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DIPLOMASI EKONOMI:

UPAYA MENDORONG EKSPOR INDONESIA KE


KAZAKHSTAN DAN TAJIKISTAN

Foster Gultom
Duta Besar RI untuk Republik of Kazakhstan
dan Republik Tajikistan
Universitas Bina Nusantara
Jakarta, 7 Oktober 2014

DIPLOMASI
What to do = Foreign Policy
How to do = Diplomacy

Diplomacy is:
- the art and practice of conducting negotiations
between nations
- skill in handling affairs without arousing hostility

DIPLOMASI EKONOMI
Upaya pemerintah beserta segenap pemangku

kepentingan yang terlibat dalam suatu kegiatan di


bidang ekonomi: perdagangan barang dan jasa,
investasi, industri, pariwisata, ketenagakerjaan,
kerjasama teknik dan pembangunan
Komponen kebijakan luar negeri untuk mendorong

peningkatan kesejahteraan rakyat, mendukung


pembangunan nasional, dan memajukan
kepentingan nasional di kancah global
Merepresentasikan metode, cara, dan kegiatan

untuk merealisasikan kebijakan luar negeri melalui


optimalisasi strategi dan promosi yang terintegrasi
di Perwakilan RI di luar negeri

Landasan Pokok Diplomasi


Ekonomi
Diselenggarakan
secara total melibatkan segenap pemangku
kepentingan: instansi pemerintah, pemda, lembaga pemerintah,
LSM, dunia usaha, media massa, kalangan akedemisi dan tokohtokoh masyarakat.
Dilaksanakan secara holistik, terpadu dan sinergis baik secara

substansi maupun kelembagaan


Meliputi tingkatan bilateral, plurilateral, regional, dan multilateral
Mencakup tataran antar-pemerintah (G-to-G), antara pemerintah

dan swasta (G-to-P), dan antar pengusaha (B-to-B)


Raihan atau capaian dari diplomasi ekonomi dapat dinilai secara

spesifik, terukur, dapat dicapai, realistik, dan penjadwalan yang


jelas (SMART)

KOMPONEN DIPLOMASI
EKONOMI
1. Upaya diplomasi ekonomi untuk meraih

capaian kepentingan nasional di bidang


ekonomi
2. Upaya diplomasi ekonomi melalui penggunaan

aset ekonomi sebagai sarana untuk meraih


kepentingan nasional di bidang non-ekonomi
3. Upaya diplomasi ekonomi sebagai dampak

dari capaian kebijakan luar negeri dan


penyelenggaraan hubungan luar negeri

I.

Upaya diplomasi ekonomi untuk meraih capaian kepentingan


nasional di bidang ekonomi
1. Pembukaan akses pasar

Mengurangi/meniadakan hambatan tarif dan nontarif, proteksionis


Memastikan perlakuan non-diskriminatif (MFN dan
National Treatment)

2. Pemasaran

Sisi Permintaan (Demand Side)


Sisi Penawaran (Supply Side)

3. Pengamanan Perdagangan
Sengketa perdagangan
Aturan perdagangan

II. Upaya diplomasi ekonomi melalui penggunaan


aset ekonomi sebagai sarana untuk meraih
kepentingan nasional di bidang non-ekonomi
Metode smart power
Stick and carrot approach
Persuasi (bantuan, hibah) dan Paksaan

(embargo, sanksi ekonomi)

III. Upaya diplomasi ekonomi sebagai dampak dari capaian


kebijakan luar negeri dan penyelenggaraan hubungan luar
negeri

Hubungan baik dan penerimaan yang spesifik dari


negara-negara sahabat, sebagai hasil dari peran dan
kontribusi Indonesia dalam berbagai penyelesaian
masalah domestik dan internasional di negara
sahabat dimaksud, perlu ditindaklanjuti dengan
penyelengaraan diplomasi ekonomi yang memberi
keuntungan ekonomi bagi Indonesia.

Studi Kasus
Bagaimana upaya peningkatan ekspor Indonesia

ke Kazakhstan?

Where is Indonesia and Kazakhstan?


+ 7,063 Km (4,389 Miles)

Basic Facts

Establish diplomatic relations: 2 June 1993


Landlocked State
Archipelagic State: 17,508 islands
Land size: 2.7 million km2
Land size: 1.9 million km2
Sea size: 25,200 km2
Sea size: about 6.8 million km2
Population: + 17 million
Population: + 250 million
Multi-culture: 130 ethnic groups
Multi-culture: 300 ethnic groups
Abundant of natural resources Abundant of natural resources
Independence Day: 16 December 1991
Independence Day: 17 August
1945

*Projections
Source: World Economic Outlook 2012-2014, World Bank

Nominal GDP Kazakhstan

Indonesia-Kazakhstan
Establishment of Diplomatic Relations
on 2 June 1993

SUMMIT
1.Almaty, 6-8 April 1995: President Soeharto and President Nursultan
Nazarbayev
2.Jakarta, 22-26 June 1995: President Nursultan Nazarbayev and
President Soeharto
3.Jakarta, 12-14 April 2012: President Nursultan Nazarbayev and
President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
4.Astana, 1-3 September 2013: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and
President Nursultan Nazarbayev

Areas of Cooperation, among others:


1.Political and Security: political dialogue on all bilateral and international
issues, hold regular political consultation, combating terrorism, combating
money laundering, mutual support and cooperation in regional and
international fora
2.Economy: energy, food, trade, investment, technology innovation, logistic
and air transportation, banking, tourism
3.Social, Culture and Education: health care, environment, conducting
days of culture, training and sport, diplomatic training, youth exchange

High-Level Meeting
1.Astana, 18 May 2008: Dr. Hassan Wirayuda (Indonesian Foreign
Minister) and Mr. Marat Tazhin (Kazakhstan Foreign Minister)
2.Jakarta, 21-22 August 2013: 1st Joint Commission on Economic
Cooperation between Indonesia (led by Mr. Muhammad Hatta Rajasa,
Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs) and Kazakhstan (led by Mr.
Erbolat Dossaev, Minister of Economy and Budget Planning)

Source: Ministry of Trade of Indonesia and Kazakhstan

No

Commodity

Value
(Thousand
US$)

Motor cars and other motor vehicles, mostly purposed for peoples
transportation, including vans and racing cars
2 Besar
Palm oil and
its fractions, refined
or not refined,
but not chemically
10
Komoditi
Ekspor
Kazakhstan
ke Indonesia
modified
Tahun
2013
3
Printing machinery used for printing by using of platens, cylinders and
other printing components; Printers, copy machines and fax machines and
their belongings
4
Video recording or video playing devices, combined or not combined with
video tuner
5
Unwrought tin
6
New rubber pneumatic tires
7
Receiver for radio broadcasting, combined or not combined in one case
with audio recording or audio playing machines or watches
8
Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding,
mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid
(including powder or paste) condition
9
Footwear with outer soles of rubber, plastics, leather or composition
leather and uppers of leather
10 Monitors and projectors, not including TV signal receiving devices; TV
signal receiving devices, including or not including recording or playback
devices

8,472.28
2,513,94
2,340.93

1,854.94
1,708.60
1,706.83
1,174.47
1,061.55

995.87
983.57

Ten
Biggest Export Commodities
of Kazakhstan toValue
No
Commodity
Indonesia in 2013
(Thousand
US$)

1
Crude oil and products from crude oil, obtained from bituminous materials
127,915.22
10 Besar Komoditi Impor Kazakhstan dari Indonesia
2
Asbestos
2,251.34
Tahun 2013
3

Spare parts for machines and equipment for lifting, handling, loading or
unloading machinery (for example, lifts, escalators, conveyors, teleferics)
Other products from black metal

83.58

Interchangeable tools for hand tools, with or without mechanical drives for
machine tools (for example, for pressing, stamping, punching, tapping,
threading, drilling, boring, broaching, milling, turning or screw driving)

16.70

Manganese oxide

Transmission shafts (including camshafts and crankshafts) and cranks;


Bearing housings and plain shaft bearings; Gears and gearings; Gear
boxes and other speed changers

Devices for automatic regulation and controlling

7.88

Products of vulcanized rubber, except of hard rubber

7.14

10

Products form plastic

3.35

30.23

12.035
11.50

Perbandingan Volume Perdagangan


dengan Dunia antara Indonesia dan
Kazakhstan
2012 - 2013 (US$ Ribu)
TAHUN

EKSPOR

IMPOR

TOTAL

GROWTH
TOTAL

INDONESIA
2012

186.498.000

184.883.000

371.381.000

8,6%

2013

178.886.250

174.997.500

353.863.750

-4,7%

KAZAKHSTAN
2012

92.281.521

44.538.071

136.819.592

8,5%

2013

59.553.750

42.506.250

102.060.000

-6,5%

Partner Dagang Utama Kazakhstan Tahun


2012 (Ribuan USD)
RANK

COUNTRY

EXPORT

IMPORT

TOTAL

Rusia

17.685.600

5.806.500

23.492.100

China

14.373.748

8.364.465

22.783.213

Italia

16.480.655

1.034.870,8

17.515.526

Belanda

9.888.286

373.276,5

10.261.562

Perancis

5.460.114

1.032.542,1

6.492.656,4

Ukraina

2.041.423,9

2.269.635,7

4.311.059,6

Australia

3.614.869,4

342.764,3

3.957.615,7

Turki

2.603.060,6

926.125,6

3.529.186,2

Kanada

2.654.209,8

238.832,6

2.893.042,4

10

Jerman

428.368

2.455.167

2.883.985

11

Amerika Serikat

394.933

2.126.863

2.521.796

12

Romania

2.396.490

89.998

2.486.488

13

Spanyol

1.846.014

507.353

2.352.367

14

Arab Saudi

1.504.763

619.257

2.124.022

15

Uzbekistan

1.145.309

970.083

2.115.393

56

Indonesia

162.989

40.565

170.908

10 Partner Dagang Utama Indonesia Tahun 2013


(Ribuan USD)
RAN
K

COUNTR
Y

EXPORT

COUNTR
Y

IMPORT

COUNTR
Y

TOTAL
TRADE

China

28.611.250

Japan

25.962.500

China

50.275.00
0

Singapo
24.520.000
re

China

21.663.750

Japan

44.447.50
0

12,60

EU

16.110.000

Singapor
e

40.513.75
0

11,40

EU

29.260.00
0

8,30

TOTAL
SHARED
(%)

14,20

Japan

EU

Malaysi
a

12.770.000

USA

15.087.500

USA

23.793.75
0

6,70

South
Korea

11.111.250

India

12.491.250

Malaysia

22.993.75
0

6,50

Thailand 10.258.750

South
Korea

10.948.750

South
Korea

22.060.00
0

6,20

India

16.290.00
0

4,60
4,50

18.472.500

13.151.250 Singapore 15.993.750

USA

8.705.000

Malaysia 10.223.750

Saudi
Arabia

6.256.250

Thailand

5.810.000

Thailand

16.070.00
0

4.828.750 Australia

4.188.750

Australia

9.018.750

10

Australi

2,50

Challenges of Bilateral Trade


Connectivity:
- Landlocked of Kazakhstan State, no seaport
- No direct flight between the two countries
Competitiveness:
- High cost of logistic and transportation
- Most Favored Nation (MFN) not apply High tariff and duties and non-

tariff barriers
Only small number of the two countries business people are engaged
People-to-people contacts need to be intensified

Obstacle to Boost Trade Relation


between Indonesia and Kazakhstan

The importance of efficient transport


and Logistic Sector
Lack of access to the sea

port.
High cost of airtransport.
Dependencyy
on
neighboring countries.
Range/distance Problems.
High cost transshipment.

Import becomes
more expensive
Export becomes
less competitive

Kazakhstan

ICBC Khorgos:
Western Europe - Western China

ICBC Khorgos
Russia

Europe

Kazakhstan
China

West Europe West China


8 445 (10 days)
26

Sea route 24 000 (24


days)

STATE PROGRAM
for Accelerated Industrial-Innovative
Development
of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The Way Forward


The relationship between Indonesia and Kazakhstan has a brighter prospect

in the future. Both countries are having potentials and opportunities in terms
of economy, politics, social and culture in enhancing their cooperation that
have been established more than 20 years.

The two countries relations has a strong foundation both at the governmental

and private sector levels. The bilateral trade volume will undoubtedly
increase rapidly should the countries can well- managed and address the
challenges such as logistic and transportation aspect of trade.

The Roadmap shall be charted out by the two countries in order to fully

implement the commitments and agreements spelled out in the MOUs and
other legal documents resulting from the meetings between government
officials and private sector of the two countries.

The efforts much needed to promote people-to-people contacts between the

two nations.