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Islamic Intellectual

Theology
Lesson 12
God is Just “AL-ADL”
Lesson Two
Justice of God “ALA’DL
ALELAHI”
ELAHIYAAT [Summary] of Sh. Jaf’ar Subhani pg.163-169
Creed of Sh Nasir Makarim Sherazi

Edited: Jan. 17, 2010 - BHD


Can Intellectual Concepts
Convert?
Argument: If decency (HOSN) and indecency (QOBH) were
intellectual they could not be interchangeable. For
example, if lying would save a life of a prophet from a
tyrant and telling truth would cause his perish, a lie
becomes decent and beautiful and truth becomes ugly and
indecent. Does the intellect reflect these changes?
Response: In this case the intellect perceives that saving a life
is more decent than truth, and such does not require a
religious approval to lie. A lie in general remains indecent
and ugly, and truth remains decent and beautiful, but the
intellect observes and comprehends the priority and the
preference of the beauty of saving a life over the beauty of
saying truth and commands to give up one beauty for the
sake of more important beauty. In other words, there is an
intellectual decision between the conflict in two decent
acts, with the most decent prevailing.
Evidence of those who Support
 If the decency were dependant on only on
learning, then perceiving the truth of the Prophets
(AS) would've been a difficult task, because who
can tell that a prophet lied or not? If lying can be
decent and good, the conclusion is that God
supports a liar with miracle. Since that is not
acceptable by intuition, then truth and falsehood
must be distinguished not by learning, but by the
innate intellect.
 ROOZBAHAAN: A miracle did not support a liar
not because lying is indecent intellectually and
God never supports an intellectually indecent act,
but He is not used to doing such.
The Question of the People of
Adam and Nuh
1. How does one know what God usually
does or does not usually do?
2. Knowing what God is used to requires
history of God. Then what about the
followers of the early Prophets (AS) Adam
and Nuh? They never got an opportunity to
learn what God’s usual traits are. How
were they to infer whether their prophets
spoke the truth?
Decent and indecent in the
Quraan
Justice and goodness exist before the command of God.
‫ن َوِإيَتاء ِذي اْلُقْرَبى َوَينَْهى‬ ِ ‫سا‬ َ‫ح‬
ْ‫ل‬ِ ‫ل َوا‬ ِ ‫ل َيْأُمُر ِباْلَعْد‬
ّ ‫ا‬
َ‫ظُكْم َلَعّلُكْم َتَذّكُرون‬
ُ ‫ي َيِع‬ ِ ‫شاء َواْلُمنَكِر َواْلَبْغ‬ َ‫ح‬ ْ ‫ن اْلَف‬
ِ‫ع‬ َ
[Shakir 16:90] Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice
and the doing of good (to others) and the giving to the
kindred, and He forbids indecency and evil and rebellion;
He admonishes you that you may be mindful.
The indecent acts are known to be indecent before God.
‫ق َوَأن‬ّ‫ح‬ َ ‫ي ِبَغْيِر اْل‬
َ ‫لْثَم َواْلَبْغ‬
ِ ‫ن َوا‬ َ‫ط‬َ ‫ظَهَر ِمْنَها َوَما َب‬ َ ‫ش َما‬ َ ‫ح‬ ِ ‫ي اْلَفَوا‬
َ ‫حّرَم َرّب‬
َ ‫ل ِإّنَما‬
ْ ‫ُق‬
َ‫ل َتْعَلُمون‬
َ ‫ل َما‬ ّ ‫عَلى ا‬ َ ‫طاًنا َوَأن َتُقوُلوْا‬ َ ‫سْل‬
ُ ‫ل ِبِه‬ ْ ‫ل َما َلْم ُيَنّز‬ّ ‫شِرُكوْا ِبا‬ ْ ‫ُت‬
 [Shakir 7:33] Say: My Lord has only prohibited indecencies,
those of them that are apparent as well as those that are
concealed, and sin and rebellion without justice, and that
you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent
down any authority, and that you say against Allah what you do
not know
Command Towards Known
Commands to what ever is known to be good (marouf)
and prohibits from what ever is know to be denied by the
intellectuals (munkar).
‫عنَدُهْم ِفي‬ ِ ‫جُدوَنُه َمْكُتوًبا‬ ِ ‫ي اّلِذي َي‬ ّ ‫لّم‬
ُ‫يا‬ ّ ‫ل الّنِب‬
َ ‫سو‬ ُ ‫ن الّر‬َ ‫ن َيّتِبُعو‬
َ ‫اّلِذي‬
‫حّرُم‬ َ ‫ت َوُي‬ ِ ‫طّيَبا‬ّ ‫ل َلُهُم ال‬ ّ‫ح‬ ِ ‫ن اْلُمنَكِر َوُي‬ِ‫ع‬ َ ‫ف َوَيْنَهاُهْم‬ِ ‫ل َيْأُمُرُهم ِباْلَمْعُرو‬ ِ ‫جي‬ ِ ‫لْن‬
ِ ‫الّتْوَراِة َوا‬
‫ن آَمُنوْا‬ َ ‫عَلْيِهْم َفاّلِذي‬
َ ‫ت‬ ْ ‫ل اّلِتي َكاَن‬ َ‫ل‬َ ‫غ‬ْ‫ل‬ َ ‫صَرهُْم َوا‬ ْ ‫عْنُهْم ِإ‬
َ ‫ضُع‬َ ‫ث َوَي‬ َ ‫خَبآِئ‬َ ‫عَلْيِهُم اْل‬
َ
َ ‫حو‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫ك ُهُم اْلُمْفِل‬َ ‫ل َمَعُه ُأْوَلـِئ‬ َ ‫ي ُأنِز‬
َ ‫صُروُه َواّتَبُعوْا الّنوَر اّلِذ‬
َ ‫عّزُروُه َوَن‬ َ ‫ِبِه َو‬
[Shakir 7:157] Those who follow the Messenger-Prophet, the Ummi,
whom they find written down with them in the Taurat and the
Injeel (who) enjoins them good and forbids them evil, and makes
lawful to them the good things and makes unlawful to them impure
things, and removes from them their burden and the shackles
which were upon them; so (as for) those who believe in him and
honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent
down with him, these it is that are the successful.
Meaning of Justice
 Justice is intellectually perceived as an act of decency. The
intellect commands towards it. It is also an indication of
perfection, therefore, as concluded, God is just and does not
oppress.
 The best definition of adalah (justice) is as defined by Imam
Ali (AS): Justice puts the things in their proper place or
position.
 Everything has its proper place and position. If it is kept in a
place where it does not belong then this is unjust. Some of
these places are prescribed by Allah SWT; for example,
forbidden acts must be kept out of your life and if you take
them out of place and bring them in your life then you are
unjust. The same can be said about the obligations and the
rights of others.
 Another aspect of justice is balance: placing favor on one
extreme of a range of possibilities is a disruption of balance
and is unjust.
Types of God’s Justice
1. Natural justice (takweeni): Where God created every thing it
a balanced form, and gave it what ever suits it to perform its
function in life properly. The various types of animals, for
example, have various instruments based on the type of
lifestyle they lead.
2. Legislative justice: The justice of rules and laws. LAA
YOKALLIFO NAFSAN ILLA WOS’AHA (He does not obligate
a soul above its capacity). Laws are not more than the
human can handle, and these laws secure the happiness of
the human in both worlds.
3. Justice in recompense and punishment: God does not punish
any one without warning. His punishments are either less
than what is proportional to the crime or exactly equal, and
he never extracts extra punishment. His mercy and kindness
overcome His justice but do not go against it.
Types of God’s Justice in The
Quran
1. Natural Justice:
ٍ ‫يٍء ّمْوُزو‬
‫ن‬ ْ ‫ش‬
َ ‫ل‬ ّ ُ‫ي َوَأنَبْتَنا ِفيَها ِمن ك‬
َ‫س‬ِ ‫ض َمَدْدَناَها َوَأْلَقْيَنا ِفيَها َرَوا‬
َ ‫لْر‬ َ ‫َوا‬
[Shakir 15:19] And the earth-- We have spread it forth and made in it firm
mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing.
2. Legislative:
َ ‫ظَلُمو‬
‫ن‬ ْ ‫ل ُي‬
َ ‫ق َوُهْم‬ّ‫ح‬َ ‫ق ِباْل‬
ُ‫ط‬ِ ‫ب َين‬ ٌ ‫سَعَها َوَلَدْيَنا ِكَتا‬
ْ ‫ل ُو‬
ّ ‫سا ِإ‬ً ‫ف َنْف‬ُ ‫ل ُنَكّل‬
َ ‫َو‬
[Shakir 23:62] And We do not lay on any soul a burden
except to the extent of its ability, and with Us is a book which
speaks the truth, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.
 Reward and punishment:
‫ت‬
ْ ‫سَب‬
َ ‫عَلْيَها َما اكَْت‬
َ ‫ت َو‬
ْ ‫سَب‬
َ ‫سَعَها َلَها َما َك‬
ْ ‫ل ُو‬
ّ ‫سا ِإ‬
ً ‫ل َنْف‬
ّ ‫فا‬
ُ ‫ل ُيَكّل‬
َ
[Shakir 2:286] Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty
but to the extent of its ability; for it is (the benefit of)
what it has earned and upon it (the evil of) what it has wrought.
Fine Justice
ُ‫خْيًرا َيَره‬
َ ‫ل َذّرٍة‬َ ‫ل ِمْثَقا‬
ْ ‫َفَمن َيْعَم‬
[Shakir 99:7] So. he who has done an atom's weight of good shall see
it
‫شّرا َيَرُه‬ َ ‫ل َذّرٍة‬
َ ‫ل ِمْثَقا‬ْ ‫َوَمن َيْعَم‬
Shakir 99:8] And he who has done an atom's weight of evil shall see]
.it
‫ت َرِهيَنٌة‬ ْ ‫سَب‬
َ ‫ل َنْفسٍ ِبَما َك‬ ّ ‫ُك‬
 [Shakir 74:38] Every soul is held in pledge for what it earns,
The three types in the words
of Imam Ali (AS)
 Nahjul Balagha, Khutba 185: ‫صد َقَ ِفي‬ َ ‫ذي‬ ِ ّ ‫ال‬ 
1. He is true in His promise. ،‫ه‬
ِ ِ ‫ميَعاد‬ ِ
2. He is too high to be unjust to ‫م‬ْ ‫ن ظ ُل‬ ْ َ ‫فعَ ع‬ َ َ ‫َواْرت‬ 
ِ
His creatures. ،‫عَباِده‬ ِ
3. He stands by equity among His ‫ط ِفي‬ ِ ‫قس‬ ِ ْ ‫م ِبال‬ َ ‫وََقا‬ 
creation, ،‫ه‬ ِ ‫ق‬ِ ْ ‫خل‬َ
And practices justice over them
ْ ِ‫ل ع َل َي ْه‬
4.
‫م ِفي‬ َ َ ‫وَع َد‬ 
in His commands.
،‫ه‬ ِ ‫م‬ ِ ْ ‫حك‬ ُ
2, 4 include justice in legislation.
3 refers to justice in creation.
Examples of Natural Justice
 Stable circulation of the earth in its orbit. It is balanced
(ADL) by two forces keeps the earth in its proper
position in the solar system which allows the earth to
have the factors of life on it:
 The repelling centrifuge force existing from the circulation of the
sun around its self which pushes the smaller objects like earth
away from it
 The force of gravity which pulls the earth towards the sun ,
because the sun is a huge object that pulls the smaller masses
like earth towards it self.
 Any disturbance in the average distance of the earth
from the sun can cause the end of the life on earth.
 Another example would be the law of equilibrium and
osmotic pressure.
Example of Legislative Justice
 Commanding us to keep the money in its proper place:
charity, expenses on the family and the necessities of life,
over and all in what ever pleases God.
 Therefore not spending in what ever is obligated is forbidden.
 Spending it in forbidden acts and wasting it is forbidden as well.
The same can be said about all the acts of worship and the commands
of God.
َ ‫شُكُرو‬
‫ن‬ ْ ‫عَلْيُكْم َلَعّلُكْم َت‬
َ ‫طّهَرُكْم َوِلُيِتّم ِنْعَمَتُه‬
َ ‫ج َوَلـِكن ُيِريُد ِلُي‬
ٍ ‫حَر‬
َ ‫ن‬
ْ ‫عَلْيُكم ّم‬
َ ‫ل‬
َ ‫جَع‬
ْ ‫ل ِلَي‬
ّ ‫َما ُيِريُد ا‬
 [Shakir 5:6], Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty,
but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor
on you, so that you may be grateful.
‫ج ّمّلَة َأِبيُكمْ ِإْبَراِهيَم‬ٍ ‫حَر‬ َ ‫ن‬ْ ‫ن ِم‬ ِ ‫عَلْيُكْم ِفي الّدي‬ َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫جَع‬َ ‫َوَما‬
 [Shakir 22:78] He has chosen you and has not laid upon you an
hardship in religion; the faith of your father Ibrahim.