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ACI Method of Mix Design

Start

If slump is not given, decide the slump:


Use Table 3.1

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Table 3.1
Recommended Slumps For Various Types of
Construction

Slump (in)

Types of Construction
Reinforced Footings
Plain Footings
Beams
Building Columns
Pavement and Slab
Mass Concrete

Max
3
3
4
4
3
2

Min
1
1
1
1
1
1

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Decide the maximum size of aggregate; choose the


maximum possible size using the following guidelines:
Maximum size not > 1/5 narrower dimension between forms
not > 1/3 depth of slab
not > of clear spacing between reinforcing
bars
Decide the amount of water and air (Table 3.2)

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Table 3.2 Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for
Different Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates

Water (Ib/yd3 of concrete for indicated nominal maximum sizes of


aggregate)
Nonair-Entrained Concrete
Slump (in)
11/2 in. 2in. 3 in. 6in.
3/8 in.
1/2 in.
3/4 in. 1 in
1 to 2
350
335 315
300 275
260 220 190
3 to 4
385
365 340
325 300
285 245 210
6 to 7
410
385 360
340 315
300 270
---Amount of
Entrapped
Air (%)

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

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Table 3.2 Approximate Mixing Water and Air Content Requirements for
Different Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates

Water (Ib/yd3 of concrete for indicated nominal maximum sizes of


aggregate)
Air-Entrained Concrete
Slump (in)
11/2 in. 2in. 3 in. 6in.
3/8 in.
1/2 in.
3/4 in. 1 in
1 to 2 305
295
280
270 250
240 205 180
3 to 4 340
325
305 295 275
265 225 200
6 to 7 365
345
325
310 290
280 260
---(Air Content %)
Mild Exposure 4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

Moderate Exp. 6.0


Extreme Exp. 7.5

5.5
7.0

5.0
6.0

4.5
6.0

4. 5
5.5

4.0
5.0

3.5
4.5

3.0
4.0
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Select the W/C ratio (Table 3.3)

Calculate Cement Content (=C/W * wt of


water)

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Table 3.3 Relationship Between Water/Cement Ratio and


Compressive Strength of Concrete

Compressive Strength
At 28 days (psi)
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000

Water/Cement Ratio by Weight


Nonair-entrained
Air-entrained
Concrete
Concrete
0.41
0.48
0.57
0.68
0.82

----0.4
0.48
0.59
0.74

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Choose the amount of coarse aggregate


Table 3.4
Calculate the amount of fine aggregate
using estimated weight of fresh concrete
(Table 3.5) and the known weights of
water, cement, and coarse aggregate
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Table 3.4 Volume of Coarse Aggregate per Unit of Volume of Concrete

Volume of Coarse Aggregate per unit Volume


of Concrete for different Fineness Moduli of Sand
Max Size of
Aggregate
3/8 in.

2.40
0.50

2.60
0.48

2.80
0.46

3.00
0.44

in.
3/4 in.
1 in
11/2 in.
2in.
3 in.
6in.

0.59
0.66
0.71
0.75
0.78
0.82
0.87

0.57
0.64
0.69
0.73
0.76
0.80
0.85

0.55
0.62
0.67
0.71
0.74
0.78
0.83

0.53
0.60
0.65
0.69
0.72
0.76
0.81

1/2

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Table 3.5 First Estimate of Weight of Fresh Concrete (Ib/yd3)

Max Size of
Aggregate
3/8 in.
1/2 in.
3/4 in.
1 in
11/2 in.
2 in.
3 in.
6 in.

Nonair-Entrained
Concrete
3844
3890
3960
4010
4070
4120
4160
4230

Air-Entrained
Concrete
3690
3760
3840
3900
3960
4000
4040
4120

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Example: Mix Design of NormalWeight Concrete


Design a concrete mix using the following details

Required strength:

4000 psi

Type of structure:

Beam

Max size of aggregate:

in.

Fineness modulus of sand:

2.6

Coarse Aggregate Weight:

100 Ib/ft3
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Moisture absorption for coarse aggregate

3%

Moisture absorption for fine aggregate

2%

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Solution
Required slump for beams (Table 3.1)

3 in.

Maximum aggregate size (given)

in.

For a slump between 3 and 4 in. and a maximum aggregate


size of in.
Weight of water required per cubic yard of concrete (Table 3.2)
=

340 Ib/yd3

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Compression strength fc

4000 psi

W/C ratio (Table 3.3)

0.57

596.5 Ib/yd3

Amount of cement

340/.57

Using a sand fineness value of 2.6 and Table3.4


Volume of coarse aggregate

0.64 yd3

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Weight of coarse aggregate

= (0.64)*(27 ft3/yd3)*100
=1728 Ib/yd3

Estimated weight of fresh concrete for aggregate of in. maximum size


(Table 3.5)
Weight of sand

= 3960 Ib/yd3
= [weight of fresh concrete weight of

(water + cement + coarse aggregate) =3960-340-596.5-1728 =1295.5 Ib


Net weight of sand

1.02* 1295.5

=1321.41 Ib

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Net weight of gravel = 1.03*1728


=
Net weight of water =
0.03*1728

1779.84 Ib
340- 0.02*1295.5= 262.25 Ib

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For one yd3 of Concrete


Cement
Sand
Gravel
Water

=
=
=

=
596.50 Ib
1321.41 Ib
1779.84 Ib
262.25 Ib

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Adjust for moisture content in coarse and


fine aggregate
Trial Mix

End
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