M = M + M + M + M

Twisting component 1 of 4

## Therefore, due to small angles, M = Mx du/dz + My dv/dz

M = Mx u + My v

Twisting component 2 of 4

## The axial load P acts along the original vertical direction

In the deformed state of the member, the longitudinal axis is not
vertical. Hence P will have components producing shears.
These components will act at the centroid where P acts and will have
values as shown above assuming small angles

Twisting component 2 of 4

## These shears will act at the centroid C, which is eccentric with

respect to the shear center S. Therefore, they will produce
secondary twisting.

## M = P (y0 du/dz x0 dv/dz)

Therefore, M = P (y0 u x0 v)

Twisting component 3 of 4

## The end reactions (shears) Rx and Ry act at the shear center S

at the ends. But, along the member ends, the shear center will
move by u, v, and .

## Hence, these reactions will also have a twisting effect produced

by their eccentricity with respect to the shear center S.

M + Ry u + Rx v = 0

Therefore,

## M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L

Twisting component 4 of 4

## Wagners effect or contribution

complicated.
Two cross-sections that are d
apart will warp with respect to
each other.
The stress element dA will
become inclined by angle (a
d/d with respect to d axis.
Twist produced by each stress
element about S is equal to
d

dM 3 a dA a
d
d
M 3
a 2 dA

d A

Twisting component 4 of 4
Let , a 2 dA K
A

d
d
d
K
for small angles
dz

M 3 K
M 3

Twisting component 4 of 4
Let , a 2 dA K
A

d
d
d
K
for small angles
dz

M 3 K
M 3

## Total Twisting Component

M = M + M + M + M
M = Mx u + My v
M = P (y0 u x0 v)
M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L
M= -K

Therefore,

## MMx u + My v+ P (y0 u x0 v) (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L-K

While,
z
z

M M BX M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

M M BY

z
M TY M BY P u P y0 M BX z M TX M BX
L
L

## Total Twisting Component

M = M + M + M + M
M = Mx u + My v

M = P (y0 u x0 v)

M= -K

## M = (MTY + MBY) v/L (MTX + MBX) u/L

Therefore,
v
u
M TX M BX K
L
L
v
u
M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L

M M x u M y v P y0 u x0 v M TY M BY
M ( M x P y0 ) u ( M y P x0 ) v ( M TY

z
( M BX M TX ) P (v x0 )
L
z
( M BY M TY ) P (u y0 )
L

But , M x M BX
and , M y M BY

z
z
( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v
L
L
v
u
M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L

M ( M BX
( M TY

## Internal moments about the axes

Thus, now we have the internal moments about the axes for the
deformed member cross-section.
M M BX

z
z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

z
z

MTY

P
u

P
y

MTX
M BX
M

M
TX+MBY
BX
0
BX
TY +M
BY

L
L

z
z
M ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v
L
L
v
u
( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L
M M BY

x
z

## The flexural bending about the principal axes will produce

linearly varying longitudinal stresses.

## The torsional moment will produce longitudinal and shear

stresses due to warping and pure torsion.

## The differential equations relating moments to deformations are

still valid. Therefore,
M = - E I v ..(I = Ix)
M = E I u ..(I= Iy)
M = G KT E Iw

## Internal Moment Deformation Relations

Therefore,
M E I x v M BX

z
z
M TX M BX P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY
L
L

z
z

M TX

P
u

P
y

M
M

MTX
BX
0
BX
TY +MBY

TY+MBY
BX
L
L

z
M G KT E I w ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 ) u
L
z
v
u
( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) v ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) K
L
L
L
M E I y u M BY

## Second-Order Differential Equations

You end up with three coupled differential equations that relate
the applied forces and moments to the deformations u, v, and .

Therefore,

E I x v P v P x0 M BY

z
z

M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX
L
L

z
z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX M
MM
+M
M BYB M BY MTY
MBYBX
+M
TYTX
TX+M
TX
B
L
L

X
Xz
E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )
L
z
v
u

v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L
L
These differential equations can be used to investigate the elastic
behavior and buckling of beams, columns, beam-columns and
also complete frames that will form a major part of this course.

## Start out with the second-order differential equations derived in

Chapter 2. Substitute P=P and MTY = MBY = MTX = MBX = 0

## Therefore, the second-order differential equations simplify to:

1
2
3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0
E I w (G KT K ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

## This is all great, but before we proceed any further we need to

deal with Wagners effect which is a little complicated.

## Wagners effect for columns

K a 2 dA
A

where,

P M y M x

E Wn
A
Ix
Iy

M P (v x0 )
M P (u y0 )
P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA
A
Ix
Iy

P P (v x0 ) y P (u y0 ) x

E Wn a 2 dA
A
Ix
Iy

P
a 2 dA
A A

## Wagners effect for columns

But , a 2 ( x0 x ) 2 ( y0 y ) 2
a 2 dA ( x0 x) 2 ( y0 y ) 2 dA
A

a 2 dA x02 y02 x 2 y 2 2 x0 x 2 y0 y dA
A

a 2 dA x02 y02
A

dA x dA y dA 2 x x dA 2 y y dA
2

a 2 dA ( x02 y02 ) A I x I y
A

Finally ,
P
( x02 y02 ) A I x I y
A
I x I y

K P ( x02 y02 )

A

I x I y
2
2
2
Let r0 ( x0 y0 )

K P r02

## Second-order differential equations for columns

Simplify to:
1
2
3

E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0
E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

Where

r0 x y
2

2
0

2
0

Ix I y
A

## For a doubly symmetric section, the shear center is located at the

centroid xo= y0 = 0. Therefore, the three equations become uncoupled
1
2
3

E I x v P v 0
E I y u P u 0
E I w ( P r02 G KT ) 0

Take two derivatives of the first two equations and one more derivative
of the third equation.
1

E I x v iv P v 0

E I y u iv P u 0

P
Let , Fv2
E Ix

E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) 0

P
Fu2
E Iy

2
P
r
G KT
F2 0
E Iw

## Column buckling doubly symmetric section

1

v iv Fv2 v 0

u iv Fu2 u 0

iv F2 0

All three equations are similar and of the fourth order. The
solution will be of the form C1 sin z + C2 cos z + C3 z + C4

## For the simply supported case, the boundary conditions are:

u= u=0; v= v=0; = =0

Lets solve one differential equation the solution will be valid for
all three.

## Column buckling doubly symmetric section

v iv Fv2 v 0
Solution is
v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
v C1 Fv2 sin Fv z C2 Fv2 cos Fv z

## The coefficient matrix 0

Boundary conditions :
v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0

Fv2 sin Fv L 0
sin Fv L 0

C2 C4 0
C2 0

L L v (0) 0
L L v(0) 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4

L L v( L) 0
L L v( L) 0

## C1 Fv2 sin Fv L C2 Fv2 cos Fv L

0
0
sin Fv L
Fv2 sin Fv L

1
1
cos Fv L
Fv2 cos Fv L

0
0
L
0

1
0

1
0

C 1
C 2
C
3
C 4

0
0
0

0

Fv L n
Fv

P
n

E Ix
L

n2 2
Px 2 E I x
L
Smallest value of n 1:

2 E Ix
Px
L2

## Column buckling doubly symmetric section

sin Fu L 0

Similarly,
sin F L 0

Fu L n

F L n

Similarly ,

Fu

P
n

E Iy
L

n2 2
Py 2 E I y
L
Smallest value of n 1:

Summary

n2 2
1
P
E I w G KT 2
2
L

r0

2 E Iy
Py
L2

2 E Ix
Px
L2
2 E Iy
Py
L2
2 E Iw
1
P

G
K
T
2
L2

r0

P r02 G KT n

E Iw
L

Smallest value of n 1:
n2 2
1
P
E I w G KT 2
2
L

r0
1

## Thus, for a doubly symmetric cross-section, there are three distinct

buckling loads Px, Py, and Pz.

## The corresponding buckling modes are:

v = C1 sin(z/L), u =C2 sin(z/L), and = C3 sin(z/L).

These are, flexural buckling about the x and y axes and torsional

As you can see, the three buckling modes are uncoupled. You must
compute all three buckling load values.

The smallest of three buckling loads will govern the buckling of the
column.

## Column buckling boundary conditions

Consider the case of fix-fix boundary conditions:
viv Fv2 v 0
Solution is
v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
v C1 Fv cos Fv z C2 Fv sin Fv z C3
Boundary conditions :
v(0) v(0) v( L) v( L) 0
C2 C 4 0

## The coefficient matrix 0

Fv L sin Fv L 2 cos Fv L 2 0
2 sin

L v(0) 0
L v(0) 0

C1 Fv C3 0

C1 sin Fv L C2 cos Fv L C3 L C4 L v( L ) 0
C1 Fv cos Fv L C2 Fv sin Fv L C3 L v( L) 0

0
Fv
sin Fv L
Fv cos Fv L

1
0
cos Fv L
Fv sin Fv L

0
1
L
1

1
0

1
0

C 1
C 2
C
3
C 4

0
0
0

0

Fv L
Fv L
Fv L
F
L
cos

2sin
0
v
2
2
2

Fv L
n
2
2 n
Fv
L
4 n2 2
Px
E Ix
L2
Smallest value of n 1:

Px

2 E Ix

0.5 L

2 E Ix

K L

## The critical buckling loads for columns with different boundary

conditions can be expressed as:
Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E I
w

K z L

1
G KT
2
r0

## Column buckling example.

Consider a wide flange column W27 x 84. The boundary conditions are:
v=v=u=u===0 at z=0, and v=v=u=u===0 at z=L

## For flexural buckling about the x-axis simply supported Kx=1.0

For flexural buckling about the y-axis fixed at both ends Ky = 0.5

For torsional buckling about the z-axis pin-fix at two ends - K z=0.7
Px

2 E Ix

Kx L

Py

2 E Iy

K L

2 E A rx 2

Kx L

2 E A ry 2

K L

2 E A

L
K
x
rx

2 E A ry

2
L rx
Ky
rx

2 E I
w
K z L

G KT

2
E Iw

G KT
2
2
r0
K L
z rx

rx2
rx2 I x I y

## Column buckling example.

Px
2 E A
1
2 E
5823.066

2
2
2
PY
A Y

L L
L
Y K x
Kx

r
r
x

x rx
2
2
2
Py
2 E A (ry / rx ) E (ry / rx )
791.02

2
2
2
PY
A Y

L L
L
Y K y
Ky

r
x

rx rx

2
E Iw

A
1
2

G
K
r

T
x
2
r2 I I
PY
A Y

L
x
x
y

K
z rx

P 2 E I w
1
2

G
K
r
T x
2
PY
rx2 I x I y Y

K z

rx

P
PY

578.26
L

rx

0.2333

## Column buckling example.

Flexural buckling

Flexural buckling

Cannot be exceeded

z-axis governs

Torsional buckling
y-axis governs

## Column buckling example.

When L is such that L/rx < 31; torsional buckling will govern

## rx = 10.69 in. Therefore, L/rx = 31 L=338 in.=28 ft.

Typical column length =10 15 ft. Therefore, typical L/r x= 11.2 16.8

## Therefore elastic torsional buckling will govern.

But, the predicted load is much greater than PY. Therefore, inelastic
buckling will govern.

## Summary Typically must calculate all three buckling load values to

determine which one governs. However, for common steel buildings
made using wide flange sections the minor (y-axis) flexural buckling
usually governs.

## In this problem, the torsional buckling governed because the end

conditions for minor axis flexural buckling were fixed. This is very
rarely achieved in common building construction.

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

Well, what if the column has only one axis of symmetry. Like the xaxis or the y-axis or so.

## As shown in this figure, the y axis

is the axis of symmetry.

on this axis.

Therefore x0= 0.

## The differential equations will

simplify to:

E I x v P v 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

The first equation for flexural buckling about the x-axis (axis of
non-symmetry) becomes uncoupled.

E I x v P v 0 L L (1)
E I x v P v 0

## Equations (2) and (3) are still

coupled in terms of u and .

iv

v iv Fv 2 v 0
where, Fv 2

P
E Ix

v C1 sin Fv z C2 cos Fv z C3 z C4
Boundary conditions

sin Fv L 0

2 E Ix
Px
( K x Lx ) 2
Buckling mod v C1 sin Fv z

E I y u P u P y0 0

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

## These equations will be satisfied by

the solutions of the form
u=C2 sin (z/L) and =C3 sin (z/L)

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

E I y u P u P y0 0

L L L (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0L L L (3)
E I y u iv P u P y0 0
E I w iv ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) 0

z
z
; C3 sin
L
L
Therefore, substituting these in equations 2 and 3
Let ,

u C2 sin
4

z
z
z

E I y C2 sin
P C2 sin
P y0 C3 sin
0
L
L
L
L
L
L

4

z
z

E I w C3 sin
( P r02 G KT ) C3 sin
P
L
L
L
L

y0
L

C2 sin

z
0
L

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

E I y P C2 P y0 C3 0
L

and E I w ( P r02 G KT ) C3 P y0 C2 0
L

2 E Iy
Let , Py
L2

and

2 E Iw
1
P

G
K
T
2
2
L

r0

Py P C2 P y0 C3 0
P P r02C3 P y0 C2 0
Py P

P y0

P y0 C 2
0
( P P ) r02 C 3

Py P

P y0

P y0

( P P ) r02

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

( Py P)( P P) r02 P 2 y02 0
Py P P ( Py P ) P 2 r02 P 2 y02 0
P 2 (1

2
0
2
0

y
) P ( Py P ) Py P 0
r

y02
( Py P ) ( Py P ) 4 Py P (1 2 )
r0
P
y02
2 (1 2 )
r0
2

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

r0
( Py P ) ( Py P ) 2 1
( Py P ) 2

P
2
y
2 (1 02 )
r0

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )
r0
P
1

y02
( Py P ) 2
2 (1 2 )

r0

## Thus, there are two roots for P

Smaller value will govern

y02
4 Py P (1 2 )

( Py P )
r0
P P
1

y02
( Py P ) 2
2 (1 2 )

r0

## Column Buckling Singly Symmetric Columns

The critical buckling load will the lowest of Px and the two roots
shown on the previous slide.

## If the flexural torsional buckling load govern, then the buckling

mode will be C2 sin (z/L) x C3 sin (z/L)

## This buckling mode will include both flexural and torsional

deformations hence flexural-torsional buckling mode.

## No axes of symmetry: Therefore, shear center S (xo, yo) is such that

neither xo not yo are zero.
E I x v P v P x0 0

E I y u P u P y0 0

K K K K K K K K K K K (1)
K K K K K K K K K K K (2)

E I w ( P r02 G KT ) u ( P y0 ) v ( P x0 ) 0

K (3)

## For simply supported boundary conditions: (u, u, v, v, , =0), the

solutions to the differential equations can be assumed to be:

u = C1sin (z/L)

v = C2 sin (z/L)

= C3 sin (z/L)

## Column Buckling Asymmetric Section

Substitute the solutions into the d.e. and assume that it satisfied too:

2

z
E I x C1 sin

2

z
E I y C2 sin

z
E I w C3 cos

z
P x0 C3 sin

z
P C2 sin
L

z
P y0 C3 sin

0
0

z
2
( P r0 G KT ) C3 cos P y0
L
L

E Ix P
0

z
P C1 sin
L

P x0

P x0

0

L

E Iy P
P y0

C1

z
cos
L
L

z
P x0 C2 cos

L L

P y0

2
E I w ( P r0 G K T )

z

L
z

C2 sin

z
C3 cos

L
L
C1 sin

P P
x

0
Py P

P x0

P y0

z

L
z
C2 sin

z
C3 cos

L
L

C1 sin

P x0

P y0
P P r02

where,

Px
L

Py
L

EI x

EI y

2 E Iw

1
P

G
K
T
2
2
L

r0

## Either C1, C2, C3 = 0 (no buckling), or the determinant of the coefficient

matrix =0 at buckling.

## Therefore, determinant of the coefficient matrix is:

y 2
x 2
2
2
o
P Px P Py P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0
ro
ro

## Column Buckling Asymmetric Section

P Px P Py

y 2
x 2
2
o
P P P P Px 2 P P Py o2 0
r

o
ro

## This is the equation for predicting buckling of a column with an

asymmetric section.

## The equation is cubic in P. Hence, it can be solved to obtain three

roots Pcr1, Pcr2, Pcr3.

The smallest of the three roots will govern the buckling of the column.

The critical buckling load will always be smaller than Px, Py, and P

The buckling mode will always include all three deformations u, v, and
. Hence, it will be a flexural-torsional buckling mode.

## For boundary conditions other than simply-supported, the

corresponding Px, Py, and P can be modified to include end condition
effects Kx, Ky, and K

Homework No. 4

Problem No. 1

Problem No. 2

## Consider a column with doubly symmetric cross-section. The boundary conditions

for flexural buckling are simply supported at one end and fixed at the other end.
Solve the differential equation for flexural buckling for these boundary conditions
and determine the eigenvalue (buckling load) and the eigenmode (buckling shape).
Plot the eigenmode.
How the eigenvalue compare with the effective length approach for predicting
buckling?
What is the relationship between the eigenmode and the effective length of the
column (Refer textbook).
Consider an A992 steel W14 x 68 column cross-section. Develop the normalized
buckling load (Pcr/PY) vs. slenderness ratio (L/rx) curves for the column crosssection. Assume that the boundary conditions are simply supported for buckling
about the x, y, and z axes.
Which buckling mode dominates for different column lengths?
Is torsional buckling a possibility for practical columns of this length?
Will elastic buckling occur for most practical lengths of this column?

Problem No. 3

Consider a C10 x 30 column section. The length of the column is 15 ft. What is the
buckling capacity of the column if it is simply supported for buckling about the yaxis (of non-symmetry), pin-fix for flexure about the x-axis (of symmetry) and
simply supported in torsion about the z-axis. Which buckling mode dominates?

A long topic

EIx v Pv 0
EIy u Pu 0

## Leads to bifurcation buckling of

perfect doubly-symmetric columns

M x P(v v o ) 0
EIxv P(v v o ) 0

v Fv2 (v v o ) 0
v o o sin

z
L

vo

Mx

v Fv2v Fv2v o
v Fv2v Fv2 (o sin
Solution v c v p

z
)
L

v c A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)
z
z
v p C sin Dcos
L
L

## Effects of Geometric Imperfection

Solve for C and D first

z
L
2

z
z
z
z
z
C sin Dcos Fv2 C sin Dcos Fv2o sin 0

L
L
L
L
L
L
2
2

z
z
2
2
2
sin C Fv C Fv o cos D Fv D 0
L L
L L

2
2
2
2
C Fv C Fv o 0 and D Fv D 0
L
L

## vp Fv2v p Fv2o sin

Fv2o
C
2
2
Fv
L
Solution becomes

and D 0

Fv2o
z
v A sin(Fv z) Bcos(Fv z)
sin
L
2
2
Fv
L

Geometric Imperfection
Solve for A and B
Boundary conditions v(0) v(L) 0
v(0) B 0
v(L) A sin Fv L 0
A0
Solution becomes
Fv2o
z
v
sin
2
L

2
Fv
L
Fv2
o
2
P

z PE o
z
L
v
sin

sin
Fv2
L 1 P
L
1
2
PE

L

P
z
PE
v
o sin
P
L
1
PE
Total Deflection
P
z
z
PE
v vo
o sin o sin
P
L
L
1
PE
P

z
1
z
E 1 o sin
o sin
L 1 P
L
1 P

PE
PE
z
AFo sin
L

AF = amplification factor

Geometric Imperfection
1

AF

amplification factor
P
1
PE
M x P(v v o )
z
M x AF (Po sin )
L
i.e., M x AF (moment due to initial crooked)
12

10
Amplification Factor A F

Increases exponentially
Limit AF for design
Limit P/PE for design

## Value used in the code is 0.877

This will give AF = 8.13
Have to live with it.

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6
P/PE

0.8

## Euler developed column elastic buckling equations (buried in the

million other things he did).

## Take a look at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EuleR

An amazing mathematician

## The elastica problem of column buckling indicates elastic

buckling occurs with no increase in load.

dP/dv=0

## He assumed that inelastic

buckling occurs with no
relation between stress
and strain is defined by
tangent modulus Et

## Engessers tangent modulus theory is easy to apply. It compares

reasonably with experimental results.

PT=ETI / (KL)2

theory.

## If dP/dv=0, then the 2nd order moment (Pv) will produce

incremental strains that will vary linearly and have a zero value at
the centroid (neutral axis).
The linear strain variation will have compressive and tensile
values. The tangent modulus for the incremental compressive
strain is equal to Et and that for the tensile strain is E.

## In 1898, Engesser corrected his original theory by accounting

for the different tangent modulus of the tensile increment.

## This is known as the reduced modulus or double modulus

The assumptions are the same as before. That is, there is no
increase in load as buckling occurs.

stress R=Pr/A

is introduced

## The loaded side has dL and dL

side
d ( y
y has
y) dd
U and dU
L

dU ( y y y1 ) d
d L E t ( y y1 y) d
dU E( y y y1 ) d

## History of Column Inelastic Buckling

Q d v
d L E t ( y y1 y) v
dU E( y y y1 ) v
But, the assumption is dP 0
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

dU dA d L dA 0
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

E( y y y1 ) dA E t ( y y1 y) dA 0
ES1 E t S2 0
y

where, S1 ( y y y1 ) dA
yy1

and S 2

yy1

( y y1 y) dA

( d y)

## History of Column Inelastic Buckling

S1 and S2 are the statical moments of the areas to the left and
right of the neutral axis.

Note that the neutral axis does not coincide with the centroid any
more.
The location of the neutral axis is calculated using the equation
derived ES1 - EtS2 = 0

M Pv
y

yy1

yy1

( d y)

M dU ( y y y1) dA d L ( y y1 y) dA
M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )
y

where, I1 ( y y y1 ) 2 dA
yy1

and I 2

yy1

( y y1 y) 2 dA

( d y)

## History of Column Inelastic Buckling

M Pv v( EI1 E t I2 )
Pv ( EI1 E t I2 )v 0
v

P
v 0
EI1 E t I2

v Fv2v 0
P
P

EI1 E t I2 EIx
I
I
and E E 1 E t 2
Ix
Ix
where, Fv2

2 EIx
PR
(KL) 2

## E is the reduced or double modulus

PR is the reduced modulus buckling load

## History of Column Inelastic Buckling

For 50 years, engineers were faced with the dilemma that the
reduced modulus theory is correct, but the experimental data
was closer to the tangent modulus theory. How to resolve?

## Shanley eventually resolved this dilemma in 1947. He

conducted very careful experiments on small aluminum
columns.

## He found that lateral deflection started very near the theoretical

increasing lateral deflections.
The column axial load capacity never reached the calculated

phenomenon

Tangent modulus
Reduced modulus
Shanley model
dP/dv=0

assumes

## Perfectly straight column

Ends are pinned
Small deformations
No strain reversal during
buckling

## Slope is zero at buckling

P=0 with increasing v
v
Elastic buckling analysis
PT

## Tangent modulus theory

Assumes that the column buckles at the tangent modulus load such
that there is an increase in P (axial force) and M (moment).

## The axial strain increases everywhere and there is no strain reversal.

Strain and stress state just before buckling

PT

T
Mx - Pv = 0

v
v

T=PT/A

Mx

T=ETT

## Curvature = = slope of strain diagram

T
h
h

T y
where y dis tan ce from centroid
2

T y E T
2

PT

## Deriving the equation of equilibrium

M x ydA
A

T T
T ( y h / 2) E T

M x T ( y h / 2)E T ydA
A

M x T y dA E T y 2 dA h / 2)E T y dA
A

M x 0 E T Ix 0
M x E T Ix v

strain curve

40.15 ksi
0.2

0.002

E
0.2

1 0.002 n1
n n
E 0.2
0.002
1 n nE n1

0.2

E
n1
0.002
1
nE

0.2

0.2

n1 E T

0.002

1
nE

0.2

0.2

0.000E+00
1.980E-04
3.960E-04
5.941E-04
7.921E-04
9.901E-04
1.188E-03
1.386E-03
1.584E-03
1.782E-03
1.980E-03
2.178E-03
2.376E-03
2.575E-03
2.775E-03
2.979E-03
3.198E-03
3.458E-03
3.829E-03
4.483E-03
5.826E-03
8.771E-03
1.529E-02
2.949E-02
5.967E-02
1.221E-01

18.55

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50

ET
ET
differences
equation
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10100.0
10099.9
10099.8
10099.5
10098.8
10097.6
10094.2
10088.7
10075.1
10054.2
10005.7
9934.0
9779.8
9563.7
9142.0
8602.6
7697.4
6713.6
5394.2
4251.9
3056.9
2218.6
1488.8
1037.0
679.2
468.1
306.9
212.4
140.8
98.5
66.3
46.9
32.1
23.0

## Tangent Modulus Buckling

Ramberg-Osgood Stress-Strain

## Stress-tangent modulus relationship

60
12000
Tangent Modulus (ksi)

S
t
r
e
s
s
(
k
s
i)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0.000

10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

0.010

0.020

0.030

Strain (in./in.)

0.040

0.050

10

20

30

40

Stress (ksi)
ET differences

ET equation

50

(KL/r)cr
223.2521046
157.8630771
128.8946627
111.6260523
99.84137641
91.1422898
84.3813604
78.93150275
74.41710153
70.59690679
67.3048795
64.4113691
61.77857434
59.17430952
56.09208286
51.5097656
44.14566415
34.1419685
24.00464013
15.9961201
10.48827475
6.902516144
4.596633406
3.105440361
2.129145204

## Column Inelastic Buckling Curve

60
Tangent Modulus Buckling Stress

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50

2 E T Ix
PT
L2
PT
2 E T Ix
2 ET
T

2
A
AL2
KL / r

50
40

2 ET
KL / rcr
T

30
20
10

0
0

30

60

90
KL/r

120

150

## Consider a rectangular section

with a simple residual stress
distribution

x
d

## Assume that the steel material

has elastic-plastic stress-strain
curve.

conditions

## Assume triangular distribution

for residual stresses

rc

rt
y/b

rc

y
y

## One major constrain on residual

stresses is that they must be such
that
dA 0
r

2
0.5 y y
b
b / 2

b / 2

2 y
x d dx 0.5 y
x d dx
b
0

2d y b 2 2d y b 2
0.5 y d b 2 0.5 y d b 2

b 8
b 8
0
0

## Residual stresses are produced by

uneven cooling but no load is
present

b

## Response will be such that elastic behavior when

x
d

0.5 y
2 EIy
2 EIx
Px
and Py
L2
L2
Yielding occurs when
0.5 y i.e., P 0.5PY

2
Y Y b Y (1 2 )

Y
Y/b

## Residual Stress Effects

Total axial force corresponding to the yielded sec tion
Y (1 2 )
Y b 2bd Y
bd 2

2
Y 1 2 bd Y (2 2 )bd
Y bd 2bd Y 2 Y bd 2 2bd Y
Y bd(1 2 2 ) PY (1 2 2 )
If inelastic buckling were to occur at this load
Pcr PY (1 2 2 )

1
Pcr
1

2
PY

2E
d3
Pcr PTx 2 (2b)
L
12
2 EIx
PTx
2
L2
1 Pcr
PTx Px 2
1
2
PY
PTx Px 2

1 PTx
1

2
PY

PTx Px
1 PTx

2
1

PY PY
2
PY
PTx 1
1 PTx

2
1

PY 2x
2
PY

2x

P
2 1 Tx
PY

PTx
PY

b
x
y

Q Pcr PTx
2

P
1
E
r
Let, x 2 2
x
PY x
Y K x L x

2E
d
Pcr PTy 2 (2b) 3
L
12
2 EIy
3
PTy
2

L2
3

1
P
PTy Py 2 1 cr
PY
2
Q Pcr PTy

PTy Py PTy

2 1

PY PY
PY

PTy 1 PTy

2 1

PY 2y
PY

x
y

P 3
PTy Py 2 1 Ty
PY

P
2 1 Ty
PY

2
y
PTy
PY

P
1
E
Let, y 2 2
PY y
Y

r 2
y
K y L y

P/PY
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
0.700
0.750
0.800
0.850
0.900
0.950
0.995

x
2.236
2.000
1.826
1.690
1.581
1.491
1.414
1.313
1.221
1.135
1.052
0.971
0.889
0.803
0.705
0.577
0.317

y
2.236
2.000
1.826
1.690
1.581
1.491
1.414
1.246
1.092
0.949
0.815
0.687
0.562
0.440
0.315
0.182
0.032

1

## Discretize the cross-section into fibers

Think about the discretization. Do you need the flange
To be discretized along the length and width?

## For each fiber, save the area of fiber (A fib), the

distances from the centroid y fib and xfib,
Ix-fib and Iy-fib the fiber number in the matrix.

Afib
yfib

Centroidal axis
3

each fiber

Section = zero

6

## Calculate effective residual

strain (r) for each fiber
r=r/E

14

13

## Calculate the critical (KL)X and (KL)Y for the

(KL)X-cr = sqrt [(EI)Tx/P]
(KL)y-cr = sqrt [(EI)Ty/P]

## Calculate the tangent (EI)TX and (EI)TY for the

(EI)TX = sum(ET-fib{yfib2 Afib+Ix-fib})
(EI)Ty = sum(ET-fib{xfib2 Afib+ Iy-fib})

8

tot=+r

## Assume a material stress-strain

curve for each fiber

Sum (fibAfib)

12

11

10

## Tangent modulus buckling - numerical

Section Dimension
b
d
y

12
4
50

No. of fibers

20

A
Ix
Iy

48
64
576.00

fiber no.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Afib
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

xfib
-5.7
-5.1
-4.5
-3.9
-3.3
-2.7
-2.1
-1.5
-0.9
-0.3
0.3
0.9
1.5
2.1
2.7
3.3
3.9
4.5
5.1
5.7

yfib
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

r-fib
-22.5
-17.5
-12.5
-7.5
-2.5
2.5
7.5
12.5
17.5
22.5
22.5
17.5
12.5
7.5
2.5
-2.5
-7.5
-12.5
-17.5
-22.5

r-fib
-7.759E-04
-6.034E-04
-4.310E-04
-2.586E-04
-8.621E-05
8.621E-05
2.586E-04
4.310E-04
6.034E-04
7.759E-04
7.759E-04
6.034E-04
4.310E-04
2.586E-04
8.621E-05
-8.621E-05
-2.586E-04
-4.310E-04
-6.034E-04
-7.759E-04

Ixfib
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2
3.2

Iyfib
78.05
62.50
48.67
36.58
26.21
17.57
10.66
5.47
2.02
0.29
0.29
2.02
5.47
10.66
17.57
26.21
36.58
48.67
62.50
78.05

Strain Increment

Fiber no.
-0.0003
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

tot

fib
-1.076E-03
-9.034E-04
-7.310E-04
-5.586E-04
-3.862E-04
-2.138E-04
-4.138E-05
1.310E-04
3.034E-04
4.759E-04
4.759E-04
3.034E-04
1.310E-04
-4.138E-05
-2.138E-04
-3.862E-04
-5.586E-04
-7.310E-04
-9.034E-04
-1.076E-03

-31.2
-26.2
-21.2
-16.2
-11.2
-6.2
-1.2
3.8
8.8
13.8
13.8
8.8
3.8
-1.2
-6.2
-11.2
-16.2
-21.2
-26.2
-31.2

Efib
Tx-fib
Ty-fib
Pfib
29000
92800 2.26E+06
-74.88
29000
92800 1.81E+06
-62.88
29000
92800 1.41E+06
-50.88
29000
92800 1.06E+06
-38.88
29000
92800 7.60E+05
-26.88
29000
92800 5.09E+05
-14.88
29000
92800 3.09E+05
-2.88
29000
92800 1.59E+05
9.12
29000
92800 5.85E+04
21.12
29000
92800 8.35E+03
33.12
29000
92800 8.35E+03
33.12
29000
92800 5.85E+04
21.12
29000
92800 1.59E+05
9.12
29000
92800 3.09E+05
-2.88
29000
92800 5.09E+05
-14.88
29000
92800 7.60E+05
-26.88
29000
92800 1.06E+06
-38.88
29000
92800 1.41E+06
-50.88
29000
92800 1.81E+06
-62.88
29000
92800 2.26E+06
-74.88

Tx

-0.0005
-0.0006
-0.0007
-0.0008
-0.0009
-0.001
-0.0011
-0.0012
-0.0013
-0.0014
-0.0015
-0.0016
-0.0017
-0.0018
-0.0019
-0.002
-0.0021
-0.0022
-0.0023
-0.0024
-0.00249

-417.6
-556.8
-696
-835.2
-974.4
-1113.6
-1252.8
-1384.8
-1510.08
-1624.32
-1734.72
-1832.16
-1924.8
-2008.32
-2083.2
-2152.8
-2209.92
-2263.2
-2304.96
-2340.48
-2368.32
-2386.08
-2398.608

Ty

1856000
1856000
1856000
1856000
1856000
1670400
1670400
1484800
1299200
1299200
1113600
1113600
928000
928000
742400
556800
556800
371200
371200
185600
185600

16704000
16704000
16704000
16704000
16704000
12177216
12177216
8552448
5729472
5729472
3608064
3608064
2088000
2088000
1069056
451008
451008
133632
133632
16704
16704

KLx-cr
209.4395102
181.3799364
162.231147
148.0960979
137.1103442
128.254983
120.9199576
109.11051
104.4864889
94.98347542
85.97519823
83.65775001
75.56517263
73.97722346
66.30684706
65.22619108
57.58118233
49.27629185
48.8278711
39.56410897
39.33088015
27.70743725
27.63498414

KLy-cr
T/Y
628.3185307
0.174
544.1398093
0.232
486.6934411
0.29
444.2882938
0.348
411.3310325
0.406
384.764949
0.464
362.7598728
0.522
294.5983771
0.577
282.1135199
0.6292
227.960341
0.6768
180.5479163
0.7228
175.681275
0.7634
136.0173107
0.802
133.1590022
0.8368
99.46027059
0.868
97.83928663
0.897
69.0974188
0.9208
44.34866267
0.943
43.94508399
0.9604
23.73846538
0.9752
23.59852809
0.9868
8.312231176
0.9942
8.290495243
0.99942

(KL/r)x
181.3799364
157.0796327
140.4962946
128.254983
118.7410412
111.0720735
104.7197551
94.49247352
90.48795371
82.25810265
74.45670576
72.44973673
65.44135914
64.06615482
57.423414
56.48753847
49.86676668
42.67452055
42.28617679
34.26352344
34.06154136
23.99534453
23.9325983

(KL/r)y
181.3799364
157.0796327
140.4962946
128.254983
118.7410412
111.0720735
104.7197551
85.04322617
81.43915834
65.80648212
52.11969403
50.71481571
39.26481548
38.43969289
28.711707
28.24376924
19.94670667
12.80235616
12.68585304
6.852704688
6.812308273
2.399534453
2.39325983

## Tangent Modulus Buckling - Numerical

Inelastic Column Buckling

( T/ Y)

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

KL/r ratio
(KL/r)x

(KL/r)y

140

160

180

200

1.2

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.5

Num-x
Elastic

1.0

Num-y

Lambda
AISC-Design

1.5

Analytical-x
Analytical-y

2.0

## Going back to the original three second-order differential

equations:

Therefore,
1

z
z

E I x v P v P x0 M BY M TY M BY M BX M TX M BX
L
L

z
z

E I y u P u P y0 M BX (M
M BY

M TX
M BX
M TYTX+M

(M

)
BY
TY+M
BY)

BX
L
L

z
E I w (G KT K ) u ( M BX ( M BX M TX ) P y0 )
L
z
v
u
v ( M BY ( M BY M TY ) P x0 ) ( M TY M BY ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L
L

## because most steel structures have beams in uniaxial bending

Beams under biaxial bending do not undergo elastic buckling

P=0;

MTY=MBY=0

## The three equations simplify to:

z
M TX M BX
L
z

E I y u M BX M TX M BX
L
z
u

E I w (G KT K ) u M BX ( M BX M TX ) ( M TX M BX ) 0
L
L

E I x v M BX

Equation (1) is an uncoupled differential equation describing inplane bending behavior caused by MTX and MBX

## Equations (2) and (3) are coupled equations in u and that

describe the lateral bending and torsional behavior of the beam.
In fact they define the lateral torsional buckling of the beam.

The beam must satisfy all three equations (1, 2, and 3). Hence,
beam in-plane bending will occur UNTIL the lateral torsional
buckling moment is reached, when it will take over.

## Consider the case of uniform moment (Mo) causing compression

in the top flange. This will mean that

-MBX = MTX = Mo

## For this case, the differential equations (2 and 3) will become:

E I y u M o 0
E I w (G KT K ) u M o 0
where :
K Wagner ' s effect due to warping caused by torsion
K a 2 dA
A

Mo
But ,
y neglecting higher order terms
Ix
Mo
y ( xo x) 2 ( yo y ) 2 dA
Ix
A

K
K
K

Mo
Ix
Mo
Ix

2
2
2
2

y
x

2
xx

y
2 yy0 dA
o
0
o

2
2
2
2
2

x
y
dA

y
x

y
dA

x
2
xy
dA

y
y
dA

2
y
y
dA
o

0
o
o

A
A
A
A
A

## ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Mo
K

Ix

2
2

A y x y dA 2 yo I x

2
2

dA
y
x

K Mo

K M ox

Ix

2 yo

where, x

2
2

dA
y
x

y

A

Ix

2 yo

## The beam buckling differential equations become :

(2) E I y u M o 0
(3) E I w (G KT M o x ) u M o 0

## ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Equation (2) gives u

Mo

E Iy

## Substituting u from Equation (2) in (3) gives :

2
M
E I w iv (G KT M o x ) o 0
E Iy

2
M
G
K
T
iv
2 o 0
E Iw
E I y Iw

G KT
Let , 1
E Iw

and

M o2
2 2
E I y Iw

## ELASTIC BUCKLING OF BEAMS

Assume solution is of the form e z

4 1 2 2 e z 0
4 1 2 2 0

1 12 42

2
2

1 12 42

2
Let , 1 , and

12 42 1
,
2
1 12 42
, i
2
i 2

## Above are the four roots for

C1e1z C2e 1 z C3ei 2 z C4e i 2 z
collecting real and imaginary terms
G1 cosh(1 z ) G2 sinh(1 z ) G3 sin( 2 z ) G4 cos( 2 z )

## Assume simply supported boundary conditions for the beam:

(0) (0) ( L) ( L) 0
Solution for must satisfy all four b.c.

G 1
2

G
2

2 0
cos( 2 L)
G 3

G 4
22 cos( 2 L)
For buckling coefficient matrix must be sin gular :
det er min ant of matrix 0
1
12
cosh(1 L)
12 cosh(1 L)

0
0
sinh(1 L)
12 sinh(1L)

0
0
sin( 2 L)
22 sin( 2 L)

12 22 sinh(1 L) sinh( 2 L) 0
Of these :
only sinh( 2 L) 0
2 L n

2

n
L

12 42 1

2
L
2 2
2
1 42 1 2
L
2

2 2

2 2
2 2
2
21
2 1 1
2
2
L
L
L

4
4
2
2
2 2 1 2
L
L
2 G KT 2
M o2
2 2
2

E I y Iw L
E I w L2
Mo

G KT

2
2
L
E
I
w L

E2 I y Iw

2E I y
Mo
L2

2E Iw

G KT

2
L