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Dr.

Marwan Affandi 2014

MACHINE DESIGN

ENT 256/4
MARWAN AFFANDI
SCHOOL OF MECHATRONICS
UNIMAP
Email: marwan@unimap.edu.my
Telp: 9885234
Hp: 0124225604
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Considerations

Functionality
Distortion/deflection/stiffness
Strength/Stress
Corrosion
Wear

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Considerations

Safety
Reliability
Manufacturability
Utility
Cost

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Considerations

Friction
Weight
Life
Noise
Styling

Figure 18 Space shuttle main


engine (Mattingly, 2006)
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Considerations

Shape
Size
Control
Thermal properties
Surface

Figure 19 Belts
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

If you look at a product, consider the


following questions:
What is the design process?
How does it begin?
Does the engineer simply sit down at
a desk with a blank sheet of paper
and jot down some ideas? What
happens next?
What factors influence the decisions?
How does the design process end?
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

Different authors use different


terminology to describe design
process.
Since design is an iterative process,
it is seldom or unusual to find a
finished product to emerge from the
design process without changing
along the way.
Design cycle is a sequence of events
from beginning to finished product
(Horenstein, 2010).
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

The specific steps of the design cycle


may vary with the product, most
cycles resemble the sequence shown
in Fig. 20.
This design cycle will be explored by
applying it to an example.
Suppose that we want to design a
low-cost car.
While designing a real car is quite
difficult, this example will help
students become creative in solving
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
problem.

Figure 20
a design cycle
Dr. Sequences
Marwan Affandiof
2014

Design Cycle

Define the overall objectives


Overall objectives should be defined
before starting a new project.
Most students tend to build and test
their product as soon as possible.
However, this will be the most
important step in design process.
If the overall objectives have been
defined clearly, other steps should
follow this.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

For the example given, there are


several issues that must be
considered.
Apart from technical constraints (how
many cc? what is the maximum
weight? what is the horse-power
required?), the designer may
consider the following factors:
aesthetic, safety, cost, that will go
into a successful design.
So, the designer should ask the
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
following questions:

Design Cycle

Who will use the car? A first time


buyer or a seasoned driver?
What are the needs of the end user?
A family car or a commercial
purpose?
Will the car be used for recreation or
work? Which features are critical and
which are only desirable? For
example, should the car be equipped
with a halogen lamp? Leather seats?
Tinted glass?
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
Will the car be manual or automatic?

Design Cycle

How much risk is acceptable?


What is the cost to build a car? How
much will the price of the car be?
How much is the fuel consumption
per 100 km? How much is the
expected operational cost yearly?
Are there competitors for similar cars
in the market?
Answering these questions will help
at other steps of the design process.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

Gather information
Gathering information regarding the
design that will be done should be
made in the early stages of a new
project.
You should learn and understand the
relevant technology as much as
possible.
Nowadays it is not quite difficult to
gather information.
Apart from journals, books,
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

technical information, internet is very


important as a good source for
product descriptions, datasheets,
and detailed specs.
There are many websites that can be
accessed freely, so dont ignore this
ocean of knowledge.
However, you must be careful that
not every information available in the
internet is reliable, accurate, and up
to date.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

If there are other sources, compare


them carefully before using them.
You may refer to ASME journals and
literatures related to low cost cars.
Currently India has released low cost
cars so you should find information
from the company that manufacture
those cars.
Remember: dont reinvent the wheel;
if others have made a similar
product, dont copy it exactly.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Tata Nano, the cheapest car


Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

Identify and evaluate possible design


strategies
At this stage, possible design
strategies can be identified by
running a brainstorming session.
There may be a decision to include
pre-existing products (such as
brakes, side mirrors, and tires). Why
should you design these basic things
if they are already available?
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

The merits of each possible solution


are evaluated; one or more solutions
will be explored further.
The chosen approach is the one that
most likely to succeed.
However, the outcome may be
different, depending on other steps
so this choice may change later.
There is no guarantee that the choice
will lead to successful outcome.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

Make a first cut at the design


The first cut means initial attempt;
basically this involves estimations
and rough approximations.
In this example, the weight of the car
can be estimated less than 700 kg,
the maximum speed is 110 km/hr,
the fuel consumption is 10 km/liter
and so on.
These are only estimations; accurate
specs will be decided later.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Cycle

Since the design of a car is quite


complex, the system must be divided
into smaller pieces such as gears,
clutches, frame, shaft, electrical
circuits, and engine.
Each part (subsection) should be
designed that each can be tested
individually. After each part is
successfully tested, all parts will be
combined together. The system will
then be tested as a whole. This
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
modular approach
is important to

Phases in Design

The complete design process, from


start to finish, is often outlined as
shown in Fig. 1 (Budynas and
Nisbeth, 2008).
The process starts with an
identification of a need and what to
do about it.
Usually we need many iterations
before ending the process,
presenting the plans that has
satisfied the need.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

Figure 21 Phases in design


Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

Recognizing the need and phrasing it


are often uneasy. The need may be
vague because we feel dissatisfied or
sense that something is not right.
But at least the need is there.
For example, we may feel that the
vacuum cleaner is not very good
because it is quite noisy and it
cannot suck the dust properly.
Here, we identify a need for a better
vacuum cleaner.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

Need is the mother of invention!


If there is no need, there will no be
invention!
Think why people invented arrows,
needles, grinders, vehicles etc.
Often man learns from nature.
The history of aeroplane started long
time ago before the Wright brothers.

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

After identifying the need, we must


define the problem. The problem
must be specific and must include all
the specs for the object to be
designed.
The specs define the cost, the noise
level, the sucking pressure, the
operating temperature, the
dimensions etc.
Here, the designer must equip
himself with knowledge needed in
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
order to clearly define the problem.

Phases in Design

Next, we synthesize or put together a


scheme connecting possible
elements. This process is sometimes
called the invention of the concept or
concept design.
Various schemes must be proposed,
investigated, and quantified in terms
of standards parameters.
Schemes are then analyzed to assess
the system performance.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

Schemes that do not satisfy the


requirements or pass the analysis are
revised, improved, or discarded.
Potential schemes are optimized to
determine the best performance of
which the scheme is capable.
Here, these two phases, synthesis
and analysis and optimization are
closely and iteratively related.

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

In order to conduct the analysis and


optimization phase we must
construct mathematical models.
We hope one of the model can
simulate the real physical system
very well.
Here, we evaluate the model, which
will prove whether the design is
successful or not.
We also must test the prototype in
the laboratory or in the field.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Phases in Design

The last phase is to communicate the


design to others or to make
presentation about it.
Why must we waste our time and
effort if we do not want to make it
publicly known?
Of course we only let other people
know about the design if we are sure
that it is worth.
We may want to get a patent for our
design in order to commercialize it.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Process

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Design process is not unique.


Different people have different ideas.
As mentioned by Norton (2009), a
design process consists of ten steps
as follows:
Identification of need
Background research
Goal statement
Performance specification
Ideation and invention
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Process
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
)

Analysis
Selection
Detailed design
Prototyping and testing
Production
In general, these steps will hold for
many designs although some steps
may not be detailed in a simple
design. The designer just jumps up
from one step to another.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Design Process

Remember that design process is


iterative. It is very rare that people
do not make any mistake to solve the
problem and find the solution
straight forward.
In general, there is some flaw in one
step. Here, we rectify it, find the
correct solution. We iterate it, go
back to the point where it is wrong.
We may do the iteration several
times until we complete the design
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014
process.

Design Process

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

A designer has the following


responsibilities:
Understand the problem
Identify the known
Identify the unknown and formulate
State all assumptions and decisions
Analyze the problem
Evaluate solution
Present solution
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Designing A Cleaning
Machine

In the following slides an example of


designing a cleaning machine using
the design process is shown.
The example is not realistically
enough and may lack of proper data.
However, this example is expected to
open the students minds in
understanding the design process.
Actual design is quite complex since
it needs various disciplines of
knowledge.Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Identification of need

Suppose that somebody says: We


need a good robot to clean the floor.
This is a problem statement. It is
typically brief and lacking in detail.
But at least we know from the
statement that there is a need for a
robot.
Whether we do need a robot or some
thing else which can function
similarly does not matter at this
stage.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Background research

This step is the most important


phase in the design process. But
many people often neglect this.
Find out if the cleaning machine is
already available in the market. If it
is, why should we design it? It is
much cheaper to buy than to develop
a new one.
Remember: Dont reinvent the
wheel!
See the following
for
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2014

Figure 22 Two upright vacuum


cleaner models
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Figure 23 A Fairfax S-1

Figure 24 How vacuum cleaners work


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Figure 25 The Rootcyclone vacuum cleaner


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Figure 26 Various robotic vacuum cleaners


Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Background research

However, we can still design our


robot because we want to develop
our skill. In this case, we can buy a
cleaning machine, disassemble the
components, learn its mechanism,
and try to design a new one.
The process we do can be termed as
reverse engineering. However, we
must be careful about the machines
patent. So, our design should be
different from the existing one.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Background research

Where will we find information for


our research? We can find it in books,
engineering journals, brochures,
magazines, or in internet.
Internet can provide us with a lot of
information; most is free. However,
we must be careful in extracting the
information, separating the garbages
from the useful ones. Two useful sites
are http://www.howstuffworks.com
and http://www.inventorsabout.com.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Goal Statement

If we have understood the


background of the problem area, we
are ready to recast the problem
statement into a more coherent goal
statement.
There are three characteristics for a
goal statement: be concise, be
general, and be uncolored by any
term that predict a solution.
The goal statement should be
functional visualization, meaning to
visualize its function.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Goal Statement

Now, instead of Designing a good


robot to clean the floor, as our
problem statement, our goal
statement maybe better phrased as
Designing a means to clean the floor.
The old problem statement has a
colored word a good robot.
This will trap us in the thought of a
device that is sophisticated and
moves awkwardly around a room.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Goal Statement

It is necessary to avoid such image in


order to be successful in the next
step: ideation and invention.
What comes to your mind various
ways to clean the floor?
You should not limit your creativity
by just thinking an object such as a
robot to clean the floor.
You maybe surprised that even
simple things are often good enough.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Performance Specifications

Performance (task) specifications can


be formulated once the background
is understood and the goal has been
clearly stated.
Remember that these are not design
specifications!
Performance specs define what the
system must do while design specs
define how the system must do it.

Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Performance Specifications

The performance specs will carefully


define and constrain the problem so
that it both can be solved and can be
shown to have been solved after the
fact.
If the specs are not deep enough, the
design produced may not satisfy the
need.
However if the specs are too wide, it
maybe quite difficult to complete the
design in a stipulated time.
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014

Performance Specifications

For our design, some performance


specs maybe like these:
Device must have self-contained
power supply.
Device must cost less than RM 1000.
Device should be able to clean a floor
area of 20 m2 in less than 10
minutes.
Device must not emit noise greater
than 75 dB at 5 m.
The device
must not weigh than 15
Dr. Marwan Affandi 2014