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Project Management

Professional (PMP) Training


& Certification
Mohammad Amawi, PMP, PMOC
Orange Amman
May 19th- 30th, 2013

Getting Acquainted
Name
Title
Why are you here?
What do you want to learn from this

course?
A little known fact

Ground Rules
Material & Book(s)
Time & Breaks
Smoking
Mobile Phones
Side Talks
Respect
Ask, ask, ask

How This Training is


Delivered
Lectures
Exercises
Group Work
Discussions
Quizzes

Basic definitions
PMI
Non-for-profit Professional Association
Started in 1969
Over 400,000 members worldwide
In more than 160 countries

PMIs Membership

PMPs Certified

What is PMP?
A Credential initiated by PMI in 1984 Project

Management Professional
Demonstrate to employers, clients and colleagues

that project managers possess project management


knowledge, experience and skills to bring projects to
successful completion
The most recognized credential in project

management worldwide

Getting Certified
Title

CAPM

PMP

Full Name

Certified Associate in Project


Management

Project Management
Professional

Project Role

Contributes to project team

Leads and directs


project teams

Eligibility
Requiremen
ts

Candidate holds a
baccalaureate university
degree.

Candidate holds a
baccalaureate
university degree.

25 contact hours of Project


Management training
including all nine knowledge
areas of project management.

4,500 hours of Project


Management
Experience.
36 non overlapping
months of Project
Management
Experience.
At least three years of
project experience
within last six years of
experience.
35 contact hours of
Project Management
training including all
nine knowledge areas
of project management

PMP Exam

4 Hours Web-Based
200 Questions
175 Questions Counted
Passing Score: 107

PMP Exam Structure


Area

No. of Questions

Initiation

26

13

Planning

48

24

Execution

60

30

Monitoring &
Controlling

50

25

Closing

16

PMP Exam
Exam tests:

1234-

Theoretical Knowledge (PMBOK)


Personal Skills
Practical Experience
Ethics & professional responsibility

Project Management
Body
of Knowledge (PMBOK)
Identifies that subset of the PMBOK that is

generally recognized as a good practice


Generally Recognized means the

knowledge and practice described are


applicable to most projects most of the
time. There is consensus about their value
and usefulness.
Good Practice means there is a general

agreement that the application of these


skills, tools, and techniques can enhance
the chances of success over a wide range
of projects.

Part I
Project Management
Fundamentals

What is a Project?

A Temporary endeavor undertaken


to create a unique Product, service,
or result

At Orange
A TTM project is a temporary
endeavour undertaken to create
a unique product or infrastructure or
revamp of existing product or
infrastructure

1- Temporary
Definite Beginning (T-1)& End (T4)
End reached when:
Objectives reached
Objectives cannot be met
Need for project no longer exists
Projects are not ongoing efforts
Does not generally apply to outcomes

2- Unique
Products
Capability
Results
Repetitiveness does not change the

fundamental uniqueness of the project

At Orange

Unique means that the product or infrastructure is

different, in some distinguishing way from all


other products or infrastructures.

3- Progressively
Elaborative
Developing in steps, and continuing by

increments.
Plans get improved and clearer as more

information is obtained and estimates are


more accurate.

Example: Progressive
Elaboration

3- Progressively Elaborative
EXAMPLE: BEFORE CONCEPT PHASE
Concept

Project
Design
Implementation
Testing Handover

Testing Phase
Design Phase
Concept Phase

3- Progressively Elaborative
EXAMPLE: BEFORE DESIGN PHASE
Concept

Project
Design

Handover

Testing
Phase

Design Phase
Concept
Phase

3- Progressively Elaborative
EXAMPLE: AFTER DESIGN PHASE
Concept

Project
Design

Handover

Testing
Phase

Design Phase
Concept
Phase

3- Progressively Elaborative
EXAMPLE: FINALLY
Project
Project Handover
Project
Concept
Design
Concept
Design
Implementation
TestingHandover
Concept
Design
Handover

Testing Phase

Design Phase
Concept Phase

Projects Vs. Operation


Operation

Project

Repeating process

One of a kind, temporary


process

No clear beginning or
ending

Clear beginning and ending

Same output created


each time the work is
performed

Output is unique

Everyone in work group


Requires multi-disciplined
performs similar functions team

27

Exercise 1

Project or Operation

What is Project
Management?
Project management is the application of

knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to


project activities to meet project
requirements. It includes:
Identifying requirements
Establishing clear & achievable objectives
Balancing the competing demands for quality,

scope, time and cost


Adapting the specifications, plans & approach

What Project
Management is Not?

Managing or buying a software.

Preparing a schedule or a bar chart


Preparing progress reports showing

accomplishments

Coordinating work and communicating with

stakeholders

For Engineers ONLY


Project Management is a science and art

Project Management
Context
Programs & Program Management
Portfolios & Portfolio Management
Project Management Office - PMO

Program Management
A program is a group of related projects

managed in a coordinated way to obtain


benefits and control that cannot be achieved
from managing them individually.

Program Management is the centralized

coordinated management of a program to


achieve the programs strategic objectives and
benefits.

Program Management

Proje
ct A

Proje
ct B

Objective
(s)

Projec
tC

Proje
ct D

Portfolio management
A portfolio represents a collection of active

programs, projects and other that are grouped


together to facilitate effective management of that
work to meet strategic business objectives.
Portfolio management, therefore, is the centralized

management of one or more portfolios in order to


achieve specific strategic business objectives.
Focuses on ensuring that projects and programs

are reviewed to prioritize resource allocation, and


that the management of the portfolio is consistent
with and aligned to organizational strategies.

Portfolio Management

Projec
t (E)

Program A

Projec
t (F)

Operations

Project Management
Offices (PMOs)
An organizational unit to centralize and coordinate

the management of projects under its domain

The PMO can be understood as :


The organizational entity, staffed with skilled professional

personnel, that provides services in core and supporting


areas during the planning and execution of a
project/Program
Can have a wide range of authorities and responsibilities
Takes one of 3 roles:

1- Providing policies, methodologies and templates

2- Provide support and guidance

3- Provide managers for projects, and coordinate


managing them

PMO Types

There are Three types of PMOs that may exist in an


organization:

Supportive PMO
Controlling PMO
Directive PMO

Supportive PMO

The most common type of PMO

Its purpose is to empower project managers and


teams to deliver their projects more successfully

It doesn't control or direct projects, instead it


focuses on supporting projects through training,
mentoring, administration and reporting.

Controlling PMO

Offers controlling services (such as project


reviews, audits, assessments and governance), in
addition to the supporting services to get project
back on track

Can influence project delivery

It can also enforce standards, implement


processes and manage overall project risk

Directive PMO

This is the least common, but sometimes most effective


type of PMO

It offers directive services, where it does not just


support and control projects, but also responsible for
actually running them

Each of the Project Managers report to the PMO Director


as their supervisor. This helps to corral all of the
project work within an organization, to one department

Project Management
Offices (PMOs)

The PMO may:

Manage the interdependencies between projects


Help provide resources
Terminate projects
Monitor compliance with organizational processes
Help gather lessons learned
Be more heavily involved during the project initiation
Be part of the change control board
Be a stakeholder

PMOs-Requirements for
Success
1. Role should be clearly defined
2. Only one role, dont try to do it all
3. Commitment and support of top management
4. All should be PMPs
5. Improve project performance through the use of

proper processes and techniques


6. The repercussions of failure!!

The Role of Project


Manager

Knowledge

What the Project Manager knows about

Project Management.

Performance

What the Project Manager is able to

do or accomplish while applying his/


her project management knowledge

Personal
How the Project Manager behaves

when performing the project or related


work.
Encompasses:
Attitude
Core personality characteristics
Leadership

Project Manager
Interpersonal Skills

Discussion
What Makes Great Project Managers-

The Alpha Project Managers

A Joke!

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 1

PART II
Project Management
Framework

Project Lifecycle
A collection of generally sequential and sometimes

overlapping project phases


Phases name and number are determined by:
Management
Nature of the project
Control requirements
Area of application
Can be determined or shaped by the unique

aspects of the organization, industry or technology


Can be documented by a methodology

Provides the basic framework for managing the

Project Lifecycle Vs.


Product Lifecycle
Product lifecycle outlives project

lifecycle
Project lifecycle is part of product
lifecycle

Orange Projects Lifecycle


Time To Go

T-1
T-1

Time To Market

T0
T0

Opportunity study

T1
T1

T2
T2

Detailed design Development Deployment

No impact analysis
in Super Fast Track

T
T
4
4

T3
T3
Launch

T1 & T2 in Full Track only

Market animation with no IT impact => Super


Fast Track
Market animation with IT impact => Fast Track
Innovation => Full Track

In Life Management
New product
launched

T
T
4
4

T5 => Performance
review
on product cluster

TT1
1
T
T
5
5

New product
idea or a
revamp for the
existing product
is studied

Product killed

T
T
6
6

T6 => End of life review


per product

Cost & Staffing Level

The project through its


lifecycle

Project Phases

Divisions within a project where extra control is


needed to effectively manage the completion of a
major deliverable.

A deliverable is a measurable, verifiable work


product.

Each phase ends with a deliverable

Number and structure of phases is determined by the


organizations control requirements

Some organizations have established policies that


standardize all projects.

Project LifecycleSequential Phases


Define

Design

Develop

Deploy

Project LifecycleOverlapping Phases

Project LifecycleThe Spiral Model

TTM deliverables

Marketing Deliverables

Customer Journey Deliverables

Financial & regulatory Deliverables


ITN Deliverables
Business processes Deliverables
Sourcing Deliverables
Project Deliverables

Stakeholders
Persons or organizations who are actively involved in

the project, or whose interests maybe positively or


negatively affected by the performance or
completion of the project
Project Stakeholders:
Sponsors
Customers/ Users
Vendors/ Suppliers
Project Manager
Project Management Team
Project Team

Stakeholders

5 Steps to Managing
Stakeholders
Identify ALL of them
Determine ALL their requirements
Determine their expectations
Communicate with them
Manage their influence

Organizational influence
Projects dont operate in vacuum, they are
influenced by organizational:
Culture
Style
Structure

Organizations degree of project


management maturity and systems can
influence the project

Functional Organization
Also known as Silo organization
Functional managers control resources
Communication happens vertically
Good for operation-oriented organizations,

such as banks, government

Functional Organization

Advantages &
Disadvantages

Projectized Organization
Also known as No home
Systematic approach to project

management
Well defined project management

methodology & lifecycle


Does not support learning & career

development

Projectized Organization

Advantages &
Disadvantages

Matrix organization
Also known as Two Bosses

Has three types:


Weak matrix
Balanced matrix
Strong matrix

Weak Matrix

Balanced Matrix

Strong Matrix

Advantages &
Disadvantages

Project Management
Process Groups
&Monitoring
Controlling Processes
Planning
Processes
Initiation
Processes

Closing
Processes

Execution
Processes

Project Management
Process Groups
A version of Demings Cycle
Plan Do Check- Act (PDCA)

Interaction Between
Process Groups

Level of
Process
Interaction

Initiatio PlanningExecutionMonitoring &


n
Process ProcessControl ProcessClosing
Process
Process Group
Group
Group
Group
Group

The Project Life Cycle

Project Management
Knowledge
Areas
Project Integration Management
Project Scope Management
Project Time Management
Project Cost Management
Project Quality Management
Project Human Resources Management
Project Communication Management
Project Risk Management
Project Procurement Management
Project Stakeholder Management

Project Integration
Management
Includes the processes needed to identify, define,

combine, unify & coordinate the various processes


and project management activities within the
Project Management Process Groups

Project Scope
Management
The processes required to ensure that the project

includes all the work required, and only the work


required, to complete the project successfully.

Project Time
Management
The processes required to manage timely

completion of the project.

Project Cost
Management
The processes involved in estimating, budgeting &

controlling costs so that the project can be


completed within the approved budget

Project Quality
Management
Processes and activities of the performing

organization that determine quality policies,


objectives and responsibilities so that the project
will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.

Project Human Resources


Management
Processes that organize, manage, and lead the

project team.

Project Communication
Management
Processes required to ensure timely and

appropriate generation, collection, distribution,


storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of
project information.

Project Risk
management
Processes of conducting risk management

planning, identification, analysis, response


planning, and monitoring and control of the project.

Project Procurement
Management
Processes necessary to purchase or acquire

products, services or results needed from outside


the project team.

Project Stakeholder
Management
The processes required to identify people,

groups, or organizations that could impact or


be impacted by the project, to analyze
stakeholders expectations and their impact
on the project, and develop appropriate
management strategies for effectively
engaging stakeholders in project decisions
and execution.

Project Management Process Groups


Initiating
Process
Group

close project 4.6


or phase

monitor and 4.4


control project
work
perform 4.5
Integrated
Change
control
validate 5.4
scope
control scope 5.5

Control 6.6
Schedule

Planning
Process
Group

direct and 4.3


Manage project
work

Executing
Process
Group

develop 4.2
Project
Management
plan
Plan Scope 5.1
Management
collect 5.2
requirements
define scope 5.3
create WBS 5.4
6.1Plan
Schedule
Management
Define 6.2
Activities
Sequence 6.3
Activities
6.34stimate
Activity
resources
6.5Estimate
Activity
durations
Develop 6.6
Schedule

Monitoring
&
controlling
Process
Group

develop 4.1
Project charter

Knowledge
Areas
Closing
Process
Group

Project.4
Integration
management

Project scope. 5
management

Project time. 6
management

Project Management Process Groups


Initiating
Process
Group

Planning
Process
Group

Control 10.3
Communications

Knowledge
Closing
Areas
Process
Group

7.1 Plan Cost


Management
Estimate 7.2
costs
Determine 7.3
Budget

Project cost. 7
management

perform 8.2
Quality
Assurance

Plan Quality 8.1


Management

Project quality. 8
management

Acquire 9.2
Project Team
Develop 9.3
project Team
Manage 9.4
Project Team

Plan Human 9.1


Resource
Management

Project. 9
Human
Resource
Management

Manage 10.2
Communication
s

Plan 10.1
Communication
s
Management

Project. 10
Communications
Management

Control Costs 7.3

Control 8.3
Quality

Executing
Process
Group

Monitoring
&
controlling
Process
Group

Project Management Process Groups

Initiating
Process
Group

Planning
Process
Group

Control 11.6
Risks

12.4 Close
Procurements

Executing
Process
Group

Monitoring
&
controlling
Process
Group

Closing
Knowledge
Process
Areas
Group

Plan Risk 11.1


Management
Identify 11.2
Risks
Perform 11.3
Qualitative Risk
Analysis
Perform 11.4
Quantitative
Risk analysis
Plan Risk 11.5
Responses

Project risk.11
management

Project. 12
Procurement
Management

Administer 12.3
Procurements

Conduct 12.2
Procurements

12.1 Plan
Procurement
Management

Control 13.4
Stakeholder
Engagement

Manage 13.3
Stakeholder
Engagement

13.2 Plan
Stakeholder
Management

Identify 13.1
Stakeholders

Project 13
Stakeholder
Management

How do we define
success?

Scope integrity
Achieving quality

m
Ti
e

Within budget

Co
st

On time

Quality
Scope

Chaos Report

31.1% of projects will be cancelled before they

ever get completed


52.7% of projects will cost 189% of their

original estimates
Only 16.2% of projects were completed

successfully

Why Projects Fail?

A subject for discussion

The Opera House


Project- Sydney
Original cost estimate (in 1957) was US$ 7

million.
The original completion date was 26 January

1963.
Finally, the Opera House was formally

completed in 1973, having cost $102 million.

Quiz

The Three Main Ones


Among the following factors, which is the most

important contributor to project failure??!!

Reason 1
Lack of User Involvement
Correctly identify proper user
Develop and Maintain a quality relationship
with the client
Create and maintain a platform for
communication
Demonstrate results
Educate the client
Consider their feedback
Identify and recruit an evangelist
Conduct primary research
Show respect
Focus on real user needs

Reason 2
No Executive Management Support
Have a simple vision
Get clear commitment
Make fast decisions
Have a decision pipeline
Focus of education
Use measurements
Understand how and why you need
to negotiate
Have a well thought plan
Have a kill switch
CELEBRATE

Reason 3
Absence of clear business objectives
Make sure everyone understands the
project's objectives
Elevator pitch
Consider the big picture
Promote speed and clarity
Have a yardstick
Use RoI
Collaborate with team members
Use peer review
Avoid having too many cooks
Do your homework

The Three Pillars


The first three reasons cause the failure of around

50% of failed projects.


They are also the simplest to implement, assess,

and test.

So Why Projects Still Fail?!

The Five Deadly Sins of


Project Management
1- Ambition
Trying to do too much, too fast, and without
sufficient resources.
2- Arrogance
Ignoring and overriding user input, and forcing
implementation of ones perception of how things
should work.
3- Ignorance
Do everything that the old system did.
4- Fraudulence
Misleading or incomplete information.
5- Abstinence
When key people dont participate

The Seven Dwarfs


1. Poor Scope Management
2. Use of improper tools
3. Lack of project management expertise and
skills
4. Poor financial management
5. Incompetent staff
6. No formal methodology/ process
7. Improper process

Poor Scope Management


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Optimize Scope
Use stepping-stones, not milestones
Consider the use of time boxing
Clarify crucial rules
Manage expectations, its crucial
Optimize scope through the use of index cards
Use role models for guidance
Assess project requirements by their yield or
gain
9. Consider the risk of each requirement
10. Consider cost, risk and gain collectively in
your decision-making

Use of Improper Tools


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Use iterative development style


Also, use collaborative development process
Collect rapid feedback
Test code quality early and often
Consider which business medium is the
most effective for your organization
Break the cycle of releases
Consider Extreme, RUP, or Scrum
Agile process makes it easy for users
Know how to give and receive feedback
Do the easy stuff first

Lack of project
management expertise
1. Follow
project management fundamentals
and
skills
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Keep track of the details


Project managers should have basic PM skills
Project manager should also be a good leader
Project managers should be able to establish and
maintain connections
Foster sense of pride and accomplishment
Make the team feel their contribution matters
Embrace basic business skills
Always, try to have good judgment
The more experience, the better

Poor Financial
Management

1. Create accurate estimates


2. Projects are marathons not sprints, use
Scrum to make it easier
3. Express the benefits of the project in the best
possible financial light
4. Create your budget with stakeholder input
5. Find the break-even point
6. Manage changes well and systematically
7. Build an incentive system to finish the project
on time and on budget
8. If the project no longer makes sense, pull the
plug
9. Prune your code
10. Create a pipeline of projects, features and
functions

And remember
Time is the enemy of all projects, and
money is the root of all evil!!!

The 6 Key Success


Factors at Orange
One process

Project mode

common vocabulary for all


projects
go from concept to market in
phases closed with deliverables
quality checks at gates

Board
governance

formal, traceable, easy


go/no go of stakeholders at
gates with commitment on
capex & opex
simple multi-country
governance

Customer
advocates

work in multi-department
transversal project teams with
common objective & management

TT
TT
M
M

interaction with customers to optimize


customer journey of products

Integrated
roadmap

product & infrastructure


roadmap with phased go to
market (seasonal launches,
fast track cycles)

Common
tools

Instantis (documentation,
planning, gating) & roadmap
builder (business
intelligence)

Enterprise
Environmental Factors
The Internal and External environmental factors

surrounding and/or influencing the project negatively


or positively.
Are Inputs to most of the Project Management

Processes.
Can be categorized into Internal and External

Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Culture & structure
Regulations & Standards
Infrastructure
Existing human resources
Personnel administration
Political climate
Commercial databases
Information systems
Stakeholders risk tolerance
Marketplace Conditions

Organizational Process
Assets
Include all process related assets in addition to the

organizations knowledge bases


Input to most of the project management

processes
Outputs of many processes may include updating

or adding to these process assets


Can be categorized into:
Processes and procedures
Corporate knowledge base

Processes and
Procedures
Standard Processes.
Templates.
Communication Requirements.
Financial Controls Procedures.
Issue and Defect Management Procedures.
Change Control Procedure.
Risk Control Procedures.
Approval Procedures.

Corporate Knowledge
Process Measurement Database.
Project Files.
Historical Information and Lessons Learned.
Issue and Defect Management Database.
Configuration Management Knowledge Base.
Financial Database.

Role of Project Manager


as Integrator- The
Alaskan Pipeline
Why was Frank Moolin a big part of the project

success?

Quiz 1

PMBOK Reading
Chapters 2 & 3

PART III
INITIATION
Projects dont fail at the end,
they fail at the beginning
Anonymous

Why projects start?


A market demand,
An Organizational need,
A customer request,
A technological advance,
A legal requirement,
A social demand,
An Ecological impact.

At Orange Projects
Start To

Get

Acquisition of new customers (increase customer base,


new market shares, etc.)

Keep
Keep your customer base (loyalty offers, retention,
market share defence, etc.)

Increase
Increase the ARPU expected
You can have a combination of more than one objective,
select the predominant one.

What did the Cheshire


Cat say?

"If You Don't Know Where You're Going, Any Road Will
Get You There."

Initiation Processes
Integration
Develop
Project
Charter

Communication
Identify
Stakeholders

Develop Project Charter


The process of developing a document that

formally authorizes a project or a phase and


documenting initial requirements that satisfy the
stakeholders needs and expectations.

What is a Project
Charter?
A document that formally authorizes a project or a

phase and documents initial requirements that


satisfy the stakeholders needs and expectations
Projects are chartered and authorized external to

the project

Why a charter is needed?


Defines the reason of the project
Assigns the project manager and his/ her authority

level
Linking the project to the strategy and ongoing

work of the organization


Helps in starting the planning for the project

Facts about the project


charter
A must for all projects and/ or phases
Communicate the project purpose or justification,

high level objectives, project and product


requirements and initial risks.
Should be clear enough, yet broad to a level that

the charter doesnt change over the projects life.

Develop Project
Charter
Inputs
Project
Statement of
Work (SOW)
Business Case
Agreements

Tools &
Techniques

Expert
Judgment
Facilitation
Techniques

Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Processes
Assets

Outputs
Project Charter

Project Statement of
Work
A narrative description of products or services to be

supplied by the project.


References:
Business need.
Product scope description.
Strategic plan.
For external projects, provided by customer as part
of a bid document.
For internal projects, provided by sponsor or
initiator.

Business Case
A document that provides necessary information

from a business perspective on whether or not the


project is worth the investment

Agreements
MoUs
SLAs
Letters of Agreement
Letters of Intent

Expert Judgment
Stakeholders.
Consultants.
Industrial groups.
Professional and technical associations.
Other units within organization.
Subject matter experts (SMEs)
Project management office (PMO)

Facilitation Techniques
Brainstorming
Conflict Resolution
Problem Solving
Meetings

Contents of project Charter


Purpose or justification
Project Description
Project and Product Requirements
Acceptance Criteria
Initial Risks
Summary Milestones
Estimated Budget
Project Manager Authority Level
Approval Requirements
Name & authority of the person(s)

authorizing the project charter

At Orange- Pre-Project
Objectives
Take GO/NO GO decision for design and market

launch
Validate the objectives, business plan, project plan,
expected results until T3
Allocate resources and budget to realize project
objectives
Validate the main ITN, business process, and
customer journey orientations.
Establish and commit (all contributors) on T3
objectives (market lunch review)
Confirm process (TTM full track, fast track, or super
fast track )

Project Charter

Read the Attached Project Charter Sample

Exercise 2
Project Charter

Identify Stakeholders
Integration
Develop
Project
Charter

Communication
Identify
Stakeholder
s

Identify Stakeholders
Inputs

Tools &
Techniques

Project Charter

Stakeholder
Analysis

Procurement
Documents

Expert
Judgment

Enterprise
Environmental
Factors

Meetings

Organizational
Process Assets

Outputs
Stakeholder
Register

Stakeholder Analysis
The process of systematically gathering and

analyzing quantitative and qualitative information


to determine whose interests should be taken into
account throughout the projects.

3 Steps to Managing
Stakeholders
1. Identify Your Stakeholders
2. Prioritize Your Stakeholders
3. Manage Your Stakeholders

Step1- Identify
Stakeholders
Identifying all stakeholders impacted by the project

and documenting relevant Information regarding


their interests, involvement, and impact on the
project success.
It is essential to identify all stakeholders to increase
the likelihood of project success.
Should be done as early as possible.

Identify Stakeholders
Purpose
Enables the project manager to focus on the

relationships necessary to ensure the success of


the project.

Stakeholder Register
The Stakeholder Register is used to identify those people

and organizations impacted by the project and document


relevant information about each stakeholder.
Includes all details related to the identified stakeholders .

Identification information: Name, organizational


position, location, role in project, contact information.
Assessment information: Major requirements, main
expectations, potential influence, phase.
Stakeholder classification: Internal/ external,
supporter/ neutral/ resistor, etc.

Step2- Prioritize Your


Stakeholders
Identify the potential impact or support each

stakeholder could generate


Classify them according to:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Power/Interest Grid
Power/ Influence Grid
Influence/ Impact Grid
Salience Model

Power/ Interest Grid


High

Keep

Manage

Satisfied

Closely

Power

Monitor
Low

(Minimum
Effort)

Keep
Informed

Low Interest High

Step3: Assess Your


Stakeholders
Anticipate how key stakeholders react in

different situations, in order to plan how to


influence them to enhance their support and
mitigate potential negative impact.

Exercise 3
Stakeholder Analysis

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 4

- Section 4.1
Chapter 13
- Section13.1

Quiz 2

PART IV
PROJECT PLANNING
The Victorious military is first
victorious and after that does
battle.
The defeated military first does
battle and after that seeks
victory.
Sun Tzu- Art of War

Develop Project
Management Plan
Documenting the actions necessary to define,

prepare, integrate, & coordinate all subsidiary plans


into a project management plan.

Develop Project
Management
Plan
Tools &
Inputs
Inputs

Project Charter
Outputs from
Planning
Processes
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Techniques

Expert
Judgment

Outputs
Project
Management
Plan

Project Management
Plan
Integrates and consolidates all of the subsidiary

management plans and baselines from the planning


processes.
Includes but not limited to:
Project management processes selected by the
project management team.
Level of implementation of each selected process.
Descriptions of tools & techniques
How the selected processes will be selected to
manage the specific project
How work will be executed to accomplish objectives
A change management plan

Project Management
Plan contents
Subsidiary Plans

Baselines

Schedule
Project Scope Management
Plan
Cost performance
Requirements Management
Scope
Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Cost Management Plan
Quality Management Plan
Process Improvement Plan
Staffing Management Plan
Communication management
Plan
Risk Management Plan
Procurement Management Plan

Project Management Plan Vs.


Project Documents
Project Management
Plan

Project Documents

Change Management Plan

Activity Attributes

Project Staff Assignment

Communications Management
Plan

Activity Cost Estimates

Project Statement of Work

Configuration Management Plan

Activity Duration Estimates

Quality Checklists

Cost Baseline

Activity List

Quality Control Measurements

Cost Management Plan

Activity Resource Requirements

Quality Metrics

Human Resource Management


Plan

Agreements

Requirements Documentation

Process Improvement Plan

Basis of Estimates

Requirements Traceability Matrix

Procurement Management Plan

Change Log

Resource Breakdown Structure

Scope Baseline

Change Requests

Resource Calendars

Quality Management Plan

Forecasts

Risk Register

Requirements Management Plan

Issue Log

Schedule Data

Risk Management Plan

Milestone List

Seller Proposals

Schedule Baseline

Procurement Documents

Source Selection Criteria

Schedule Management Plan

Procurement Statement of Work

Stakeholder Register

Scope Management Plan

Project Calendars

Team Performance Assessment

Stakeholder Management Plan

Project Charter

Work Performance Reports

Oranges Integrated
Roadmap
roadmap fed by marketing / technical strategy & budget
clear view of priorities & development capacity before individual T-1
opportunity studies help finalize selection of best opportunities
roadmap is compatible with resources of all contributors

TT
M

roadmap based on TTM project


information
T3 objectives are project commitments
approved by
board
roadmap builder tool interfaced with
Instantis will enable real-time
integrated roadmap based on project
information

roadmap synchronises product & infrastructure


infrastructure modifications often embarked in product development
infrastructure projects for large & multi-product infrastructure
traced product dependencies
Seasonal launches & fast track cycles are best practice

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 4

- Section 4.2

PART V
PROJECT SCOPE PLANNING

Planning Processes

Scope Planning
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define
Scope

Create
WBS

Project Scope Vs.


Product Scope
Project Scope: The work that needs to be

accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result


with the specified features and functions
Product Scope: The features and functions that
characterize a product, service, or result

Plan Scope
Management
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define
Scope

Create
WBS

Plan Scope
management
The process of creating a scope management plan

that documents how the project scope will be


defined, validated and controlled.
It provides guidance on how scope will be

managed throughout the project.

Plan Scope Management


Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Project Charter
Enterprise
environmental
factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Meetings

Outputs
Scope
Management
Plan
Requirements
Management
Plan

Project Scope
Management Plan
Part of Develop Project Management Plan
The outcome of a planning effort that precedes

performing the processes of project scope


management
Documents how the scope will be defined, verified,

controlled, and how the work breakdown structure


(WBS) will be created and defined.
Can be formal or informal depending on needs of

the project.

It Includes:
Processes for:

Detailing the project scope statement.


WBS creation, maintenance, and approval.
Formal verification and acceptance of the
completed project deliverables.
Control how requests to change the detailed
project scope statement will be processed.

Requirements
Management Plan (RQM)
A Plan that documents how requirements will be

analyzed, document and managed (tracked,


reported, prioritized) throughout the project life
cycle.

Requirements
Management Plan (RQM)
Components
How Requirement activities will be planned, tracked

and reported
Configuration Management Activities
Requirements Prioritization Process
Product Metrics
Traceability Structure

Collect Requirements
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define
Scope

Create
WBS

Collect Requirements
The process of defining and documenting

stakeholders needs to meet project objectives.


Requirements include the quantified and
documented needs and expectations of the
sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.
WBS, cost, schedule and quality planning are all
built upon these requirements.
Need to be elicited, analyzed, and recorded in
enough detail to be measured once project
execution begins

Collect Requirements
Project Requirements include business

requirements, project management requirements,


delivery requirements, etc.
Product Requirements include information on
technical requirements, security requirements,
performance requirements, etc.

Collect Requirements
Inputs
Scope
Management
Plan
Requirements
Management
Plan
Stakeholder
Management
Plan
Project Charter
Stakeholder
Register

Tools &
Techniques
Interviews
Focus Groups
Facilitated
Workshops
Group Creativity
Techniques
Group Decision
Making
Techniques
Questionnaires
and Surveys
Observations
Prototypes
Benchmarking
Context Diagram
Document
Analysis

Outputs
Requirements
Documentatio
n
Requirements
Traceability
Matrix

Interviews
Talking to stakeholders directly.
Asking questions and recording answers
One-on-one, or multiple interviewers and/ or

interviewees.
Interviewing:
Experienced participants
Stakeholders
Subject matter experts

Focus Groups

Bring together prequalified stakeholders and

subject matter experts.


Trained moderator guides the group through an
interactive discussion.
More conservational than one-on-one

Facilitated Workshops
Focused sessions that bring key cross-functional

stakeholders together to define product


requirements
Helps in building trust, foster relationships, and
improve communication.
Reveal and resolve issues more quickly than
individual sessions.
Examples: Joint Application Development (JAD) &
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

Group Creativity
Techniques
Brainstorming
Nominal group Technique
Delphi Technique
Idea/ Mind Mapping
Affinity Diagram

Mind Map Example

Group decision Making


Techniques
Unanimity
Majority
Plurality
Dictatorship

Questionnaires &
Surveys
Written sets of questions.
Aim to quickly accumulate information from a broad

group of respondents.
Most appropriate with broad audience, when quick
turnaround is needed, and where statistical analysis
is appropriate.

Observations
Viewing user performance
Also called Job shadowing
Helpful for detailed processes when people that use

the product have difficulty or reluctant to articulate


their requirements
Can uncover hidden requirements

Prototypes
Provide a working model of the expected product

before actually building it.


Support the concept of progressive elaboration
through use of iterative cycles of mock-up creation,
user experimentation, feedback generation and
prototype revision.

Benchmarking
Involves comparing actual or planned practices,

such as processes and operations, to those of


comparable organizations to identify best practices,
generate ideas for improvement, and provide a
basis for measuring performance.
Compared organizations can be external or internal.

Context Diagrams
Visually depict the product scope by showing a

business system (process, equipment, computer


systemetc.), and how people and other systems
(actors) interact with it.
Context diagrams show inputs to the business

system, the actor(s) providing the input, the


outputs of the business system, and the actor(s)
receiving the output.

Context Diagrams

Requirements
Documentation
The document including the stakeholders

requirements to meet the business need for the


project.
Usually starts at a high level and then gets
elaborated within the life cycle of the project and
according to the RQM

Requirements
Documentation Elements
Business need or opportunity
Functional requirements and non functional

requirements
Quality requirements
Acceptance criteria
Business rules
Impacts to other organizational areas, and other
entities inside or outside the performing organization
Support and training requirements
Requirements assumptions and constraints

Requirements
Traceability Matrix
A tool that links project objectives to requirements to

deliverables to product features.


The structure and level of details of the traceability
matrix to be used shall be documented in the RQM as
different projects can use different structures of
traceability.
This tool can be as simple as a table or as complex as
a software program.

Requirements
Traceability Matrix
Contents
Business needs, opportunities, goals, and

objectives
Project objectives
Project scope, WBS deliverables
Product design
Product development
Test strategy and test scenarios
High level requirements to more detailed
requirements

Example of Requirements
Traceability Matrix

Define Scope
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define
Scope

Create
WBS

Define Scope
The process of developing a detailed description of

the project and the product


Critical to project success.
Builds upon the major deliverables, assumptions,
and constraints documented in the project
initiation.

Define Scope
Inputs
Scope
Management
Plan

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment

Project Charter

Product
Analysis

Requirements
Documentation

Alternatives
Identification

Organizational
Process Assets

Facilitated
Workshops

Outputs
Project Scope
Statement
Project
Document
Updates

Product Analysis
Translating high-level product description into

tangible deliverables
Includes techniques such as:
Product breakdown
System analysis
Requirements analysis
System engineering
Value engineering
Value analysis

Alternatives
Identification
A technique to generate different approaches to

execute and perform the work of the project.


Includes techniques such as:
Brainstorming
Lateral thinking
Pairwise comparison

Project Scope Statement


The project scope statement describes in details

the project deliverables, and the work required to


create those deliverables.

Common understanding among stakeholders,


Enables more detailed planning,
Guides the project teams work during execution,
Provides the baseline for evaluating changes.

Project Scope Statement


Contents
Product scope description
Product acceptance criteria
Project deliverables
Project exclusions
Project constraints
Project assumptions

Constraints
Applicable restrictions that will affect the

performance of the project.


Factors that affect a scheduled activity or when
an activity can be scheduled.

Assumptions
Are factors that, for planning purposes, are

considered to be true, real, or certain.


Affect all aspects of project planning.
Part of the projects progressive elaboration.
Generally involve a degree of RISK.
Must be identified, documented and validated.

Exercise 4
Scope Statement

Create WBS
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define
Scope

Create
WBS

Create WBS
The process of subdividing project deliverables and

project work into smaller, more manageable


components.
WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical
decomposition of the work to be executed by the
project team to accomplish the project objectives,
and create the required deliverables.
Each descending level represents an increasingly
detailed definition of the project work.
Organizes and defines the total scope of the
project.

WBS Types

Phases- Deliverables
Deliverables-Phases
Combination of both

Example: WBS (Phases


Deliverables)

Example: WBS
(DeliverablesPhases)

Create WBS
Inputs
Scope
Management
Plan
Project Scope
Statement
Requirements
Documentation
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques

Outputs

Decomposition
Expert
Judgment

Scope Baseline
Project
Document
Updates

Decomposition
Subdivision of project deliverables into smaller,

more manageable components until the work and


deliverables are defined to the work package level.
The level of composition varies per deliverable/
phase with the size and complexity of project.

Work Package

The Work Package level is the lowest level in the

WBS.
Work Package is the point at which the cost and
activity duration can be reliable, estimated and
packaged.

Decomposition Involves
Identifying deliverables and related work.
Structuring and organizing the WBS.
Decomposing upper levels into lower level detailed

components.
Developing and assigning identification codes.
Verifying that the degree of decomposition is

necessary and sufficient.

WBS Dictionary Contents


Code of account identifier
Statement of work
Responsible organization
Schedule milestones
Associated activities
Resources required
Cost estimates
Quality requirements
Acceptance criteria
Technical references
Contract information

Scope Baseline
Scope statement
WBS
WBS dictionary

WBS Dictionary
A document generated by the Create WBS

process that supports the WBS.


Provides more detailed description of the
components in the WBS., including work packages
and control accounts.

WBS is not
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
Bill Of Materials (BOM)
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)
Resource Breakdown Structure (RBS)

A Video

Why is WBS important?

Exercise 5

Create WBS

Quiz 3

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 5

- Sections 5.1-5.4

PART VI
PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Time Planning


Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Develop
Schedule

Plan Schedule
Management
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Develop
Schedule

Plan Schedule
Management
The process of establishing policies, procedures,

and documentation for planning, developing,


managing, executing, and controlling the project
schedule.
The key benefit of the process is that it provides

guidance and direction on how the project schedule


will be managed throughout the project.

Plan Schedule
Management
Inputs
Project
Manageme
nt Plan
Project
Charter
Enterprise
Environme
ntal
factors
Org.
Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Analytical
Techniques
Meetings

Outputs
Schedule
Manageme
nt Plan

Analytical Techniques
Scheduling Methodology
Scheduling Tools & Techniques
Estimating Approaches
Formats
Project Management Software

Schedule Management
Plans
A component of the project management plan.
Establishes the criteria and activities for

developing, monitoring, and controlling the


schedule.
Can be formal or informal
Can be highly detailed or broadly defined based on
the needs of the project

Schedule Management
Plans
Can include the following:
Project schedule model development
Level of accuracy
Units of measure
Organizational procedures links
Project schedule management maintenance
Control schedule
Rules of performance measurement
Reporting formats
Process description

Define Activities
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Develop
Schedule

Define Activities
The process of identifying the specific actions to be

performed to produce the project deliverables.


Decomposed from the work packages at the WBS.
Activities are the smaller components that
represent the work necessary to complete the work
package.
Activities provide basis for estimating, scheduling,
executing, and monitoring and controlling the
project work.

Define Activities
Inputs
Schedule
Managem
ent Plan
Scope
Baseline
Enterprise
Environm
ental
factors
Org.
Process
Assets

Tools &
Technique
s
Decomposit
ion
Rolling
Wave
Planning
Expert
Judgment

Outputs
Activity
List
Activity
Attributes
Milestone
List

Rolling Wave Planning

Progressive detailing of the project management plan

Activity List
A comprehensive list including all schedule

activities required for the project.


Includes:
Activity identifier
Description of each activity

Sequence Activities
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Develop
Schedule

Sequence Activities

Identifying & documenting dependencies among

schedule activities
Can be done using software or manually.

Precedence Diagramming
Method (PDM)
Also known as Activity-On-Node
Activities are represented in boxes (Nodes),

and arrows show dependencies

Dependencies
Relationships
A

Finish-to-Start

Finish-to-Finish

Start-to-Start

B
A

Start-to-Finish

A
B

Dependencies
Relationships
Use the following Rule of Thumb to understand the

relationships better:
Activity A should _ _ _ _ _ _

Before activity B can _ _ _ _ _ _

Types of Dependencies
Mandatory
Discretionary
External
Internal

Applying Leads & Lags

Lead: The overlapping time


Lag: The waiting time
Float/ Slack: The time an activity can be delayed

(wait) without affecting the project finish date

Sequencing Activities
Inputs
Schedule
Management
Plan
Activity List
Activity
Attributes
Milestone List
Enterprise
Environmenta
l Factors
Project Scope
Statement
Organizationa
l Process
Assets

Tools &
Technique
s
Precedenc
e
Diagramm
ing
Method
(PDM)
Dependen
cy
Determina
tion
Applying
Leads and
Lags

Outputs
Project
Schedule
Networkin
g Diagram
Project
Documents
Update

Estimate Activity
Resources
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Develop
Schedule

Estimate Activity
Resources
Estimating the type and quantities of resources

required to perform each schedule activity

Types of Resources
Material
People
Equipment

Estimate Activity
Resources
Inputs

Schedule
Managemen
t Plan
Activity List
Activity
Attributes
Resource
Calendars
Risk
Register
Activity
Cost
Estimates
Enterprise
Environmen
t Factors
Org.
Process
Assets

Tools &
Technique
s
Expert
Judgment

Alternatives
Analysis
Published
Estimating
Data
Bottom-up
Estimating
Project
Managemen
t Software

Outputs
Activity
Resource
Requiremen
ts
Resource
Breakdown
Structure
(RBS)
Project
Document
updates

Estimate Activity
Durations
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Develop
Schedule

Estimate Activity
Durations
Approximating the number of work periods needed

to complete individual activities with estimated


resources.
Uses information on:
Activity scope of work
Required resource types
Estimated resource quantities
Resource calendar
Progressively elaborative
Takes elapsed time into account

Estimate Activity
Durations
Inputs

Schedule
Management
Plan
Activity List
Activity
Attributes
Activity Resource
Requirements
Resource
Calendars
Project Scope
Statement
Risk Register
Resource
Breakdown
Structure
Enterprise
Environment
Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Analogous
Estimating
Parametric
Estimating
Three Point
Estimates
(PERT)
Group
DecisionMaking
Techniques
Reserve
Analysis

Outputs
Activity
Duration
Estimates
Project
Document
Updates

Schedule Uncertainty &


Risk Analysis Process
Schedule risk analysis uses information about the

uncertainty of activity durations to help answer


the following questions:
What is the likelihood of finishing project as
scheduled?
How much contingency is needed to establish a
completion date with a probability of success that
is acceptable to the stakeholders?
Which activities are the most likely to delay the
project?
What actions can be taken to control risks in the
schedule?

Schedule Uncertainty &


Risk Analysis Process
If estimating activity duration involves a great deal of

uncertainty, a commonly used technique is the


application of probabilistic estimates

Three Point (PERT)


Estimates
Time Expected (te)= (to+4xtm+tp)/6

to: Optimistic Estimate

tm= Average Estimate


tp= Pessimistic Estimate

Based on a the assumption of Beta distribution

Beta Distribution

Activity Optimistic
Duration
The total number of work periods in calendar

units assigned to perform the schedule activity,


considering all of the variables that could affect
performance, and is determined to be the
shortest possible activity duration
It is determined by answering the question
How long will it take in the best case scenario?

Activity Pessimistic
Duration
The total number of work periods in calendar

units assigned to perform the schedule activity,


considering all of the variables that could affect
performance, and is determined to be the longest
possible activity duration
It is determined by answering the question
How long will it take in the worst case scenario?

Activity Most Likely


Duration
The total number of work periods in calendar

units assigned to perform the schedule activity,


considering all of the variables that could affect
performance, and is determined to be the most
probable activity duration
It is determined by answering the question:
How long will it most likely take?

Standard Deviation &


variance
Activity Std. Deviation (activity) = P O

6
Variance =

(P O)2
6

Project Std Deviation ( project)=

Variance Critical Path Activities

Estimates Certainty
Confidence level in the value is approximately 50%
Confidence level in the value + SD is approximately

85%
Confidence level in the value + 1.645 SD is
approximately 95%
Confidence level in the value + 2 SD is
approximately 98%
Confidence level in the value + 3 SD is
approximately 99.9%

Critical Path
The longest path from the beginning to the end of

the project. Activities on the critical path cannot be


delayed without delaying the project.
There can be more than one critical path (riskier)
Project Manager should focus on critical path.

Network Diagram
B
3
A
2

C
1

H
2

D
4
E
3

F
2

G
4

Calculating Critical Path


Specify the individual activities.
Determine the sequence of activities.
Draw the network diagram.
Estimate activity completion time.
Identify critical path.

Start & Finish Dates


ES: Earliest start time.
EF: Earliest finish time.
LF: Latest finish time.
LS: Latest start time.

Forward Pass
Schedule Calculations That Identify The Early Start and

Finish Dates of Tasks and The Project.


ES = EF of Preceding Task (latest if more than one).
EF = ES + Duration.

Backward Pass
Schedule Calculations That Identify The Late Start

and Finish Dates of Tasks and The Project.


LF = LS of succeeding Task (earliest if more than

one).
LS = LF - Duration

Float
Float or slack is the amount of time that a task in

a project network can be delayed without


causing a delay to:
Subsequent tasks (free float)
Project completion date (total float)
Total Float = LF EF

OR

LS - ES
Free Float = Min ES (Succeeding Task) EF

Critical Path
B
3
A
2

C
1
H
2

D
4
E
3

F
2

G
4

Critical Path
3

B
3

15

C
1

15

16
1

A
2

6
3

E
3

D
4

9
16
9

10

10

F
2

11

12

11

12

G
4

15

15

H
2

17

17

Develop Schedule
Plan
Schedule
Management

Sequence
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Define
Activities

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Develop
Schedule

Develop Schedule

The process of analyzing activity sequences,

durations, resource requirements, and schedule


constraints.
Provides specific start and end dates for activities.
Iterative process.

Develop Schedule
Inputs

Schedule
Management
Plan
Activity List
Activity
Attributes
Project Schedule
Network
Diagrams
Activity
Resource
Requirements
Resource
Calendars
Activity Duration
Estimates
Project Scope
Statement
Risk Register
Project staff
assignment
Resource
Breakdown
Structure
Org. Process
Assets
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors

Tools &
Techniques
Schedule
Network
Analysis
Critical Path
Method
Critical Chain
Method
Resource
Optimization
Techniques
Modeling
techniques
Leads & Lags
Schedule
Compression
Scheduling Tool

Outputs
Project
schedule
Schedule
baseline
Schedule data
Project
Calendar
Project
Management
Plan (updates)
Project
document
(updates)

Resource Optimization
Techniques
Resource Leveling
Resource Smoothing

Resource leveling

Used when shared or critical resources are only

available at certain times, or in limited quantities,


or to keep resource usage at a constant level.
Usually changes the critical path.

Modeling Techniques
What-If Scenario Analysis
Simulation

What-If Scenario
Analysis
An analysis of the question what if the situation

represented by scenario X happens.


Can be used to assess the feasibility of the schedule
under adverse conditions, and in preparing
contingency and response plans.

Exercises 6 & 7

Critical Path Calculations

Quiz
For the project in Exercise 7-a:

1- What is the Standard Deviation of the Project?


2- How much would you estimate the duration of the
project? If you want to be:
a. 85% confident
b. 95% confident
c. 98% confident

Schedule Compression

Fast Tracking
Crashing

Fast Tracking

A schedule compression technique in which phases

or activities normally performed in sequence are


performed in parallel.
Can result in rework and increased risks.

Crashing

A schedule compression technique in which cost

and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine


how to obtain the greatest amount of compression
for the latest incremental cost.
Can result in increased cost.

Exercise 8

Crashing

A Subject for Discussion

After all of this, why do projects take more time to finis

Student Syndrome
Student syndrome refers to the phenomenon that

many people will start to fully apply themselves to a


task just at the last possible moment before a
deadline. This leads to wasting any buffers built into
individual task duration estimates

Parkinson Law

Work expands so as to fill the time available for its

completion

Multi-Tasking

Critical Chain Method


A schedule network analysis technique that

modifies the project schedule to account for limited


resources (according to PMBOK).
Combines deterministic and probabilistic

approaches.

Project schedule

Milestone Chart
Bar Chart
Project schedule network chart

Schedule Baseline

Project schedule with baseline start dates and

baseline finish dates.

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 6

- Sections 6.1 6.6

PART VII
PROJECT COST
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Cost
Management
Plan Cost
Management

Estimate
Costs

Determine
Budget

Control
Costs

Project Cost
management
On smaller projects, cost estimating and cost

budgeting are so tightly linked that they can be done


together and by one person.
The work done in cost management is preceded by a
cost planning effort by the project management
team.
Techniques such as Life-Cycle Costing & Value
Engineering can improve decision making and
reduce cost while improving quality and performance
of project deliverables.

Life-Cycle Costing
A decision making tool that involves tradeoffs

between short term project costs and long term


product or service operational costs.
It examines the effects of project decisions not only
on project activities, but also on the cost of
maintaining, using and supporting of the product,
service, or result of the project.

Plan Cost Management


Plan Cost
Management

Estimate
Costs

Determine
Budget

Control
Costs

Plan Cost Management


The process of establishing policies, procedures,

and documentation for planning, managing,


expending, and controlling project costs.
The key benefit of the process is that it provides

guidance and direction on how the project schedule


will be managed throughout the project.

Estimate Costs
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Project
Charter
Enterprise
Environmenta
l Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Analytical
Techniques
Meetings

Outputs
Cost
Management
Plan

Cost Management Plan


Part of Develop Project Management Plan
The outcome of a planning effort that precedes

performing the processes of project cost


management
Sets out the format and establishes the criteria for

planning, structuring, estimating, budgeting, and


controlling project costs.
Documents cost management processes and their

associated tools and techniques

Cost Management Plan


Establishes
Level of accuracy
Level of precision
Units of measure
Organizational procedures links
Control thresholds
Rules of performance measurement
Reporting formats
Process descriptions
Additional details

Estimate Costs
Plan Cost
Management

Estimate
Costs

Determine
Budget

Control
Costs

Cost Estimating Vs. Cost


Budgeting
Cost Estimating: Developing an approximation of the

costs of the resources needed to complete project


activities
Cost Budgeting: Aggregating the estimated costs of

individual activities of work packages to establish a


cost baseline

Estimate Costs
Inputs
Cost
Management
Plan
Scope
Baseline
Project
Schedule
Human
Resource Plan
Risk Register
Enterprise
Environmenta
l Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Analogous
Estimating
Parametric
Estimating
Bottom-up
estimating
Three-Point
Estimates
Reserve
analysis
Cost of
Quality
Project
Management
Estimating
Software
Vendor Bid
Analysis
Group
DecisionMaking

Outputs
Activity Cost
Estimates
Basis of
Estimates
Project
Document
Updates

Analogous Estimating

Using cost of previous similar projects as basis for

estimating.
Less Costly BUT less accurate.
Used when information is limited (early phases).
Reliable when previous projects are similar in fact,
not just in appearance.

Parametric Estimating

Uses relationship between historical data and

certain parameters (cost per square meter, cost per


meter, etc).

Bottom-Up Estimating
A method for estimating a component of work.
The cost is estimated for individual work packages

or activities, and they are then summarized or


rolled-up to higher levels.
Cost and accuracy are influenced by the size and
complexity of the individual package or activity.

Vendor Bid analysis

Includes analysis of what the project should cost,

based on responsive bids from qualified vendors.

Activity Cost Estimates

A quantitative assessment of the likely costs of the

resources required to complete project activities.

Basis of Estimates

Documentation of basis of estimates (how it was

developed).
Documentation of assumptions made.
Documentation of any known constraints.
Indication of range of estimates.
Indication of confidence level of the final estimate.

Cost Elements
Human Resources Labor
Hour rate, fringe benefits, overtime, overhead, per

diem
Equipment & Software
Depreciation, purchase cost, support &
Maintenance
Facilities
Rent, depreciation, utilities, admin overhead
Supplies
Stationary, food, leisure, gas for cars, tickets
Special expenses

Cost Can Be
Direct.
Indirect.
Fixed.
Variable.

Determine Budget
Plan Cost
Management

Estimate
Costs

Determine
Budget

Control
Costs

Determine Budget

The process of aggregating the estimated costs to

individual activities or work packages to establish


an authorized cost baseline.

Determine Budget
Inputs

Cost
Managemen
t Plan
Scope
Baseline
Activity Cost
Estimates
Basis of Cost
Estimates
Project
Schedule
Risk
Register
Resource
Calendars
Agreements
Organization
al Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Cost
Aggregation
Reserve
Analysis
Expert
Judgment
Historical
Relationships
Funding Limit
Reconciliatio
n

Outputs
Cost
Performance
Baseline
Project
Funding
Requirement
s
Project
Document
Updates

Funding Limit
Reconciliation
The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with

any funding limits on the commitment of funds for


the project.
Variance between the funding limits and the
planned expenditures sometimes necessitate the
rescheduling of work to level out the rate of
expenditures.
Can be accomplished by placing imposed date
constraints for work into the project schedule.

Cost Performance
Baseline
Time-phased budget at completion (BAC) used as

basis against which to measure, monitor, and


control overall cost performance.

Cost Performance
Baseline

Contingency Reserves

Contingency reserves is usually percentage of total

estimate or based on risk analysis, to account for


the risks that are known unknowns of the project.
Under the control of the project manager.

Management Reserves

Budgets reserved for unplanned, but potentially

required changes to project scope. These are the


risks that are unknown unknowns.
Under the control of organizations management.

Cost Budgeting
8.Cost
Budget

$104
0

7.Manageme
nt Reserve

$140

6.Cost
Baseline

$900

5.Contingenc
y Reserve

$225

4. Project
3. Control
Account
2. Work
packages
1. Activities

$675
$400

$275

$75

$100

$25 $25 $25

$100

Net Present Value

The present value of total benefits (income or

revenue) minus the cost over many time periods.


Allows for comparison of many projects, to select the
best to initiate.
If NPV is +ve: the investment is a good choice.
The project with highest NPV is the best.

Net Present Value

NPV= (FV/ (1+i)n)


Where FV= Future Value
i= Interest Rate
n= Number of period intervals

Internal Rate of return


(IRR)
Is the interest rate at which the costs of the

investment lead to the benefits of the


investment.
The project with highest IRR is the best.

Payback Period

The period of time required for the return on an

investment to "repay" the sum of the original


investment.
For example, a $1000 investment which returned
$500 per year would have a two year payback
period.
The project with lowest payback period is the best

Quiz 4

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 7

- Sections 7.1 - 7.3

PART VIII
PROJECT QUALITY
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

What is Quality?
Conformance to Requirements
Fitness of use
According to PMBOK
The degree to which a set of inherent

characteristics fulfill requirements.

Project Quality
Management
Plan
Quality
Management

Perform
Quality
Assurance

Control
Quality

Quality Management &


Project Management
Both disciplines recognize the importance of:
Customer Satisfaction
Prevention over inspection
Management Responsibility
Continuous Improvement

Quality Concepts

Quality vs. Grade


Precision vs. Accuracy
Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control

Quality Vs. Grade


Quality is the Degree to which a set of inherent

characteristics fulfill requirements


Grade is Category assigned to products or services
having the same functional use but different
technical characteristics.
Low grade does not necessarily cause a problem, but
low quality does.

Precision vs. Accuracy

Precision is consistency that the value of repeated

measurements are clustered and have little scatter.


Accuracy means that the measured value is very
close to the true value.
Precise measurements are not necessarily accurate. A
very accurate measurement is not necessarily
precise.

Quality Assurance vs.


Quality Control
Quality Assurance is applying the planned,

systematic quality activities to ensure that the


project employs all processes needed to meet
requirements.
Quality Control is the action of monitoring specific

project results to determine whether they comply


with relevant quality standards and identifying
ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory
performance.

Project Quality
Management
Plan
Quality
Management

Perform
Quality
Assurance

Control
Quality

Plan Quality
Management
Identifying which quality Standards are relevant to

the project and determining how to satisfy them


Scope statement
Quality policies
Quality standards & regulations in the company,
industry.
Quality is planned, designed and built in- not

inspected in.

Plan Quality
Inputs

Project
Management
Plan
Stakeholder
Register
Risk Register
Requirements
Documentatio
n
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Cost/ Benefit
Analysis
Cost of Quality
(COQ)
Seven Basic
Quality Tools
Benchmarking
Design of
Experiments
Statistical
Sampling
Additional
Quality
Planning Tools
Meetings

Outputs
Quality
Management
Plan
Quality
Metrics
Quality
Checklists
Process
Improvement
Plan
Project
Document
Updates

Seven Basic Quality Tools


1. Cause & Effect Diagram
2. Flowcharts
3. Checksheets
4. Pareto Diagrams
5. Histograms
6. Control Charts
7. Scatter Diagrams

Cause & Effect Diagram

Also known as Fish-Bone Analysis or Ishikawa

Analysis
Used to identify the problem, discover the
underlying causes leading to it, and develop
solutions and preventive actions.

Cause & Effect Diagram

Flowcharting
Diagram that shows the relationship between

different elements in a system of processes


Used to assist team efforts in identifying potential
quality problems and the possible affects of those
problems.
Cause & Affect Diagram
Process flowcharts

Checksheets
Category
Attribute 1

Attribute 2

Attribute 3

Attribute 4

Strokes

Frequency

Control Charts
Graphic display of results, over time, of a process.
Used to determine if the process is in control.

When a process is in control it should not be


adjusted.
Rule of Seven

Histogram
A vertical bar chart showing how often a particular

variable state occurred.

Histograms

Pareto Diagrams
Histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that

shows how many results were generated by type or


categories of identified cause.
Rank ordering is used to guide corrective actions fix
the problems that are causing the greatest number of
defects first.
Relates to Paretos Law & Principle of 80/20

Pareto Diagram

Scatter Diagram

A Scatter diagram shows the relationship between

two variables.
Allows to study and identify the possible
relationship between changes observed in two
variables.

Scatter Diagram

BENCHMARKING
The evaluation of a groups business or project

practices in comparison to those of other groups


or projects.
Includes a number of quantitative or qualitative
attributes that can be assessed in both the
benchmark and the subject.

Cost of Quality
Prevention costs up front costs to design and plan

for quality.
Appraisal costs associated with evaluation of

results to make sure that they conform to quality.


Internal Failure costs Cost of re-work associated

with items that did not pass the appraisal.


External Failure costs Cost of failures found by the

customer.

Cost of Quality
Conformance:
Training.
Research.
Surveys.
Nonconformance:
Scrap.
Rework.
Warranty.
Inventory.

Check Lists
Job aid that prompts employees to perform

activities according to a consistent quality standard.


Could be for quality assurance or quality control.
Two types of Checklists:
Imperative
Interrogative

Design of Experiments

A structured, organized method that is used to

determine the relationship between the different


factors affecting a process and the output of that
process.
It involves designing a set of ten to twenty
experiments, in which all relevant factors are varied
systematically.
The results of these experiments are analyzed, to
help identify optimal conditions

Quality Management
Plan
Describes how the project team will implement the

performing organizations quality policy

Quality Management
Plan Contents
Purpose
Quality Policy/ Standards
Quality Assurance Procedures & Test
Quality Control Procedures & Tests
Roles & Responsibilities

Process Improvement
Plan
Process Boundaries
Process Configuration
Process Metrics
Targets for Improved Performance

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 8

- Section 8.1

PART IX
PROJECT HUMAN
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Human
resource Management
Plan
Human
Resource
Management

Acquire
Project
Team

Develop
Project
Team

Manage
Project
Team

Project Human resource


Management
Plan
Human
Resource
Management

Acquire
Project
Team

Develop
Project
Team

Manage
Project
Team

Plan Human Resource


Management
Identifying, documenting, and assigning project

roles, responsibilities, required skills and reporting


relationships, as well as creating the staffing
management plan.
Identifying who we want, at which skill level, when,
and for how long. Specifying their roles, and
responsibilities and interactions.

Develop Human
Resource Plan
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Activity
Resource
Requirement
s
Enterprise
Environment
al Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Organization
Charts &
Position
descriptions
Networking
Organization
al Theory
Expert
Judgment
Meetings

Outputs
Human
Resource
Management
Plan

Organizational Charts &


Position Descriptions
Hierarchical- type Charts
Matrix-based Charts
Text-Oriented Formats

Organizational Charts &


Position Descriptions

Responsibility
Assignment Matrix
(RAM)
Activity

Ann

Ben

Carlos

Dina

Ed

Define

Design

Develop

Test

R= ResponsibleA=Accountable C=Consult I=Inform

Organizational Theory

Provides information regarding the ways that

people, teams and organizational units behave.

Halo Effect
The tendency to rate high or low on all factors due

to the impression of a high or low rating on some


specific factor.

Maslows Hierarchy

Hertzberg Theory
Hygiene Factors:
Working conditions.
Salary.
Personal life.
Relationships at work.
Security.
Status.
Motivating Agents:
Responsibility.
Self Actualization.
Professional Growth.
Recognition.

McClelland AcquiredNeeds Theory


Also called:
Three Need Theory
Learned Needs Theory.
An individual's specific needs are acquired over

time and are shaped by one's life experiences.


A person's motivation and effectiveness in certain
job functions are influenced by these three needs.
Most of these needs fall under:
Achievement.
Affiliation.
Power.

Expectancy Theory
High performers remain loyal and motivated as long

as rewards meet expectations.

Theory X-Theory Y
Describes how managers deal with subordinates.
Describe two opposing sets of assumptions about

employees.

Theory X
Employees:
Dislike work and try to avoid it.
Lack ambition, creativity, and problem solving skills.
Prefer direction and avoid responsibility.
Are motivated by Maslows lower needs.
Are self centered and dont care about organization.

Theory Y
Employees:
Meet expectations with proper motivation.
Are committed to organization goals.
Are creative and innovative.
Can take responsibility.
Are motivated by higher levels of Maslow .

Theory Z
Supplements Theory Y.
Assumes that trust and commitment on part of

organization will yield higher motivation and


performance by employees.
Rooted in Japanese culture.

Human Resource Plan


Provides guidance on how project human resources

should be defined, staffed, managed, controlled,


and eventually released.

Human Resource Plan


Contents
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan

Staffing Management
Plan
Staff acquisition
Resource Calendars
Staff Release Plan
Training needs
Recognition & Rewards
Compliance
Safety

At Orange
Teamwork in multidisciplinary project

one TTM project manager


product manager for product Fast Track & Super Fast Track
trained project manager for Full Track & Fast track cycles
authority on project team & project steering committee
manages project budget
commits on T3, quality & value creation

TTM

one TTM project team


teamwork to achieve objectives
every deliverable has an owner
collocation when feasible
departments contribute within project
one sponsor per project

one objective
project team incentive based on it

Exercise 9

Prepare RAM/RACI

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 9

- Section 9.1

PART X
PROJECT COMMUNICATION
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Communications
Management
Plan
Communications
Management

Manage
Communications

Control
Communications

Plan Communications
Management
Plan
Communications
Management

Manage
Communications

Control
Communications

Consequences of
Miscommunication

Plan Communication
The process of determining the project stakeholder

information needs and defining a communication


approach.
Who needs what information,
When will they need it,
In which format,
How will it be given to them,
How frequently.

Communication Body of
Knowledge
Communication Process
Choice of Media
Documentation Skills
Presentation Skills
Meeting Management
Clutter, Noise, & Barriers

Effective Communication
Effective Communication
Non Verbal
Para lingual
Feedback
Effective Listening
Feedback
Active Listening
Para lingual

Communication Methods
Method

When Used

Formal Written

Complex Problems, PM Plans, Charter,


Long Distance Communication

Formal Verbal

Presentations, Speeches

Informal Written

Memos, e-mails, notes

Informal Verbal

Meetings, Conversations

Plan Communications
Management
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Stakeholder
Register
Enterprise
environment
al factors
Organization
al Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Communicati
on
Requirements
Analysis
Communicati
on
technology
Communicati
on Models
Communicati
on Methods
Meetings

Outputs
Communicatio
ns
Management
Plan
Project
Documents
Updates

Communication
Requirements Analysis
Determining the communication requirements of the

project stakeholders.
Defined by combining the type and format of
information needed with an analysis of the value of
that information.
Project resources are expended only on
communicating information that contribute to
success, or where a lack of communication can lead
to failure.

Number of
Communication
Channels
N (N-1)/2

Communication
technology
Factors that affect the project communication

technology:
Urgency of the need for information.
Availability of technology
Expected project staffing
Duration of the project
Project Environment

Communication Models
Message

Encode
Sender

Decode
Noise

Acknowledge
Message

Medium
Noise

Decode

Noise

Feedback
Message

Receiver
Encode

Communication Models
Interactive
Push
Pull

Communication
Management Plan
Stakeholder communication requirements
Information to be communicated
Reason for distribution
Responsibility
Recipients
Methods and technologies used
Frequency
Resources allocated for communication (including time

and budget)
Escalation process
Method for updating
Glossary of terminology
Information flow in the project (flow chart)
Communication constraints

Communication Matrix
What

Why

By
Whom

Recipie
nt

When

How

Status
report

Performan
ce
reporting

PM

Sponsor/
Steering
Committe
e

Weekly
basis

Email

Minutes of
meeting

Reporting
decisions

PC

Steering
Committe
e

After each
meeting

Email

Risk forms

Report &
document
risks

Any
PM
stakeholde
r

As needed

Email

Risks log

Updating
risks log

Risk
Manager

Every two
weeks

Meeting &
email

Steering
Committe
e

A Video
Do you communicate effectively?

Exercise 10

Develop A Communication Matrix

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 10

- Section 10.1

PART XI
PROJECT RISK
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes
There are risks and costs to a
program of action. But they
are far less than the longrange risks and costs of
comfortable inaction
John F. Kennedy

Is Risk Good Or Bad?

Risk

Risk

Negative

Positive

Threat

Opportunity

Risk Definition
Risk: an uncertain event that, if it occurs, has a

positive or negative effect on a projects


deliverables.

Project Risk
Management
The systematic process of identifying, analyzing,

and responding, monitoring, and controlling project


risks

Project Risk Planning


Plan Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Plan Risk Management


Plan
Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Plan Risk Management


Deciding how to conduct risk management

activities for a project.

Plan Risk Management


Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Project
Charter
Stakeholder
Register
Enterprise
Environment
al factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Technique
s
Analytical
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Meetings

Outputs
Risk
Managemen
t Plan

Risk Management Plan

Describes how risk management will be structured

and performed on the project.


A subset of the project management plan.

Risk Management Plan


Methodology.
Roles and responsibilities.
Budgeting.
Timing.
Risk categories.
Definitions of risk probability and impact.
Probability and impact matrix.
Revised stakeholders tolerances.
Reporting formats.
Tracking.

Risk Categories

Definition of Risk
Probability & Impact

Impact Scale
Cardinal
Linear
Non-Linear
Ordinal

Impact Scale
Cardinal Linear (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 0.9)
Cardinal Non-Linear (.05, .1, .2, .4, .8).
Cardinal Non-Linear is used to reflect focus on high

risks.
Ordinal (Very Low, Low, Medium, High, Very High)

Probability Scale

Cardinal Linear (0.05, 0.1,0.2etc.)


Ordinal (Very unlikely, unlikely, moderate, likely,

very likely, almost certain)

Probability-Impact
Matrix
Each risk is rated on its probability of occurring and

impact on an objective if it does occur.


The matrix shows low, moderate or high risks.
Risk Score= risk probability x risk impact

Probability-Impact
Matrix (Cardinal)

Probability-Impact
Matrix (Ordinal)

Identify Risks
Determining which risks may affect the project and

documenting their characteristics.

Identify Risks
Plan
Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Identify Risks
Inputs
Risk Management
Plan
Activity Cost
Estimates
Activity Duration
Estimates
Scope Baseline
Stakeholder
Register
Cost Management
Plan
Schedule
Management Plan
Quality
Management Plan
Human Resource
Plan
Project Documents
Procurement
Documents
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Org. Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques

Outputs
Risk Register

Documentation
Review
Information
Gathering
Techniques
Checklist
Analysis
Assumptions
analysis
Diagramming
Techniques
SWOT Analysis
Expert
Judgment

Documentation Review
Structured review of project documentation,

including plans, assumptions, previous project files,


contracts and other information at project level and
detailed scope levels.

Information Gathering
Techniques

Brainstorming
Delphi Technique
Interviewing
Root cause analysis

Brainstorming

A group creativity technique designed to generate

a large number of ideas for the solution of a


problem.
Everyone is allowed to express ideas freely and
without criticism.

Delphi Technique
A way to reach a consensus of experts who

participate anonymously.
A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas
about the important risks.
Eliminates biasness and influence of individuals

Interviewing
Interviewing experienced project participants,

stakeholders, and subject matter experts to identify


risks.

Root Cause Analysis


Also known as Fish-Bone Analysis or Ishikawa

Analysis
Used to identify the problem, discover the
underlying causes leading to it, and develop
solutions and preventive actions.

Root Cause Analysis

Checklist Analysis
Based on historical and project information.
Must be exhaustive (very difficult).
Important to review at project closure to improve on

the checklist for future projects.


One of the easier more common first steps.
Can be grouped into categories.

Assumptions Analysis
Review project assumptions.
Explores the validity of assumptions as they apply

to the project.
Identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy,
inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions.

SWOT Analysis
Internal Factors
Strengths.
Weaknesses.
External Factors
Opportunities.
Threats.

Risk Register
A document that contains the outcomes of risk

planning.
At this stage includes:
List of identified risks.
List of potential scenarios.
Risk triggers

Perform Qualitative Risk


Analysis
Prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by

assessing and combining their probability of


occurrence and impact.
Assesses the priority of identified risks using their
relative probability or likelihood of occurrence.

Perform Qualitative
Risk Analysis
Plan
Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform Qualitative Risk


Analysis
Inputs
Risk
Management
Plan
Risk Register
Risk
Management
Plan
Project Scope
Statement
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques

Risk
Probability and
Impact
Assessment
Probability and
Impact Matrix
Risk Data
quality
assessment
Risk
Categorization
Risk Urgency
Assessment
Expert
Judgment

Outputs
Project
Documents
Updates

Risk register Updates


Relative ranking or priority list of project risks.
Risks grouped by categories.
Causes of risk or project areas requiring particular

attention.
List of risks requiring responses in the near-term.
List of risks for additional analysis and responses.
Watchlists of low-priority risks.
Trends in qualitative risk analysis results.

Perform Quantitative Risk


Analysis
The process of numerically analyzing the effect of

identified risks on overall project objectives.


Performed on risks that have been prioritized by the
qualitative analysis.

Outcomes of
Quantitative Risk
Analysis
Quantify possible outcomes and their probability.
Assess probability of achieving a specific objective.
Identify risks requiring most attention.
Identify realistic and achievable targets.
Determine best decision under uncertainty.

Perform Quantitative
Risk Analysis
Plan
Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform Quantitative
Risk Analysis
Inputs
Risk Register
Risk
Management
Plan
Cost
Management
Plan
Schedule
Management
Plan
Enterprise
Environment
al Factors
Organization
al Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Data
Gathering
and
Representati
on
Techniques
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis and
Modeling
Techniques
Expert
Judgment

Outputs
Project
Documents
Updates

Data Gathering and


Representation
Techniques
Interviewing.
Probability distributions.

Quantitative Risk Analysis


and Modeling Techniques

Sensitivity Analysis
Expected Monetary Value Analysis
Modeling and Simulation

Sensitivity Analysis
Helps to determine which risks have the most

potential impact on the project.


It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of

each project element affects the objectives being


examined when all other uncertain elements are
held at their baseline value.

Expected Monetary Value


(EMV)
Statistical concept that calculates the average

outcomes when the future includes scenarios that


may or may not happen (i.e. analysis under
uncertainty).
The EMV of opportunities will generally be

expressed in positive values while those of threats


in negative values.
Calculated by multiplying the value of each possible

outcome by its probability of occurrence, and


adding them together.

Expected Monetary Value


(EMV)

EMV = Probability X Impact

All possible

outcomes

of a decision

Work
Packag
e

Probability

Impact

EMV

10%

-$ 20,000

-$2,000

30%

$45,000

$13,500

68%

-$18,000

-$12,240

Total

-$ 740

Decision Tree Analysis

Graphical means of displaying all available options,

their probability, and their impact, to reach the final


project objective.

Decision Tree Analysis


EMV In house = (1000 150) * 0.5 + ( -30 150) * 0.5 = $ 335

$335

$550

EMV out source = (1000 250) * 0.8 + ( 0 250) * 0.2 = $ 550

Modeling & Simulation


Uses Monte Carlo Technique
A computerized technique that uses sampling from a

random number sequence to simulate characteristics


or events or outcomes with multiple possible values.
Used to generate probable outcomes based on
estimates processed / iterated thousands of times.

Modeling & Simulation


Provides probable project results and information for

project decision-making.
For Cost Risk Analysis, use cost estimates.
For Schedule Risk Analysis,
use the schedule network
diagram and duration estimates.
Illustrates the likelihood of

achieving specific cost / schedule


targets.

Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo Simulation


Mean=$46.67m

Probability (Cumulative)

100%
75%
50%
25%
12%
0%
$41m $50m
Cost
$30m $38.75m $47.5m $56.25m

$65m

Plan Risk Responses


The process of developing options and actions to

enhance opportunities an to reduce threats to


project objectives.

Plan Risk Responses


Plan
Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Plan Risk Responses


Inputs
Risk
Management
Plan
Risk Register

Tools &
Techniques

Outputs

Strategies for
Negative
Risks or
Threats

Project
Management
Plan updates

Strategies for
Positive Risks
or
Opportunities
Contingent
Response
Strategies
Expert
judgment

Project
Documents
Updates

Responses for Negative


Risks (Threats)
Avoidance.
Transference.
Mitigation.
Acceptance.

Avoidance
Changing project plan to eliminate the risk or

condition or to protect the project objectives from


its impact.

Transference
Shifting some or all of the negative impact, along

with ownership of the response to a third party.


Examples of transference:
Insurance
Warranties
Guaranties
Performance bonds
Transfers risk, but does not eliminate it.

Mitigation

Reducing probability and/ or impact of risk to an

acceptable level.
Does not eliminate risk completely.
Mitigates probability and/ or impact.

Acceptance
Deciding not to change the project plan, to deal

with a risk, or being unable to identify suitable


response strategy.
Includes active and passive acceptance:
Active acceptance: developing a contingency plan if
risk occurs.
Passive acceptance: no action is taken until risk
happens.

Responses for positive


risks (Opportunities)
Exploit (vs. Avoid).
Share (vs. Transfer).
Enhance (vs. Mitigate).
Accept. (The same)

Outcomes From Risk


Response Planning
Residual Risk: Those that remain after avoidance,

transfer or mitigation responses have been taken.


Secondary Risk: That arise as a direct result of

implementing a risk response.


Contingency reserve needed: The amount of buffer

needed to reduce the risk of over runs.

At Orange

Exercise 11

Which Risk Response is This?

Exercise 12

Risk Identification & Analysis

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 11

- Section 11.1 - 11.5

Quiz 5

PART XII
PROJECT PROCUREMENT
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Procurement
Management
The processes necessary to purchase or acquire

products, services or results from outside the


project team.
Includes the contract management and change
control processes required to develop and
administer contracts.
Includes also administering any contracts issued by
an outside organization (the buyer) that is acquiring
the project from the performing organization (the
seller).

Project Procurement
Management
The organization, can be the buyer or seller of the

product, service or result under a contract.


Contract can be called:
Agreement.
Subcontract.
Purchase order.

Project Procurement
Management
Seller can be called:
Contractor
Subcontractor
Vendor
Service provider
Supplier
Buyer can be called:
Client
Customer
Service requester
Purchaser

Seller in a project

Bidder

Selected
Source

Contractor,
Supplier or Vendor

Project Procurement
Management
Plan
Procurement
Management

Conduct
procurements

Control
Procurements

Close
Procurements

Plan Procurements
Management
Plan
Procurements
Management

Conduct
procurements

Control
Procurements

Close
Procurements

Plan Procurements
The process of documenting project purchasing

decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying


potential sellers.
Should be accomplished during the scope definition
effort to specify:
Whether to procure or not?
How to procure?
What to procure?
How much to procure?
When to procure?

Project Managers
Authority in Procurement
It depends on the type of the contracting

environment:
Centralized Contracting Environment
There is a procurement department & a
procurement manager who handle all procurements
The project Manager contacts the procurement
manager when he/she needs help regarding
procurement
Decentralized Contracting Environment
Theres no procurement department
The project manager hires a procurement manager
to work full time on procurement & he will be
reporting directly to the Project Manager

Centralized Contracting Environment

Disadvantages

Advantages

Because they are part of the


procurement department that
focuses only on procurement,
they have high level of expertise

It provides its employees with


continuous improvement,
training & shared lessons
learned

They are more efficient & helpful


in understanding the managers
requirement in procurement

Employees have clear &


defined career path in
procurement profession

One procurement manager may


work on many projects, so the
attention will be divided among
many procurement projects

It may be more difficult for the


project manager to obtain
contracting help when needed

The project manager will not


have a full authority in the
procurement project

Decentralized Contracting Environment

Advantages

Disadvantages

The project manager has easier


access to contracting expertise
because the procurement
manager is a member of the team

There is no home department for


the procurement manager to
return to after the project is
completed

The procurement manager has


more loyalty to the project

Its more difficult to maintain a


high level of contracting expertise
in the company because theres
no procurement department

There may be an inefficient use of


procurement resources in projects
across the organization

There may be a little


standardization of procurement
practice from one project to the
next

No career path as a procurement


manager

Plan Procurements
Inputs

Project
Management
Plan
Requirements
Documentation
Risk Register
Activity
Resource
Requirements
Project
Schedule
Activity Cost
Estimates
Stakeholder
Register
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Make-or-Buy
Analysis
Expert
Judgment
Contract Types

Meetings

Outputs
Procurement
Management
Plan
Procurements
Statement of
Work
Make-or-Buy
Decisions
Procurement
Documents
Source
Selection
Criteria
Change
Requests
Project
Documents
Updates

Make-or-Buy Analysis
A technique used to determine whether particular

work can best be accomplished by the project team


or must be purchased from outside sources.
If buy: Purchase or lease?
Should consider all related costs; direct and
indirect.

Contract Types
Fixed price
Cost reimbursable
Time and material

Fixed Price Contracts


The most common type.
A total lump sum price against a well-defined

product.
Three types:
Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP)
Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contracts (FPIF)
Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment

Contracts (FP-EPA)

Fixed Price Contracts


Advantage
s:
The most common type.
The buyer knows the price from the beginning.
Risk is on the seller

Disadvantag
es:

The buyer must prepare a detailed SOW ( more

work on the buyer)


The seller might try not to do everything according
to the SOW if he started loosing money
More cost on the buyer

Cost reimbursable
Contracts
Paying the seller the actual cost, plus a fee.
Three types:
Cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF)
Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF)
Cost plus award fee (CPAF).

Cost reimbursable
Contracts
Advantages:
No detailed SOW.
Less cost on the buyer than the FPC

Disadvantag
es:

Total cost is unknown


Risk is on the buyer
More work on the buyer ( since he has to audit the

sellers invoices )

Time & Material


Contracts
Hybrid type of contractual agreement.
Contain aspects of both cost-reimbursable and

fixed-price types.
They are open ended, but on certain rates.

Time & Material


Contracts
Advantages
:

Quick to create
Duration brief
Used when expat acquisition & staff augmentation

Disadvantag
es:
Only good in small projects
Needs daily oversight & reports from the buyer

( more work)

Which Type is Better?


Depends on:
How well defined the contract statement of work is.
The amount and frequency of change expected.
The level of effort and expertise the buyer can

devote to managing the seller.


Industry standards for the types of contract used.
Amount of market competition.
Amount of risk.

Procurement
Documents
A buyer-prepared formal request sent to each

Seller.
The Basis upon which a seller prepares a bid for the
requested products.
RFP/ RFQ/RFI/IFB are used to solicit proposals to
meet procurement needs.
Statement of Work (SOW): procurement item in
sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to
determine if they are capable of providing the
item(s).
Statement of Objective (SOO): term used for a
procurement item that is presented as a problem to
be solved.

Procurement
Documents (RFP/
RFQ/RFI/IFB
) & the procurement SOW
Once the contract type is selected

has been created, the buyer can put together the


procurement documents that describe their needs
Request for proposal (RFP): sometimes its called request for
Tender, it requests a detailed proposal on how the work will
be accomplished, who will do it, company experience, price,
Technical requirements, etc & it allows the company to detect
benefits & risks at early stage.. ( usually used with CR
contracts)
Invitation for Bid ( IFB, or request for bid RFB): just to request
a total price to do all the work. (usually used with FP
contracts)
Request for Quotation (RFQ): request a price quote per item,
hour, meter, or other unit of measure, used when price is the
main factor ( usually used with T&M)
Request for Information (RFI): is simply looking for
information , it might be used before procurement documents
are created, the received information could help the company
to identify the required in order to send RFQ, RFP or IFB

(steps for preparing


RFP)
1

Collect Requirement
from all stakeholders
2

Procurement SOW must be as


clear & concise as possible and
it must
describe all the work and
activities the seller is required to
complete

Define scope
Of the project
Prepare a detailed
SOW

Prepare RFP

How to write (RFP)


RFP usually includes:
Company
Background

Project
Definition

which include a short company overview such as a brief

history , industry background, company size, etc..

It is crucial for the vendor and project team to understand


the underlying business case for the project; that is, why the
project is being attempted. Also understand deliverables
expected from the project by the vendor

Project
Requirements

which include Technical requirements, functional


requirements, etc

Audience

Information about the und users

(RFP Form-Example)

RFP Form-Example

Source Selection
Criteria
Can be only price if an
off-the-shelf product.

They are included in the

procurement documents
to give the seller an
understanding of the
buyers needs

Other selection criteria take


into consideration:
Understanding of needs.
Overall life-cycle cost
Technical capability
Risk
Management approach
Technical approach
Warranty
Financial capability
Production capacity
Past performance
References
IP rights

They help the seller on


how to prepare the bid

They become the basis


by which the buyer
evaluates the bids

Quiz 6

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 12

- Section 12.1

PART XIII
PROJECT STAKEHOLDER
MANAGEMENT
Planning Processes

Project Stakeholder
Management
Identify
Stakeholders

Plan
Stakeholder
Management

Manage
Stakeholder
Engagement

Control
Stakeholder
Engagement

Plan Stakeholder
Management
Identify
Stakeholders

Plan
Stakeholder
Management

Manage
Stakeholder
Engagement

Control
Stakeholder
Engagement

Plan Stakeholder
Management
The process of developing appropriate

management strategies to effectively engage


stakeholders through the project life cycle, based
on the analysis of their needs, interests, and
potential impact on project success.
It provides a clear, actionable plan to interact with
project stakeholders to support the projects
interests.

Plan Risk Responses


Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Stakeholder
Register
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Meetings
Analytical
Techniques

Outputs
Stakeholder
Management
Plan
Project
Documents
Updates

Analytical Techniques
The engagement level of stakeholders can be
classified as follows:
Unaware Unaware of project and potential
impacts
Resistant Aware of project and potential impacts
and resistant to change
Neutral Aware of project yet neither supportive
nor resistant
Supportive Aware of project impacts and
supportive for change
Leading Aware of project impacts and actively
engaged in ensuring the project is a success

Stakeholder Engagement
Assessment Matrix
Stakehold
er

Unawar
e

Stakeholder
1

Stakeholder
2

Stakeholder
3

Resistan
t

Neutral

Supporti
ve

DC

Leading

Stakeholder
Management Plan
A component of project management plan
Identifies the management strategies required to

effectively engage stakeholders

Stakeholder
Management Plan
It can also provide
Desired and current engagement levels of stakeholders
Scope and impact of change to stakeholders
Identified interrelationships and potential overlap between

stakeholders
Stakeholder communication requirements for the current
project phase
Information to be distributed to stakeholders, including
language, format, content and level of detail
Reason for the distribution of that information and expected
impact to stakeholder engagement
Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required
information to stakeholders; and
Method for refining and updating the stakeholder
management plan as the project progresses and develops

PMBOK Reading

Chapter 13

- Section 13.1

PART XIV

EXECUTION

The Execution Processes


Direct & Manage Project Execution
Perform Quality Assurance
Acquire Project Team
Develop Project Team
Manage Project Team
Manage Communications
Conduct Procurement
Manage Stakeholder Engagement

Direct & Manage Project


Execution
The process of performing the work defined in the

project management plan to achieve project


objectives.

Direct & manage


Project Execution
Performing activities to accomplish project

requirements.
Creating project deliverables.
Staffing, training and managing the team members
assigned to the project.
Obtaining, managing, and using resources including
material, tools, equipment, and facilities.
Implementing the planned methods and standard .
Establishing and managing project communication
channels, both external and internal to the project
team.

Direct & manage Project


Execution
Generating project data, such as cost, schedule,

technical and quality progress, and status to facilitate


forecasting.
Issuing change requests and adapting approved
changes into the projects scope, plans and
environment.
Managing risks and implementing risk response
activities.
Managing sellers and suppliers; and
Collecting & documenting lessons learned, and
implementing approved process improvement
activities.

Direct & manage Project


Execution
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Approved
Change
Requests
Enterprise
environmenta
l Factors
Organizationa
l Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment
Project
Management
Information
System
Meetings

Outputs
Deliverables
Work
Performance
Data
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Deliverables
Any unique and verifiable product, result, or

capability to perform a service that is identified in


the project management planning documentation,
and must be produced and provided to complete
the project.

Perform Quality
Assurance
The process of auditing the quality requirements

and the results from quality control measurements


to ensure appropriate quality standards and
operational definitions are used.

Perform Quality
Assurance
Plan
Quality
Management

Perform
Quality
Assurance

Control
Quality

Perform Quality
Assurance
Inputs
Quality
Management
Plan
Process
Improvement
Plan
Quality
Metrics
Quality
Control
Measurement
s
Project
Documents

Tools &
Techniques
Quality
Management
and Control
Tools
Quality
Audits
Process
Analysis

Outputs
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates
Organizationa
l Process
Assets
Updates

Quality Audits
A structured, independent review to determine

whether project activities comply with


organizational and project policies, processes, and
procedures.
Can be scheduled or random.
Can be conducted by external or internal auditors.
Result in:
Reduced cost of quality.
Increase in sponsor or customer acceptance.

Objectives of Quality
Audits

Identify all the good/ best practices being implemented.


Identify all the gaps/ shortcomings.
Share the good practices introduced or implemented in

similar projects in the organization and/ or industry.


Proactively offer assistance in a positive manner to
improve implementation of processes to help the team
raise productivity.
Highlight contributions of each audit in the lessons
learned repository of the organization.

Process Analysis

Follows steps outlined in the process improvement

plan to identify needed improvements.

Organizational Process
Assets Updates
Quality Standards.
Processes.

Project Management
Plan Updates
Quality management plan.
Schedule management plan.
Cost management plan.

Project Document
Updates
Quality audits reports.
Training plans.
Process documentation.

Gold Plating
Giving Extra
Bad and should be avoided

Acquire Project Team


The process of confirming human resources

availability and obtaining the team necessary to


complete project assignments.

Acquire Project Team


The project management team may or may not

have direct control over team members selection


because of:
Collective bargaining agreements.
Use of subcontractor personnel.
Matrix project environment.
Internal or external reporting relationships.

Acquire Project Team


Plan
Human
Resource
Management

Acquire
Project
Team

Develop
Project
Team

Manage
Project
Team

Acquire Project Team


Inputs
Human
Resource
Management
Plan
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizationa
l Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Preassignment
Negotiation
Acquisition
Virtual Teams
Multi-Criteria
Decision
Analysis

Outputs
Project Staff
Assignments
Resource
Calendars
Project
Management
Plan Updates

Pre-assignment
When project team members are known in

advance.
If the project is a result of:
Specific people being promised as part of a
proposal.
The project is dependent on the expertise of
particular persons.
Some staff assignments are defined within the
project charter.

Negotiation
Negotiating with:
Functional managers.
Other project management teams within the

organization.
External organizations, vendors, suppliers,
contractorsetc.

Acquisition

When the needed resources are not available in-

house.
Can involve hiring individual consultants or
subcontracting work to another organization.

Virtual Teams
Groups of people with a shared goal who fulfill their

roles with little or no time spent meeting face-toface.


The ease of communication through electronic
means made virtual teams more feasible.
Communication planning becomes increasingly
important in virtual team environment.

Virtual Teams
Virtual teams make it possible to:
Form teams of people from the same organization

who live in widespread geographic areas.


Add expertise that cant exist at the same location.
Incorporate employees who work from home.
Allow team members who work different shifts or
hours to participate.
Include people with mobility limitations or
disabilities.
Reduce travel expenses.

Multi-Criteria Decision
Analysis
Criteria is developed and used to rate or score

potential team members


Examples Include

Availability

Cost

Experience

Ability

Knowledge

Skills

Attitude

International Factors

Develop Project Team


The process of improving competencies, team

interaction, and the overall team environment to


enhance project performance.
Project managers should create an environment
that facilitates teamwork.

Develop Project Team


Developing project teams include:
Improving skills of team members
Improving feelings of trust & cohesiveness
Creating a dynamic and cohesive team culture to

improve both individual and team productivity,


team spirit and cooperation
Examples include assisting one another, and

communicate in ways that fit individual


preference.

Develop Project Team


Plan
Human
Resource
Management

Acquire
Project
Team

Develop
Project
Team

Manage
Project
Team

Develop Project Team


Inputs
Project Staff
Assignments
Human
Resource
Management
Plan
Resource
Calendars

Tools &
Techniques
Interpersonal
Skills
Training
Team Building
Activities
Ground Rules
Co-location
Reward &
Recognition
Personnel
Assessment
Tools

Outputs
Team
Performance
Assessments.
Enterprise
Environmenta
l Factors
Update.

Interpersonal Skills
Sometime known as Soft Skills
Include:
Empathy.
Influence.
Creativity.
Group facilitation.

Training
Can be:
Formal
Informal
Training methods:
Classroom.
Online.
Computer-based.
On the job
Coaching
Mentoring.

Team Building Activities


Can vary from a five-minute agenda item to an off-

site, professionally facilitated experience to


improve interpersonal relationships.
The objective is to help individual team members to
work together effectively.
Particularly valuable when team members work
from different locations.
Informal communication and activities can help in
building trust and establishing good working
relationships.

Team development
Stages
Forming.
Storming.
Norming.
Performing.
Adjourning.

Forming
The team meets and learns about the project and

what their formal roles and responsibilities are.


Team members tend to be independent and open in
this phase.
Team members are usually on their best behavior
but very focused on themselves.
In this stage the members of the team get to know
one another, exchange some personal information,
and make new friends.

Storming
Team begins to address the project work, technical

decisions, and the project management approach.


If team members are not collaborative and open to
differing ideas and perspectives the environment
can become destructive.
In some cases, the team never leaves this stage.
The role of project manager is cruicial in this stage.
Tolerance and patience will help in passing through
it successfully.

Norming
Team members begin to work together and adjust

work habits and behaviors to support the team.


Team begins to trust each other.
Motivation increases as the team gets more
acquainted with the project.
As team members get to know each other better,
their views of each other begin to change

Performing
Teams should try to reach this stage as quickly as

possible.
Teams that reach this stage function as a wellorganized unit.
Teams at this stage are able to function as a unit as
they find ways to get the job done smoothly and
effectively without inappropriate conflict or the
need for external supervision.

Adjourning
The team completes the work and move on from the

project.
Mourning over the dissolving of the team
relationship, and begin preparing for change in
individual work requirements.

Ground Rules
Establishing clear expectations regarding

acceptable and unacceptable behavior.


Examples include:
How team members should resolve conflicts.
Is interruption in meetings allowed or not.
Coming late to meetings.
Phone calls.
Smoking.
Whos allowed to talk to senior management.
Whos authorized to give directions to vendors/
subcontractors.
Work times.
Codes of dress.

Co-location
Involves placing many of the team members in one

physical location.
Can be temporary in some cases.
Can be used in conjunction with virtual teams.
Enhances ability to perform as a team.
War rooms.

Recognition and Rewards


For desirable behaviors only.
Through performance appraisal.
Should satisfy needs valued by individuals.
Should focus on win-win instead of win-lose.
Generally, money is viewed as a very tangible

aspect of a reward system.

Team performance
Assessments
Formal or informal
Conducted by the project management team
The performance of successful team is measured

according to agreed upon project objectives


Evaluation indicators include:
Improvements in skills
Improvements in competencies
Reduced staff turn over rate
Increased team cohesiveness
Should trigger actions such as training, changes,
recommendations, etc..

Manage Project Team


The process of tracking team performance,

providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing


changes to optimize project performance.
The project management team:
Observes team performance.
Manages conflict.
Resolves issues.
Appraises team performance.

Manage Project Team


Plan
Human
Resource
Management

Acquire
Project
Team

Develop
Project
Team

Manage
Project
Team

Manage Project Team


Inputs

Project Staff
Assignments
Human
Resource
Management
Plan
Team
Performance
Assessments
Issue Log
Work
Performance
Reports
Organization
al Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Observation
and
Conversatio
n
Project
Performance
Appraisals
Conflict
Managemen
t
Interpersona
l Skills

Outputs
Enterprise
Environment
al Factors
Updates
Organization
al Process
Assets
Updates
Change
Requests
Project
Managemen
t Plan
Updates
Project
Documents
Updates

Observation &
Conversation
Used to stay in touch with the work and attitudes of

project team members.


Project management team monitors progress
towards:
Project deliverables.
Accomplishments.
Interpersonal issues.

Project Performance
Appraisals
Can be formal or informal depending on the length

of the project, organizational policy, project


complexity and the amount and quality of regular
communication.
Objectives include:
Clarification of roles and responsibilities.
Constructive feedback to team members.
Discovery of unknown or unresolved issues.
Development of individual training plans.
Establishment of specific goals for future time
periods.

Conflict Management
Should conflict be avoided?

Conflict Management

Conflict in projects is inevitable


Why?

Sources of Conflict in
projects
Scarcity of resources.
Scheduling priorities.
Personalities.
Limited power of project manager.

Facts about Conflict


Natural and forces search for alternatives.
Is a team issue.
Openness resolves conflict.
Should focus on issues, not personalities.
Should focus on the present, not the past.

How Can Conflict Be


Minimized?
Communication.
Planning
Ground rules.
Identification of root causes and resolving them.
Involving team members in resolution.

Conflict Resolution
Techniques
Withdrawing/Avoiding.
Smoothing/ Accommodating.
Compromising.
Forcing.
Collaborating.
Confronting/ problem solving.

Withdrawing/ Avoiding
Retreating from an actual or potential conflict

situation.
A passive, stop-gap way of handling conflict.
Appropriate when a cooling-off period is needed,
and when the other party is unassertive and
uncooperative.
A lose-lose technique
Generally fails to solve the problem.
Should not be used when the conflict deals with an
issue that is of immediate concern or is important
to the successful completion of the project.

Smoothing/
Accommodating
Emphasizing areas of agreement rather than areas

of difference.
An appeasing approach.
Appropriate to keep harmony and avoid outwardly
conflictive situations.
Fails to provide permanent long-term solution to the
underlying conflict.
Generally, conflict reappears in a different form.
A lose-lose technique

Compromising
Searching for a solution that bring some degree of

satisfaction to all parties.


Is primarily bargaining, receiving something in
exchange for something else.
Appropriate when reached and accepted as a just
solution by both parties involved in conflict.
Usually provides acceptable solutions.
Sometimes, important aspects of the project cant
be compromised to achieve personal objectives.

forcing
Pushing ones view at the expense of others.
A win-lose situation.
Used when there is no common ground for

bargaining or negotiation.
Also used when both parties are uncooperative and
strong-willed.
Appropriate when time is of essence, and issue is
vital for the well-being of project.
Usually takes less time than other techniques, but
leaves hard feelings.
Conflict resolved by forcing may develop again and
haunt the enforcer.
Should be used only as a last resort.

Collaborating
Incorporating multiple view points and insights from

differing perspectives.
Leads to consensus and commitment.
Used when the situation is too important to be
compromised.
Not very effective when more than a few players
are involved and their viewpoints are mutually
exclusive.

Confronting/ Problem
Solving
Treating conflict as a problem to be solved by

examining alternatives.
Requires a give-and-take attitude and open
dialogue.
Involves pinpointing the issue and resolving it
objectively by defining the problem, gathering
necessary information, generating and analyzing
alternatives, and selecting the best alternative.
Requires open dialogue between participants, who
must be mature, understanding, and competentboth technically and managerially.
Takes longer than other techniques.
Provides ultimate solutions.

Technique
s
Forcing

SUMMAR
Y
Description

forcing a solution from


one side, not the best
solution.
Smoothing attempting to
/
underestimate the
Accommod conflict.
ating
Compromis brings some degree of
ing
satisfaction to both
parties.

Solution
Permane Winnt
lose
Tempora Losery
lose

Permane
nt:
commitm
ent
Confrontati Treating conflict as a
Permane
on /
problem; solving the real nt
Problem
problem, most often used
Solving
by project managers.
Collaborati Incorporating multiple
Permane
ng
viewpoints and insights
nt
from differing

Loselose

Winwin

Winwin

To Resolve a Conflict
Assure Privacy
Empathize than sympathize
Listen actively
Maintain equity
Focus on issue, not on personality
Avoid blame
Identify key theme
Re-state key theme frequently
Encourage feedback
Identify alternate solutions
Give your positive feedback
Agree on an action plan

Conflict Management
Exercise

Manage Communications
The process of making relevant information

available to project stakeholders as planned.


Implementing the Communications Management
Plan
Responding to unexpected requests for Information

Manage Communications
Effective information distribution includes:
Sender-receiver modules.
Choice of media.
Writing style.
Meeting management techniques.
Presentation techniques.
Facilitation techniques.

Manage
Communications
Plan
Communications
Management

Manage
Communications

Control
Communications

Manage Communications
Inputs
Communicatio
ns
Management
Plan
Work
Performance
Reports
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Outputs
Tools &
Techniques

Project
Communicatio
ns

Communicatio
n Technology
Communicatio
n Models
Communicatio
n Methods
Information
Management
System
Performance
Reporting

Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Documents
Updates
Organizationa
l Process
Assets
Updates

Communication Methods

Individual and group meetings.


Video and audio conferences.
Computer chats.
Other remote communications methods.

Organizational Process
Assets (update)
Stakeholder notifications.
Project reports.
Project presentations.
Project records.
Feedback from stakeholders.
Lessons learned documentation.

Distribute Information
Lost in translation

Plan Procurements
Management
Plan
Procurements
Management

Conduct
procurements

Control
Procurements

Close
Procurements

Conduct Procurements
Inputs

Project
Management Plan
Procurement
Documents
Source Selection
Criteria
Seller Proposals
Project
Documents
Make or Buy
Decisions
Procurement
Statement of
Work
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Bidder
Conferences
Proposal
Evaluation
Techniques
Independent
Estimates
Expert Judgment
Advertising
Analytical
Techniques
Procurement
Negotiations

Outputs
Selected Sellers
Agreements
Resource
Calendars
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Documents
Updates

Proposal
Seller-prepared Documents.
Describe the sellers ability & willingness to provide

the requested products.


Constitutes a formal and technical offer in response
to a buyers request.

Bidder Conference
Also called: Contractor Conferences, Vendor

Conferences, and Pre-Bid Conferences.


Meeting Prospective Sellers before bids preparation,
to ensure clear and common understanding of
procurement.
All potential sellers are given equal standing during
the conference.

Advertising
Placing advertisements in general and specialty

publications.

Proposal Evaluation
Techniques
Can involve subjective and objective components.
Multiple reviewers.

Develop Qualified Sellers


List
List of sellers asked to submit a proposal.
Developed from the organizational assets.
Or project management team can develop from

own sources.

Select Sellers
Lowest price is not necessarily lowest cost.
Price might be the only factor in off the shelf items.
Proposals are split into commercial and technical

sections.
Multiple sources may be required.

Select Seller
Weighed System: method for quantifying qualitative

data to minimize the personal prejudice on source


selection
Independent Estimates: An estimate of what the
seller should price the service/ product
Screening System: establishing minimum
requirements of performance for one of more of the
evaluation criteria
Contract Negotiation: Clarification & mutual
agreement on contract aspects

Independent Estimates
The procuring organization may either prepare its

own independent estimates, or have an estimate of


cost prepared by an external professional estimator.
Should-be price.
Significant difference between seller price and
estimates might happen as a result of:
Statement of work is unclear.
Prospective seller didnt understand or fully
respond.
Change in market condition.

Select Seller
Weighed System: Method for quantifying qualitative

data to minimize the personal prejudice on source


selection

Example

Criteria

Weight

Rate
(1-100
scale)

Score

5%

50

2.5

Understanding of
needs

25%

80

20

Technical Ability

15%

30

4.5

Number of years in
business

Total

27

Conduct Procurements
The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting

a seller, and awarding a contract.

Select Seller
Independent Estimates: An estimate of what the

seller should price the service/ product


The procuring organization may either prepare its
own independent estimates, or have an estimate of
cost prepared by an external professional estimator
Should-be price.
Significant difference between seller price and
estimates might happen as a result of:
Statement of work is unclear.
Prospective seller didnt understand or fully
respond.
Change in market condition.

Select Seller
Screening System: Establishing minimum

requirements of performance for one of more of the


evaluation criteria
Eliminates sellers who dont meet the minimum

requirements of the source selection criteria

Select Seller
Contract Negotiation: Clarification & mutual

agreement on contract aspects, main items to


negotiate on are:
Scope
Schedule
Price & terms of payment
After Sales/After service

Obtain a fair &


reasonable price

Develop a good
relationships with
Objectives of Negotiations the seller

Select Seller
Negotiations Tactics
Attacks

Personal Insults

Good guy/bad
guy

Deadline

if your organization cant manage

the details of the operations perhaps


it should get out of the business
if you dont understand what you

are doing perhaps you should find


another job
One person is helpful to the other

side while the other is difficult to deal


with
We have a flight at 5pm and we

must finish negotiations before that


time

Select Seller
Negotiations Tactics
Limited Authority

I cant shorten the schedule Im not

authorized, limited authority


statements are not necessary true

Missing man

Only my boss can agree on that

Withdrawal

&my boss is not here, lets only agree


on this
To show that theres a less interest

Fair &
Reasonable

Fait accompli

Lets be reasonable just accept that

offer as it stands
This is a done deal

Seller Rating Systems

Uses information on:


Sellers Past Performance
Quality Ratings
Delivery Performance
Contractual Compliance

Selected sellers

Those sellers who have been judged to be in a

competitive range based upon the outcome of the


proposal or bid evaluation, and who have
negotiated a draft contract that will become the
actual contract when the award is made.

Agreements

Includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate

other items that the buyer specifies regarding what


the seller is to perform or provide.
Mutually binding legal agreement:
Obligates the seller to provide.
Obligates the buyer to pay.
Legal relationship subject to remedy in courts.

Agreements
Components can include:
Statement of work or deliverables
Schedule baseline
Performance reporting
Period of performance
Roles and responsibilities
Pricing
Payment terms
Place of delivery
Others

Murder on the Orient Express

Manage Stakeholders
Engagement

The process of communicating and working with

stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing


issues as they occur.
Increases the likelihood that project will not veer off
track due to unresolved stakeholders issues and
unmatched expectations.
Key benefit is that it allows project manager to
increase support and minimize resistance from
stakeholders.

Manage Stakeholders
Expectations
Involves communication activities directed towards

project stakeholders to influence their expectations,


address concerns, and resolve issues. Such as:
Actively managing the expectations of stakeholders
to increase the likelihood of project acceptance by
negotiating and influencing their desires to achieve
project goals.
Addressing concerns that have not become issues
yet.
Clarifying and resolving issues that have been
identified.

Manage Stakeholder
Engagement
Identify
Stakeholders

Plan
Stakeholder
Management

Manage
Stakeholder
Engagement

Control
Stakeholder
Engagement

Manage Stakeholders
Engagement
Inputs
Stakeholder
Management
Plan
Communicatio
nsManagemen
t Plan
Change Log
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Communicatio
n Methods
Interpersonal
Skills
Management
Skills

Outputs
Issue Log
Change
Requests
Organization
al Process
Assets
Updates
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Issue Logs

Also called action item log.


Tool to document and monitor the resolution of

issues.
Addressed in order to maintain good, constructive
working relationships.

Interpersonal Skills

Building trust.
Resolving conflict.
Active listening.
Overcoming resistance to change.

The 8 Steps for


Leading Change*
Establishing a sense of urgency.
Creating the guiding coalition.
Developing a vision and strategy.
Communicating the change vision.
Empowering employees for broad-based action.
Generating short-term wins.
Consolidating (accumulating) gains and producing

more change.
Anchoring new approaches in the culture.
* Leading Change- John P. Kotter

Management Skills

Facilitate consensus toward project objectives


Influence people to support the project
Negotiate agreements to satisfy the project needs,

and
Modify organizational behavior to accept the project
outcomes

Project Document
(Update)
Stakeholder management strategy.
Stakeholder register.
Issue log.

What Makes Great


Project Managers?

Shackleton Story

Expedition
Mission: Crossing Antarctica and coming back

"All the money that was ever


minted would not have bought
that biscuit and the remembrance
of that sacrifice will never leave
me".
Frank Wild- A companion

Newspaper
Advertisement
MEN WANTED: FOR HAZARDOUS
JOURNEY. SMALL WAGES, BITTER
COLD, LONG MONTHS
OF COMPLETE DARKNESS,
CONSTANT DANGER, SAFE RETURN
DOUBTFUL. HONOUR AND
RECOGNITION IN CASE OF
SUCCESS.
- SIR ERNEST SHACKLETON

Would You Go?

"For scientific leadership, give me Scott


(Robert Falcon); for swift and efficient
travel, Amundsen; but when you are in a
hopeless situation, when there seems to
be no way out, get on your knees and pray
for Shackleton.
- Sir Raymond Priestley

Why was Sir Ernest


Shackleton that
successful?

EQ vs. IQ

What is Emotions?
A mental state that arises spontaneously
rather than through conscious effort, and
is often accompanied by physiological
changes; a feeling: the emotions of joy,
sorrow, reverence, hate and love
- The American Heritage
Dictionary

Emotions

Can we Control Our


?Emotions

What is Emotional
Intelligence?
The ability to monitor ones own and others
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among
them and use this information to guide ones
thinking and action
- Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer

The abilities to recognize and regulate


emotions in ourselves and in others
- Daniel Goleman and Gary Cherniss

Golemans Framework of
Emotional Competencies
Self

Other

(Personal Competence) ( Social Competence)


Self Awareness

Recognition

Regulation

-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

Self
Management
-

Emotional self
control
Transparency
Adaptation
Achievement
Initiative
Optimism

Social
Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
-Service

Relationship
Management
-

Inspirational
leadership
Influence
Developing others
Change catalyst
Conflict
Management
Building bonds
Teamwork and
collaboration

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
FRAMEWORK FOR PROJECT
MANAGEMENT

5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict Management
-Inspirational Leadership

3.Social Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional Boundaries

1.Self Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

4. Relationship
Management

Stakeholder
Relationship
Developing others
Truth Telling

2.Self
Management

-Self -Control

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management
5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict
Management
-Inspirational
leadership
3.Social Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional Boundaries

1.Self Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

4. Relationship
Management

Stakeholder
Relationship
Developing others
Truth Telling

2.Self
Management

-Self -Control

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management
5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict
Management
-Inspirational
leadership
3.Social Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional Boundaries

1.Self Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

4. Relationship
Management

Stakeholder
Relationship
Developing others
Truth Telling

2.Self
Management

-Self -Control

Self Awareness
Accurate Self-Assessment

Aware of Strengths & Weaknesses


Reflective, learning from experience
Open to Candid Feedback
Able to show a sense of humor and
perspective about oneself.

Self Awareness
Self Confidence

Present self with self-assurance; have


presence
Can voice views and express opinion
even if unpopular.
Decisive.
Able to make decisions despite
uncertainties and pressure

Self Awareness
Emotional Self-Awareness (red flags)

Inappropriate Humor
Use of Sarcasm
Passive Aggressive Behavior
Playing the Victim
Hostility

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management
5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict
Management
Inspirational
Leadership
3.Social Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional Boundaries

4. Relationship
Management
-

Stakeholder
Relationship
Influence
Developing others
Truth Telling

1.Self Awareness

2.Self Management

-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

Self -Control

Self- Control
Self-control is the ability to remain composed in

spite of emotional state.


Self-control is for all emotions.

Hot Buttons

Techniques to Improve
Self-Management
1- Identify the feeling
2- Determine the underlying cause
3- Take action to get clear

Additional Techniques
1- Reduce your stress level
2- Conduct an Inner-Dialogue
3- Take it out with someone
4- Give yourself a time out
5- Write a letter or email you will not send
6- Take care of yourself

And Remember: Its not worth dying


for!!!

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management

5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict Management
Inspirational leadership

3.Social Awareness
-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional
Boundaries

4. Relationship
Management
-

1.Self Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

Stakeholder
Relationship
Influence
Developing others
Truth Telling
2.Self Management

Self -Control

Social Awareness
Empathetic Listening

Let others speak


Maintain eye contact
Give the speaker your full attention
Playback and summarize
Try on their shoes
Suspend our judgment

Social Awareness
Organizational
Awareness
The ability to read the currents of emotions and

political realities in groups


- Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman

Social Awareness

Emotional Boundaries

Good fences make good neighbors

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management

5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict
Management
-Inspirational
leadership

3.Social
Awareness

-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
-Emotional
Boundaries

1.Self Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
- Accurate selfassessment
- Self confidence

4. Relationship
Management
-Stakeholder
Relationship
-Influence
-Developing
others
-Truth Telling

2.Self Management
-Self Control

Emotional Intelligence
Framework for Project
Management44

5.Team Leadership
-Communication
-Conflict
Management
-Inspirational
leadership

3.Social
Awareness

-Empathy
-Organizational
awareness
- Emotional
Boundaries

1.Self
Awareness
-Emotional self
awareness
Accurate selfassessment
Self confidence

4. Relationship
Management
-

Stakeholder
Relationship
Influence
Developing others
Truth Telling

2.Self
Management

-Self Control

Quiz 7

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 3

Section 3.5
Chapter 4

Section 4.3
Chapter 8

Section 8.2
Chapter 9

Sections 9.2 - 9.4


Chapter 10

Sections 10.2
Chapter 12

Section 12.2
Chapter 13

Section 13.3

PART XV
MONITORING &
CONTROLLING

Monitor & Control


Project Work
The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating

the progress to meet the performance objectives


defined in the project management plan.
It includes collecting, measuring, and distributing

performance information, and assessing


measurements and trends to effect process
performance.

Monitor & Control


Project Work
Comparing actual work performance against the

project management plan.


Assessing performance to determine whether any
corrective or preventive actions are indicated, and
then recommending those actions as necessary.
Identifying new risks and analyzing, tracking, and
monitoring existing project risks to make sure the
risks are identified, their status is reported, and that
appropriate risk response plans are being executed.

Monitor & Control


Project Work
Maintaining an accurate, timely information base

concerning the projects product(s) and the


associated documentation through project
completion.
Providing information to support status reporting,
progress measurement, and forecasting.
Providing forecasts to update current cost and
current schedule information; and
Monitoring implementation of approved changes as
they occur.

Monitor & Control


Project Work
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Schedule
Forecasts
Cost Forecasts
Validated
Changes
Work
Performance
Reports
Enterprise
Environmental
Factors
Organizational
Process Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Expert
Judgment

Outputs
Change
Requests

Analytical
Techniques

Work
performance
reports

Project
management
information
software

Project
Management
Plan Updates

Meetings

Project
Document
Updates

Change Requests
Needed because change is inevitable.
Happen as a result of comparing actual results with

planned results
May:

Expand
Adjust
Reduce

Project and product scope

Changes May Include


Corrective Actions: A documented direction for

executing the project work to bring expected future


performance of the project work in line with the
project management plan.
Preventive Actions: A documented direction to perform
an activity that can reduce the probability of negative
consequences associated with project risks.
Defect Repairs: The formally documented
identification of a defect in a project component with a
recommendation to either repair the defect or
completely replace the component.

Perform Integrated
Change Control
The process of reviewing all change requests,

approving changes and managing changes to the


deliverable, organizational process assets, project
documents, and the project management plan.
Conducted from project inception through
completion.

Perform Integrated
Change Control
Influencing the factors that circumvent integrated

change control so that only approved changes are


implemented.
Reviewing, analyzing, and approving change requests
promptly, which is essential, as a slow decision may
negatively affect time, cost or the feasibility of the
change.
Managing the approved changes.
Maintaining the integrity of baseline by releasing only
approved changes for incorporation into the project
management plan and project documents.

Perform Integrated
Change Control
Reviewing, approving, or denying all recommended

corrective and preventive actions.


Coordinating changes across the entire project
(e.g., a proposed schedule change will often affect
cost, risk, quality, and staffing); and
Documenting the complete impact of change
requests.

Facts About Integrated


Change Control
Change control is necessary because projects

seldom run exactly according to project


management plan.
Changes are incorporated into a revised plan.
Corrective and preventive actions are taken to
control the project performance.
Monitoring gives insight on project health & areas
that require special attention.

Steps for Integrated


Change Control
Prevent the root cause of change.
Identify change.
Create a change request.
Assess the change.
Assess impact.
Perform integrated change control.
Look for options.
Approve or reject change.
Adjust the project management plan and baseline.
Notify stakeholders.
Manage the project to new project management plan.

Perform Integrated
Change Control
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Work
Performance
Reports
Change
Requests
Enterprise
Environmenta
l Factors
Organizationa
l Process
Asset

Tools &
Techniques

Outputs

Expert
Judgment

Approved
Change
Request

Meetings

Change Log

Change
Control Tools

Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Configuration
Management System
A configuration management system with

integrated change control provides a


standardized, efficient and effective way to
centrally manage approved changes and
baselines within a project.
Configuration control is focused on the
specifications of both the deliverables and
processes,
While change control is focused on identifying,
documenting and controlling changes to the
project and product baselines.

CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Configuration management with integrated change

control processes achieve the following objectives;


Establishes an evolutionary method to
consistently identify and request changes to
established baselines, and to assess the value
and effectiveness of those changes
Provides opportunities to continuously validate
and improve the project by considering the
impact of each change, and
Provides the mechanism for the project
management team to consistently communicate
all approved and rejected changes to the
stakeholders

Configuration
Management Activities
Configuration Identification
Configuration Status Accounting
Configuration Verification and Audit

Configuration
Identification
Selection and identification of a configuration item

provide the basis for which product configuration is


defined and verified, products and documents are
labeled, changes are managed, and accountability
is maintained.

Configuration Status
Accounting
Information is recorded and reported as to when

appropriate data about the configuration item


should be provided. The information includes a
listing of approved configuration identification,
status of proposed changes to the configuration,
and the implementation status of approved
changes.

Configuration
Verification and Audit
Configuration verifications and configuration audits

ensure the composition of a projects configuration


items is correct and that corresponding changes are
registered, assessed, approved, tracked and
correctly implemented. This ensures the functional
requirements defined in the configuration
documentation can be met.

Validate Scope
The process of formalizing acceptance of the

completed project deliverables.


Includes reviewing deliverables with the customer
or sponsor to ensure that they are completed
satisfactorily and obtaining formal acceptance of
deliverables by the customer or sponsor.

Validate Scope Vs.


Quality Control
Verify scope is concerned with acceptance of work

results while perform quality control is concerned


with the correctness of the work results.
Quality control is generally performed before scope
verification, but the two processes can be
performed in parallel.

Validate Scope
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define Scope

Control Scope

Create WBS

Validate Scope

Validate Scope
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Requirements
documentatio
n
Requirements
traceability
matrix
Verified
deliverables
Work
performance
data

Tools &
Techniques
Inspection
Group
decisionmaking
techniques

Outputs
Accepted
Deliverables
Change
Requests
Work
performance
information
Project
Document
Updates

Control Scope
The process of monitoring the status of the project

and product scope and managing changes to the


scope baseline.
Controlling project scope ensures all requested
changes and recommended corrective or preventive
actions are processed through the Perform
Integrated Change Control process.

Control Scope
Project scope control is also used to manage the

actual changes when they occur and is integrated


with the other control processes.
Uncontrolled changes are often referred to as
project scope creep

Control Scope
Plan Scope
Management

Collect
Requirements

Define Scope

Control Scope

Create WBS

Validate Scope

Control Scope
Inputs
Project
Managemen
t Plan
Work
performanc
e data
Requiremen
ts
documentat
ion
Requiremen
ts
traceability
matrix
Organizatio
nal Process
Assets

Tools &
Technique
s
Variance
Analysis

Outputs

Work
Performanc
e
Information
Organizatio
nal Process
Assets
Updates
Change
Requests
Project
Manageme
nt Plan
Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Variance Analysis
Project performance measurements are used to

assess the magnitude of variation from the original


baseline.
It determines the cause and degree of variance
relative to the scope baseline, and decides whether
corrective or preventive action is required.

Control Schedule
The process of monitoring the status of the project

to update project progress and manage changes to


the schedule baseline.
Schedule control is concerned with:

Determining the current status of


project schedule.
Influencing the factors that create
schedule changes.
Determining that the project
schedule has changed, and
Managing the actual changes as
they occur.

Control Schedule
Plan Schedule
Management

Define
Activities

Sequence
Activities

Develop
Schedule

Estimate
Activity
Resources

Estimate
Activity
Durations

Control
Schedule

Control Schedule
Inputs
Project
Management Plan
Work
performance data
Project Schedule
Project calendars

Tools &
Techniques
Performance
Reviews
Project
Management
Software
Resource
Optimization
Techniques

Schedule data

Modeling
Techniques

Organizational
Process Assets

Leads & Lags


Schedule
Compression
Scheduling Tool

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Schedule
Forecasts
Organizational
Process Assets
Updates
Change Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Control Cost
The process of monitoring the status of the project

to update the project budget and managing


changes to the cost baseline.
Involves recording actual costs spent to date.
Important to determine:

Cause of a variance, whether


positive or negative.
Magnitude of the variance.
Decide if variance requires
corrective action.

Control Cost Includes


Influence the factors that create changes to the cost

baseline.
Ensuring requested changes are agreed upon.
Managing the actual changes when they occur.
Assuring that potential cost overruns do not exceed
the authorized funding periodically and in total.
Monitoring cost performance to detect and
understand variances from the cost baseline.
Recording all appropriate changes accurately
against the cost baseline.
Preventing incorrect, inappropriate, or unapproved
changes from being included in the reported cost or
resource usage.
Informing appropriate stakeholders of approved

Control Costs
Plan Cost
Management

Estimate
Costs

Determine
Budget

Control
Costs

Control Costs
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Work
performance
data

Tools &
Techniques
Earned Value
Management
Forecasting

Project Funding
Requirements

To-complete
Performance
Index

Organizational
Process Assets

Performance
Reviews

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Cost Forecasts
Organizational
Process Assets
Updates
Change
Requests

Reserve
Analysis

Project
Management
Plan Updates

Project
Management
Software

Project
Document
Updates

Earned value
Management (EVM)
Methodology that measures project progress by

comparing actual schedule & cost performance


against planned performance as laid out in the
schedule & cost baseline.
Work does not earn value until it is completed.

Earned value
Management (EVM)
Relates Three Values:

Planned Value (PV)


Earned Value (EV)
Actual Costs (AC)
Budget At Completion (BAC).

Planned Value (PV)


Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)

Earned Value (EV)


Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)

ACTUAL COSTS (AC)


Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)

Budget At Completion
(BAC)
Project Estimated Budget

Schedule Variance
Any difference between the scheduled completion

of an activity and the actual completion of that


activity.
Schedule Variance is the earned value minus the
planned value
Schedule Variance = Earned Value - Planned Value
SV = EV - PV

Cost Variance
Any difference between the budgeted cost of an

activity and the actual cost of that activity.


Cost Variance is the earned value minus the
planned value
Cost Variance = Earned Value Actual Cost
CV = EV - AC

Variance Values
Schedule Variance:

If SV= 0, then schedule is on track.


If SV 0, then project is ahead of schedule
If SV 0, then project is behind schedule
Cost Variance

If CV= 0, then project is on budget.


If CV 0, then project is below budget (Cost Saving)
If CV 0, then project is above budget (Cost Overrun

Schedule Performance
Index (SPI)
SPI = EV / PV

Cost Performance Index


(CPI)
CPI = EV / AC

Performance Index
Values
Schedule Variance:

If SPI= 1, then schedule is on track.


If SPI 1, then project is ahead of schedule
If SPI 1, then project is behind schedule
Cost Variance

If CPI= 1, then project is on budget.


If CPI 1, then project is below budget (Cost
Saving)
If CPI 1, then project is above budget (Cost
Overrun)

Forecasting
Estimate To Complete (ETC)
Estimate At Completion (EAC)

Estimate To Complete
(ETC)
When current variances are seen as atypical and

similar changes will not continue to happen in the


future

ETC= BAC-EV
When current variances are seen as typical of

future variances

ETC= (BAC-EV)/CPI
When past performance show that the original

estimating assumptions were fundamentally flawed,


estimates to completion has to be re-calculated

ETC= BTC

Estimate At Completion
(EAC)
When past performance show that the original

estimating assumptions were fundamentally flawed:

EAC = AC + BTC
When current variances are seen as atypical and

similar changes will not continue to happen in the


future:

EAC = AC + (BAC EV)


When current variances are seen as typical of

future variances

EAC = AC + [(BAC EV)/CPI]

Variance At Completion
(VAC)
How much over or under budget do we expect
to be at the end of the project
VAC = Budget at Completion - Estimate at
Completion

= BAC - EAC

Exercises 13 & 14

Earned Value Calculations

To-Complete
Performance Index
(TCPI)

This helps in determining the efficiency that must

be achieved on the remaining work in order for the


project to meet a specified end point such as
Budget at Completion (BAC) or Estimate at
completion (EAC)

TCPI= Work Remaining/ Funds Remaining


TCPI based on the BAC:

TCPI = (BAC-EV) / (BAC-AC)


TCPI based on the EAC:

TCPI = (BAC-EV) / (EAC-AC)

Control Quality
The process of monitoring and recording results of

executing the quality activities to assess


performance and recommend necessary changes.
Quality control activities identify causes of poor

process or product quality and recommend and/or


take action to eliminate them.

Quality ControlRelated Terms


Prevention (keeping errors out of the process) and

inspection (keeping errors out of the hands of the


customer).
Attribute sampling (the result either conforms or

not) versus variable sampling (the result is rated on


a continuous scale that measure the degree of
conformity).
Special causes (unusual events) and common

causes (normal process variation).


Tolerances (specified range of acceptable results)

and control limits (range of process in control).

Control Quality
Plan
Quality
Management

Perform
Quality
Assurance

Control
Quality

Control Quality

Inputs

Project
Management
Plan

Tools &
Techniques

Outputs

Quality Control
Measurements
Validated
Changes

Quality Metrics

Seven basic
Quality Tools

Quality
Checklists

Statistical
sampling

Work
Performance
data

Inspection

Work
Performance
Information

Approved
Change
Requests
Review

Organizational
Process Assets
Updates

Approved
Change
Requests
Deliverables
Project
documents
Organizational
Process Assets

Validated
Deliverables

Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Control Communications
Monitoring & controlling communications throughout

the entire project lifecycle to ensure the information


needs of the project stakeholders are met.
It ensures an optimal information flow among all

communication participants, at any moment of time.

Plan Communications
Management
Plan
Communications
Management

Manage
Communications

Control
Communications

Control Communications
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Work
Performance
Data
Project
Communicatio
ns
Issue Log
Organizationa
l Process
Assets

Tools &
Techniques
Information
Management
System
Expert
Judgment
Meetings

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Organization
al Process
Assets
Updates
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Update
Project
Document
Updates

Control Risks
The process of implementing risk response plans,

tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks,


identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process
effectiveness throughout the project.

Control Risks
It determines if:
Project assumptions are still valid.
Analysis shows an assessed risk has change or

can be retired.
Risk Management policies and procedures are
being followed.
Contingency reserves of cost or schedule should
be modified in alignment with the current risk
assessment.

Control Risks
Plan Risk
Management

Identify
Risks

Plan Risk
Responses

Perform
Qualitative
Risk
Analysis

Perform
Quantitative
Risk
Analysis

Control Risks

Control Risks
Inputs
Risk Register
Project
Management
Plan
Work
Performance
Data
Performance
Reports

Tools &
Techniques
Risk
Reassessment
Risk Audits
Variance &
Trend Analysis
Technical
Performance
Measurement
Reserve
Analysis
Meetings

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Organizational
Process
Assets
Updates
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan updates
Project
Document
Updates

Risk Reassessment
Should be scheduled regularly.
Should be an agenda item at project team status

meetings.

Risk Register Updates

Outcomes of risk reassessments.


Actual outcomes of risks and risk

responses.

Control Procurements
The process of managing procurement relationships,

monitoring contract performance, and making


changes and corrections as needed

Control ProcurementsHighlights
Reviewing and documenting how a seller is

performing or has performed to establish required


corrective actions and provide a basis for future
relationships with the seller
Managing contract related changes
When appropriate managing the contractual
relationship with the outside buyer of the project.
Can include managing interfaces across providers.
For some organizations, might be separate from
project organization. In this case a contract
administrator on the project team reports to a
different department.

Control Procurements
Plan
Procurements
Management

Conduct
procurements

Control
Procurements

Close
Procurements

Control Procurements
Inputs
Project
Management
Plan
Procurement
Documents
Agreements
Work
Performance
Reports
Approved
Change
Requests
Work
Performance
Data

Tools &
Technique
s

Contract
change
control
system
Procurement
performance
reviews
Inspections
and audits
Performance
reporting
Payment
systems
Claims
administratio
n
Records
management
system

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Organization
al Process
Assets
Updates
Change
Requests
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Documents
Updates

Procurement
Performance Review
A structured review of sellers progress to deliver

project scope and quality within cost and on


schedule, as compared to contract.
It can include a review of seller-prepared
documentation and buyer inspections, as well as
quality audits conducted during sellers execution
of the work.
Objectives are:
Identify performance success or failure.
Identify progress compared to contract
statement of work.
Identify contract non-compliance to determine
sellers ability or inability to deliver.

Payment Systems
Processed by the Accounts Payable system of the

buyer
After certification of satisfactory work by an
authorized person on the project team.
All payments are made in accordance with contract
terms.

Claims Administration
The process of documenting, processing, managing,

and monitoring claims throughout the contract


lifecycle, in accordance with terms of contract.
Contested changes and potential constructive
changes are those requested changes where the
buyer and seller cannot reach an agreement on
compensation for the change.
If parties involved cannot resolve claims, it maybe
handled in accordance with Alternative Dispute
Resolution (ADR) or through negotiation.

Records Management
System
Used by project manager to manage contract

documents and records.


It consists of a specific set of processes, related
control functions, and automation tools that are
consolidated and combined into a whole, as part of
the project management information system.
The system contains a retrievable archive of
contract documents and correspondence.

Control Stakeholder
Engagement
The process of monitoring overall project stakeholders

relationship and adjusting strategies and plans for


engaging stakeholders.
It maintains and increases the efficiency and

effectiveness of stakeholder engagement activities as


the project evolves and its environment changes.

Control Stakeholder
Engagement
Identify
Stakeholders

Plan
Stakeholder
Management

Manage
Stakeholder
Engagement

Control
Stakeholder
Engagement

Control Stakeholder
Engagement
Inputs

Tools &
Techniques

Project
Management
Plan

Information
Management
System

Issue Log

Expert
Judgment

Work
Performance
Data
Project
Documents

Meetings

Outputs
Work
Performance
Information
Change
Requests
Organization
al Process
Assets
Updates
Project
Management
Plan Updates
Project
Document
Updates

Quiz 8

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 3
Section 3.6
Chapter 4
Section 4.4,

4.5
Chapter 5
Section 5.5,
5.6
Chapter 6
Section 6.7
Chapter 7
Section 7.4

Chapter 8
Section 8.3
Chapter 10
Sections 10.3
Chapter 11
Section 11.6
Chapter 12
Section 12.3
Chapter 13
Section 13.4

PART XVI

CLOSING

Closing Processes

Integration

Procurement

Close Project
Or Phase

Close
Procurements

Close Project or Phase


The process of finalizing all activities across all of

the Project Management Process Groups to


formally complete the project or phase.
When closing a project, project manager reviews
all prior information from the previous phase
closure to ensure all project work is completed and
that the project has met its objectives.
Formally establishes that the project or project
phase is finished.
Also establishes the procedures to investigate and
document the reasons for actions taken if a project
is terminated before completion

Close Project or Phase

Integration

Procurement

Close Project
Or Phase

Close
Procurements

Close Project or Phase


Completing the project scope doesnt mean that

the project is done.


What remains is:
Collecting & finalizing paperwork.
Verifying that project product is acceptable.
Transferring completed project product to those
who will use it & return resources back.

Activities taken to Close


a Project or Phase
Confirm all requirements are met.
Verify and document that project or phase

meet exit criteria.


Obtain formal (legal) sign-off from customer.
Prepare final payments & cost reports.
Update records.
Finish lessons learned.

Activities taken to Close


a Project
or
Phase
(Contd)
Update procedures and templates based on
lessons learned.
Analyze and document project success and
effectiveness.
Prepare final report.
Index & archive records.
Measure customer satisfaction.
Hand off completed project deliverables to
user(s)
Release resources

Final Report
The final report is a report that summarizes what

happened in the project .


It is prepared for all projects , irrespective of
weather the project has been completed
successfully or not.
Includes:
Overview of the project.
Evaluation of the team's performance.
List of issues encountered.
A summary of what went right and what wrong.
Deviations from the original plan and budget.
Summary of major accomplishments.
Recommendations for future projects.
Is made available to the senior management,

stakeholders, and other project managers.

How to Create a Final


Report
Make a summary of how the project was carried

out.
Evaluate the performance of the project team.
Explain the issues encountered.
Provide recommendations for future projects.
Example: A project to create a website for a client.
The final report includes:
An overview of the project's initial objectives
and specification.
Key changes to the objectives.
Recommendations for similar projects.

What Else?

---------

Why?

Close Project or Phase


Outputs

Inputs
Project
management
plan

Tools &
Techniques

Accepted
deliverables

Expert
Judgment

Organization
al process
assets

Analytical
Techniques
Meetings

Final
product,
service, or
result
Organization
al process
assets
updates

Close procurements
The process of completing each project

procurement.
It supports the Close Project or Phase process,
since it involves verification that all work and
deliverables were acceptable.

Close procurements
For all procurements and contracts.
Happens when:
A contract ends.
A contract is terminated before work

completion.
All contracts must be closed, no matter what.
Closing a contract provides a formal written
verification that work and deliverables were
accepted.

Close Procurement Vs.


Close a Project or Phase
Closing procurement occurs first.
Closing a project or phase maybe done at the end

of project or phase, while closing a procurement


happens at the end of the contract.
Closing contracts require more record keeping due
to legal implications.

Close Project or Phase

Integration

Procurement

Close Project
Or Phase

Close
Procurements

Contract Terminations
Contracts are terminated usually by buyers

due to:
Cause (seller doesnt perform)
Convenience (work no more needed)
Contracts should have provisions for
stopping work before completion.
Rights and responsibilities of parties in
early termination are contained in a
termination clause in the contract

Close Procurements
Inputs
Project
management
plan
Procurement
Document

Tools &
Techniques
Procurement
Audits.
Procurement
Negotiations
Records
Management
System

Outputs
Closed
Procurement
s
Organization
al process
assets
updates

Activities taken to Close a


Procurement
Verify Product.
Close financial records.
Update records.
Prepare final contract performance report.
Close contract file.
Perform procurement audit.
Finalize lessons learned.
Final acceptance and closure.

Contents of Contract File


Contract.
Change requests.
Seller performance reports.
Financial information.
Inspection (audit) results.
Lessons learned.

PMBOK Reading
Chapter 4
Section 4.6
Chapter 12
Section 12.4

PART XVII

PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY
CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL
CONDUCT

Code of Ethics and


Professional Conduct
Describes the expectations that we have of

ourselves and our fellow practitioners in the global


project management community
It articulates the ideals to which we aspire as well

as the behaviors that are mandatory in our


professional and volunteer roles

Purpose & Target Group


Purpose
Instil confidence in the project management

profession
Help individuals become better practitioners
Target Group
All PMI members
All PMI credential holders
Individuals in the process of application for

PMI credentials
PMI volunteers

Structure
4 Values
Responsibility
Respect
Fairness
Honesty
Each value has:
Mandatory Conduct
Aspirational Conduct

Mandatory Vs.
Aspirational Conduct
Mandatory
Establish firm requirements, and in some cases,

limit or prohibit practitioner behavior.


Aspirational
Describe the conduct that we strive to uphold as

practitioners
Although adherence to the aspirational standards
is not easily measured, conducting ourselves in
accordance with it is not optional
The conduct covered under the aspirational

standards and conduct covered under the


mandatory standards are not mutually exclusive

Responsibility

Definition

Our duty to take ownership for the decisions we


make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to
take, and the consequences that result.

ResponsibilityAspirational Standards
We make decisions and take actions based on the

best interests of society, public safety, and the


environment
We accept only those assignments that are consistent
with our background, experience, skills, and
qualifications
We fulfill the commitments that we undertake we do
what we say we will do.
When we make errors or omissions, we take
ownership and make corrections promptly.
When we discover errors or omissions caused by
others, we communicate them to the appropriate
body as soon they are discovered.
We protect proprietary or confidential information that

Responsibility
Mandatory
Responsibility
We report unethical or illegal conduct to

appropriate management and, if necessary, to


those affected by the conduct.
We report unethical or illegal conduct to
appropriate management and, if necessary, to
those affected by the conduct.
We bring violations of this Code to the attention of
the appropriate body for resolution
We only file ethics complaints when they are
substantiated by facts.
We pursue disciplinary action against an individual
who retaliates against a person raising ethics
concerns.

Respect
Description

Our duty to show a high regard for


ourselves, others, and the resources
entrusted to us

Respect- Aspiriational
Standard
We inform ourselves about the norms and

customs of others and avoid engaging in


behaviors they might consider disrespectful.
We listen to others points of view, seeking to

understand them.
We approach directly those persons with whom

we have a conflict or disagreement.


We conduct ourselves in a professional manner,

even when it is not reciprocated.

Respect Mandatory
Standard
We negotiate in good faith.
We do not exercise the power of our expertise or

position to influence the decisions or actions of


others in order to benefit personally at their
expense.
We do not act in an abusive manner toward others.
We respect the property rights of others.

Fairness
Description

Our duty to make decisions and act


impartially and objectively. Our conduct
must be free from competing self interest,
prejudice, and favoritism.

Fairness- Aspirational
Responsibility
We demonstrate transparency in our decision-

making process.
We constantly reexamine our impartiality and

objectivity, taking corrective action as appropriate.


We provide equal access to information to those

who are authorized to have that information.


We make opportunities equally available to

qualified candidates

Fairness Mandatory
Responsibility
We proactively and fully disclose any real or

potential conflicts of interest to the appropriate


stakeholders.
When we realize that we have a real or potential
conflict of interest, we refrain from engaging in the
decision-making process or otherwise attempting to
influence outcomes
We do not hire or fire, reward or punish, or award or
deny contracts based on personal considerations,
including but not limited to, favoritism, nepotism, or
bribery.
We do not discriminate against others based on,
but not limited to, gender, race, age, religion,
disability, nationality, or sexual orientation.

Honesty

Description
Our duty to understand the truth and act in a
truthful manner both in our communications and
in our conduct.

Honesty Aspirational
Responsibility
We earnestly seek to understand the truth.
We are truthful in our communications and in

our conduct.
We provide accurate information in a timely

manner.
We make commitments and promises, implied

or explicit, in good faith.


We strive to create an environment in which

others feel safe to tell the truth.

Honesty Mandatory
Standard
We do not engage in or condone behaviour that is

designed to deceive others, including but not limited


to:
Making misleading or false statements
Stating half-truths,
Providing information out of context, or
withholding information that, if known, would
render our statements as misleading or
incomplete.
We do not engage in dishonest behaviour with the

intention of personal gain or at the expense of


another

At Orange
We are direct
and easy to
understand.
We keep things
simple. We
focus only on
whats
important.

We are passionate, confident and


focused
on the future. We push the
boundaries.
We make a difference to peoples
We take the time to listen.
lives.
We treat
everyone as individuals. We
enjoy
working and succeeding
together

Orange Values

We are brave. We dare to do


things differently, to find a
better way. We give colour
to all that we do.

We are open. We say what we


do and
we do what we say. We are
happy to share

At Orange
Confidentiality
We use code names for TTM projects, we communicate

and discuss projects using code names


We keep our desks clan, we dont keep sensitive TTM
information on our desks
We dont discuss TTM projects in open areas, we meet
and discuss TTM projects in isolated areas
We dont send sensitive TTM information such as
deliverables and presentations by email, we use
instantis as a communication tool
We use shredders to get rid from sensitive TTM
documents
We determine who should review what on instantis, we
mark sensitive information as confidential on instantis
and we give access to selected team members

THANK YOU

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AND
CERTIFICATION PROGRAM (PMP)
MOHAMMAD AMAWI-PMP,PMOC

GETTING
STARTED
The Certificates
About the exam

Applying to take the exam


Preparing for the exam
How does the exam look like
Taking the exam

Take a sample exam

THE CERTIFICATES
There are a number of project management

certificates, taking this course qualifies you to take


one of the following certificates:
Project Management Professional PMP
Certified Associate in Project Management

CAPM

THE CERTIFICATES
Code of
Conduct

Time of
Exam

Questions

Yes

3 hours

150

4 hours

200

Yes

PM
PM
Education Certificate
Experience Training

None

25 hours Bachelor
Degree

4500 hour
35 hours
(3 years)

Bachelor
Degree

CAPM

PMP

ABOUT THE EXAM


% of Questions

# of Questions

PMI Process

13%

26

Initiation

24%

48

Planning

30%

60

Execution

25%

50

Control

8%

16

Closing

ABOUT THE EXAMS

PMI exams require certain procedures to qualify for tak

the exam eligibility


Eligibility letters can be acquired online.
The exam measures the following:
Project Management knowledge
Practical experience
Common sense
Ethics & principles

Applying for the Exam


Apply for the Eligibility Online
Visit PMIs website

https://certification.pmi.org/
Log in using username and password
You have 3 months to complete the process
Fill all the required information:
Address
Education
Experience
Details of completed projects
Contact Information for Managers and
Supervisors
Project management education

Applying for The Exam

In the experience section: fill in all the information about

your project management related experience.


Project Title
Role in project
Primary Industry
Time spent on the project
Summary of tasks
Only Project-related work counts, operational work is

not considered part of the required experience.

Applying for The Exam


Contact Prometric Center to schedule for

the exam.
Specify a time, date, and exam center
Make sure you know where the exam center is
ahead of time, visit before the day of the
exam

Application Rules
A new and improved online application.
Collection of project contact information.
Instant audit notification.
One-year eligibility period.
Limit on the number of times candidates will be

permitted to test. Candidates will have three


opportunities to take and pass the PMP
examination within their one-year eligibility period.
If candidates do not succeed on the third attempt,
candidates will have to wait one year from their
third unsuccessful attempt before being permitted

Few Tips
The exam measures the capability of using

knowledge and experience in real life, therefore most


of the questions are situational
Only few questions require that you MEMORIZE the
inputs, outputs, tools and techniques.
Dont waste your time trying to memorize inputs,
outputs, tools and techniques. Itll do you no good.
Time of the exam is enough, no one ever complained
about time.
You might use the same data for more than one
question

Few Tips
Expect 18-22 formula based questions (CPM, EVM

and others)
The length of the question does not indicate that
its a difficult one. And the length of the answer
does not necessarily indicate that its the right
one.
Many questions have more than one right answer,
you have to choose the BEST.
A right statement does not make it the right
answer to the question.
The questions jump from one topic to another
without a specific sequence.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Situational questions
You received Notification that a major item you are

purchasing for a project will be delayed, what is the


BEST Thing to do?
Ignore it, it will go away
Notify your boss
Let the customer know about it and talk over
options
Meet with the team to identify alternatives.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Two or more right answers
Extraneous information
Questions using made up terms
Where understanding is important
New approach to known topic
Questions with more than one item in each

choice
Excessively wordy questions

Extraneous information
Your company is a major manufacturer of doors,

and has received numerous awards for quality. As


the head of manufacturing department, you have
230 people reporting to you on 23 different
projects. Experience shows that each time you
double the production of doors, unit costs
decrease by 10 percent. Based on this, the
company determines that production of 3,000
doors costs $ 21,000. This case illustrates:
Learning cycle
Law of diminishing return
80/20 rule
Parametric estimating

Questions Using Made


Up Terms
A form of project organization where power is

evenly shared between the functional manager


and the project manager is called:
A tight matrix
A weak matrix
A balanced matrix
A strong matrix

Where Understanding is
Important
The process of decomposing deliverables into

smaller, more manageable components is


complete when:
Project justification has been established
Change requests have occurred
Cost and duration estimates can be
developed for each work element at this
detail
Each work element can be found in the WBS
Dictionary

New approach to know


topic
In a matrix organization, information dissemination

is MOST likely to be effective when:


Information flows both horizontally and
vertically
The communications flows are kept simple
There is an inherent logic in the type of matrix
shown
Project managers and functional managers
socialize

Questions with more than


one item in each choice
The seller on the project has presented the project manager with a

formal notification that the seller has been damaged by the buyers
activities. The seller claims that the buyers slow response to
sending the seller approvals has delayed the project, and has
caused the seller unexpected expense. The FIRST things the
project manager should do are:
Collect all relevant data, send the data to the company lawyer,
and consult with him about legal actions
Review the contract for specific agreed-upon terms that relate
to the issue, see if there is a clear response, and consult with
the lawyer if needed
Review the statement of work for requirements, send a receipt
of claim response, and meet to resolve the issue without
resorting to legal actions if possible
Hold a meeting with the team to review why the acceptances
have been late, make a list of the specific reasons, and resolve
those reasons

STUDYING FOR THE EXAM


Reading the material
Reviewing PMBOK - Project Management

Body of Knowledge
Processes in each knowledge area
Inputs, tools & techniques, outputs of
processes
Review code of professional conduct
Solve a lot of practice questions

STUDYING FOR THE EXAM


Rule of Threes
Test-taking mode
Step-by-step

Take a comprehensive exam


Go back to the areas you scored less in, and
study them in concentration
Review other areas
Review answers
Retake the entire exam

BEFORE THE EXAM

Review material
Eat a good meal, see some TV, go out with friends
Get a good night sleep (dont study material, dont stay

up all night)
Take the day of the exam off work (or at least the
morning)
Eat a good meal, drink some coffee, juice.

THE DAY OF THE EXAM


Schedule the exam between 9-10
Wear comfortable cloths, shoes
Leave the house at least 45 minutes before the

exam starts
Take two Identification cards and the eligibility
letter
No calculator, no cell phone, no review notes, no
smoking
Take a snack (they might allow it)

DURING THE EXAM


Watch the time regularly
Skip questions you cant answer instantly
Use Mark function
At the middle mark of the exam, stand up, and

do some exercise
Use your time wisely
Control your frustration

REFERENCES
1- My Life is Failure. By: Jim Johnson
2- The Alpha Project Manager. By: Andy Crowe
3- The Lazy Project Manager. By: Peter Taylor
4- How to win friends and influence people. By:
Dale Carnegie
5- Critical Chain. By: Elyahu Goldratt
6- The One Minute Manager. By: Kim
Blanchard.
7- The Goal. By: Elyahu Goldratt.
8- Who moved my cheese. By: Spencer
Johnson.
9- Emotional Intelligence. By: Daniel Goleman.
10- Leading Change. By: John Kotter