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# Elements of Mechatronics System

Mechanical
System

Sensors

Data Acquisition
System

Actuators

Amplifying
Electronics

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Amplifying
Electronics

Data Acquisition
System

Control System
Micro-controller or
Computer

DAQ (Construction)

Transducer

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Filter

Computer

DAC

Amplification

Actuator

Binary numbers

MSB

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LSB

## What is Analog / Digital Signal ?

Analog Control System

Digital Control
System

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Quantisation

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## Effect of Sampling Frequency

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Sampling Rate
The data is acquired by an ADC using a process called
sampling.
Sampling an analog signal occurs at discrete time
intervals.
The rate at which the signal is sampled is known as the
sampling frequency.

Sampling

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Sampling Theorem
The sampling theorem, or more correctly Shannon's
sampling theorem, states that we need to sample a
signal at a rate at least twice the maximum frequency
component in order to retain all frequency components in
the signal.

fs > 2 fmax

## where fs is the sampling rate (frequency),

fmax is the highest frequency in the input signal,
and the minimum required rate (2 fmax) is called the

Nyquist frequency.
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## Effect of Sampling Frequency in signal reconstruction

Sampling the waveform

1000 Hz

100 Hz

20 Hz

10 Hz

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## A/D Converter: Sampling Rate

Aliasing
Acquired signal gets distorted if sampling rate is
too small.

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Aliasing

Actual Signal

Reconstructed
Signal
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Physical System

system, etc)
Variable
to sense

Analog
Signal

Current
Amplifier
Analog
Signal

DAC
Digital
Signal

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Actuator
Signal

Analog
Signal

Digital
Signal

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Sensor Signal

Sampling

Quantizing

Digitization

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Output

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1-bit analog to
digital
conversion
2-bit analog to
digital
conversion

3-bit analog to
digital
conversion

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## SAMPLE & HOLD CIRCUIT

S&H circuit takes a
'snapshot' of a signal
level at a particular
digitization.
To take a sample, the analog
switch is closed for a period of
time long enough for the
capacitor to charge up
to Vin; then the switch is opened
The signal voltage is trapped on
the capacitor because
(theoretically) it cant discharge
through either the op-amp or
analog switch.

## The voltage can be read

anytime via the output of
the voltage follower.
The switch must be closed
long enough for the
capacitor to charge up to
the full value of Vin.
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Each bit corresponds
to a switch:

Vref

## If the bit is high,

the corresponding
switch is connected to
the inverting input of
the op-amp.

Bit: 0

4-Bit Converter

Vout

## If the bit is low, the

corresponding switch
is connected to ground.

Only two resistor values (R and 2R)
Does not require high precision resistors

Lower conversion speed than binary weighted DAC

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Multiplexer

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