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A Practical Introduction to

Enterprise Java Beans


A Component Technology
IN 30 MINs

DO YOU WANT
TO ANSWER MOST
OF THE
EJB QUESTIONS ?

THEN LET ME
HELP YOU!

EJB

The Heart of J2EE


BY

Kantimahanti Prasad
Kanti.Prasad@pramerica.ie or Kanti1@donegal.net
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

1. Learning objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Component Technology characteristics


Standard Infrastructure needs
Application Servers
Containers
J2EE Architecture and its components
EJB Model, Overview & JNDI
EJB Specifications, Roles
EJB Design Approaches, Architecture
Types of Beans
EJB Interfaces & Session Contexts
Life cycles of different Beans
EJB Jar files & Deployment Descriptor
Sample examples
Components comparison

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

A STAR or a
different color
represents
important
points to NOTE

2. About the Author


Kantimahanti.N.S.Prasad
Worked in fortune 100 Corporates in Client Server Technologies.
Specializes in
Architecture, Designing, Development & Managing day-to-day activities.
Presently doing a PhD at Queens Uty, U.K in Adaptable Software specific to
Component Technologies and has a M.B.A (Computer Applications) from an U.S. Uty.
Business domain strengths are in Investment banking & Insurance.
U NEVER
FAIL
TILL U QUIT

Process improvement strengths are in 6 - Sigma and CMM.

His present & past working experiences in various global locations are in corporates like
Pramerica (Prudential U.S), J P Morgan Chase, A B N Amro Bank & SGS.
He was a part time visiting faculty in affiliates of Sydney University, Australia and All India Management
Institute teaching I.T, Project Management & Statistics. He has given some presentations on Project
Management and TQM at various venues. He has won few Talent/STAR performance awards and plays
almost all the sports what are under the Sun.
He hails from Vizag/ Hyderabad India. His 3 rd party tested Temperament Sorter results are below
https://www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter/testresult.asp?TID=740281673499&PID=15800
https://www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter/testresultc.asp?TID=740281662156&PID=13606

If you liked his presentation, tell others and if you have a comment, tell him. He can be reached at
Kanti.Prasad@Pramerica.ie or Kanti1@donegal.net

3. Thank you note


He wishes to thank Paul Perrone , Paulo Merson & Ramesh Behra for making
this tutorial look the way it does.
He wishes to thank to Katherine Ballantyne, Choi Kwan who volunteers to
edit all of his Articles & Presentations.
He wishes to thank Joerg Mueller, Muruganandam, CharlesJohnson & Venu
Gadium who had volunteered to do the editing of this presentation.
Special thanks to all his Managers at Pramerica and Prudential U.S.

Thank
Thankyou
youfor
fordownloading
downloadingmy
myPresentation
Presentation
ARUNA

SUNAYANA

SADHGI

his Parents

Dr.Rao &
Family

DEDICATED TO
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

his Brothers his Sisters & his Cousins

4. Component Technology
Components are deployable units that provide a
business service to their clients.

Each component provides an interface in the form of operations,


properties and events
Components can be developed in any language such as JAVA,C++,VB
Components are frequently organized into application frameworks for
vertical domains
Component models such as Active X and EJB
standardize
communication and allow for prebuilt purchased components

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

5. Component Characteristics
Components Characteristics include

Properties

Reusability

Operations

Shareable

Events

Distributable

Deployable

Self Containment

Self description

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

6. Component P O E
Components should have a mechanism for exporting

Properties

Operations

Events

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

7. Deployable Components

Components are operation independent of

Hardware
The underlying operating system
Their Application Server
The network protocol they use

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

8. Reusable Components

Component services can be used as a part of


business logic of other components

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

9. Shareable Components

If multiple clients are using a component


simultaneously, the component will provide
the same quality of service to all the clients

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

10. Distributable Components


Components should provide services to clients
running locally or remotely

EJB Container
EJB

Possible
Remote
CLIENTS

Local
CLIENTS

Remote
CLIENTS

Remote
CLIENTS

Remote
CLIENTS

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

11. SelfContained Components


Components should only contain the code
necessary to implement their services
Infrastructure services should be injected by
the execution environment

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

12. Standard Infrastructure Needs


Standard infrastructure services include

Directory Services
Distributed transaction management
Security management
Concurrent access management
Persistence management
Resource pooling (e.g. DB connections)
Administration interface
Load Balancing
Fault tolerance

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

13. Applicatoin Servers


An application server provides the infrastructure and
services to run components/applications
Application Server products are mostly

J2EE
based
solutions

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Non-J2EE
solutions
(PHP, Cold Fusion,
Perl, etc.)

Microsoft Solutions
(COM, ASP.Net
VB.Net,C# etc.)

14. Object Pooling


An application server may create a pool of bare objects
that may be used as EJBs when requests are made

App Server
EJB Container
EJB
EJB
CLIENT
Network
CLIENT
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Pool
EJB

EJB

EJB
EJB

DB

15. Directory of Application Servers


Application Servers provide clients access to software or
other applications that run only on the server
Examples include web servers, e-mail servers and database servers
Popular Application Servers are:

I.B.M. Web Sphere


BEA Web Logic
Sun Java System Application Server 7.x
Jboss

The full list with vital statistics are available at


http://www.devx.com/enterprise/html/16268
http://www.javacommerce.com/articles/serverlist.htm

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

16. Container
Container means a
pre developed Software

A Container :

Fish cannot survive outside water &


EJBs cannot survive outside containers

provides the environment in which a bean executes


generates Home Object
generates EJB Object
Implicit Middleware

manages individual bean instances

&

To increase capability.
clustering is taken care
by the vendor

Transaction

gained through declaration

Container provides System services like

Persistence

Security

Connection

Pooling

Threading

App Server
EJB Container
EJB
STUB
CLIENT

Network

Container
intercepts
requests

EJB
EJB

Container knows what to do, as you describe everything in a special descriptor file
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

17. J2EE Overview


Deployment
Deployment
Descriptors
Descriptors(DDs)
(DDs)

Web Server Independence


Application Server
Independence
Database Independence
Enterprise Resource
Management Services
Distributed Communication
Services
Common Programming
Services
Operating System
Independence
Hardware Independence
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Enterprise Components
services

standards

component-based

J2EE
Container/Server
J2EE Interfaces
Management Services
Deployment/Configuration
J2SE Language/Interfaces
J2SE Runtime
Operating System Platform
Hardware Platform

Deploy
Tools

Data

18. J2EE 1.4 APIs


J2EE defines a model for developing multi-tier, web based,
enterprise applications with distributed components
Applet
Container HTTP/S
Applet
J2SE

Web Container
JSP

Application Client
Container
HTTP/S

X C B S
R C S

JAF

JMX A D N B
I
C

EJB
JAX- J J
RPC A A
X C
SAAJ
R C

W J
E M
B S
S

Java Mgmt J
J
J
C
N
D
Mail
T
O
D
B
JAF JMX A
N

J2SE

Client
RMI/
IIOP

J2SE
4 TIER

3 TIER

JAX- J
W Mgmt
J
J
C
RPC A
E
D
M
O
X
B JMX
B
SAAJ
S
N
R
S
C

EJB Container

Servlet

JSP Servlet ENGINE


JAX- J J W J Java Mgmt
J
J
J
C
RPC A A E M Mail
N
D
T
O
SAAJ

RMI/
IIOP

EIS
DAO
DB

2 TIER

J2SE

MainFrames

For all the APIs refer http://java.sun.com/j2ee/1.4/docs/tutorial/doc/index.html


Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

19. Enterprise JavaBeans Model


EJB is Suns J2EE transactional, vendor-neutral,
enterprise component architecture providing

Modelling of business entities as well as synchronous and


asynchronous processes
Persistence via explicit code (bean-managed) or via services of the EJB
server (container-managed)
Vendor neutrality and inter operability
XML driven deployment and configuration

EnterpriseJava Beans
EJBs need a Container
EJBs are deployable components
EJBs are assembled to form a complete Appl
EJBs are based on RMI IIOP and JNDI Technologies
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

!=

Java Beans
JBs do not need a container
JBs are development components
JBs are Classes with no argument constructor
JBs have a get and a set method on them

20. EJB Overview


EJB simplified distributed development
Develop EJB implementation logic
Define Home/Local Remote/Local interfaces
Container delegates client calls
Container manages resources/lifecycle/callbacks

EJB Client
LocalHome

Client Process

EJB
Client

create
remove
find
STUB

Home
create
remove
find
Remote
invoke

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Network

Local

invoke
STUB

EJB Impl
create timeout
remove passivate
activate
find
load
invoke
store

Delegate
Delegate
Delegate
Delegate

EJB
Pool

J2EE EJB Container/Server

21. When to use EJB


If any of these requirements hold for your application

the application must be scalable and distributable


Transactions will be required to ensure data integrity
the application will have a variety of clients

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

22. Java Naming and


Directory Interface (JNDI)
JNDI
Provides a standardized way of accessing resources in a distributed
environment
Protocol and naming service agnostic

DNS

NDIS

LDAP

X.500
Implemented by the javax.naming package and three other packages
below it
javax.naming.InitialContext is the entry point to the EJB Server

bind associates a name with an object

lookup finds an object given the name


Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

23. EJB Specification


The EJB specification defines interfaces between

the EJB and its container


the container and the application server
the container and the client

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

24. EJB Roles


Service & Tool Provider
provides Server, Container and integrates with distributed facilities

EJB Provider

Application Assembler

creates EJB components

assembles apps from per-built EJB comp

Deployment Specialist
deploys apps and understands architecture issues

builds application

supplies tools

Tools Provider

Application Assembler

develops EJBs
EJB Provider
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

deploys system

Deployer

supplies Application Server

Application Server Provider

System Administrator
maintains deployment

25. EJB Design Approaches


EJB model is based on three basic design approaches for
building distributed component systems
Stateless server approach
Persistent Object approach

Session-oriented approach

The EJB specification provides these as


Stateless session Beans
Stateful session Beans
All EntityBeans
implements

Interface

javax.ejb.EntityBean
extends

Implementing one of these interfaces


indicates your JAVA class is an EJB.

Message driven beans


Entity Beans

All SessionBeans
implements

All MessageDrivenBeans

Interface

javax.ejb.SessionBean

implements

Interface

javax.ejb.MessageDrivenBean

extends

extends

javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean interface
extends
It is only a marker Interface
java.io.Serializable
and there are no methods to
Implement.
Serialization is the reason
EJB is distributable.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

As all these are extending the


two Interfaces hence they have
the behavior of both the Interfaces.

26. EJB Architecture


Naming

Service such
as LDAP

Naming

Transaction Persistence Server


Security
A
SERVICES

Server B

App Server

JNDI
Initial Context
H

1
H

Home
Obj
Stub

Application
Client
EJB

Obj
Stub

EJB Container

8
Home
Interface

Home Object
(FACTORY)

10

5
6

creates

RMI/IIOP
Remote
Interface

EJB Object
(Wrapper)

EIS

EJB

DB

(Business Logic Class)

MainFrames

delegates request

11
Container implements/autogenerates code for the Interfaces

we have written

We will write only this Container manages TRANSACTIONS, PERSISTENCE, SECURITY & POOLING
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

27. EJB Flow Chart


C

Start

ask JNDI Server for the Home Object

JNDI Server returns ref of Home Stub

ask Home for the EJB Object

returns reference of Remote Stub

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

invokes a business method


thru Remote Stub

goes to the JNDI Server


and gets the EJB Object

Remote Interface then wraps


a request to the Bean class

creates EJB Object

Clients receives the required info

End

28. Client View of EJB


ENTITY BEANS are like NOUNS as they represent data or data related logic.

App Server
EJB Container
EJB Home or
EJB Local Home

Application
Client

RMI/
IIOP

EJB Object or
EJB Local Object

JMS Destination

e.g
Bank teller
Credit Card authorization

Session Bean
instance

Entity Bean
instance

e.g
Bank account balance
Purchase order

Message Driven
Bean instance

e.g
Stock trade messages
Work flow messages

SESSION BEANS are like VERBS as they represent action or business process related logic.
MESSAGE DRIVEN BEANS have message oriented logic.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

If all the processing is done in the same Application server then we use
EJB Local(Object & Home) interfaces. Using local interfaces are optional.
Local interfaces pass by REFERENCE and EJB (Object/Home) pass by VALUE.
Using local interfaces avoids stubs, skeletons, network and so it is faster.

29. EJB Client


EJB clients
utilizes the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) to look up
for the references to home interfaces
use home and remote EJB interfaces to utilize all EJB-based
functionality

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

30. EJB Home Interface


EJB home interfaces extends javax.ejb.EJBHome
EJB home interfaces provide operations for clients to
create EJBs
remove EJBs
find handles to EJB remote interface objects
have its stub placed into JNDI at startup

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

31. EJB Remote


EJB remote interfaces extends javax.ejb.EJBObject
EJB remote interfaces
provide business-specific functionality of an EJB
are similar to RMI Remote interface

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

32. EJB Implementation


EJB implementation
Class in which EJB developer codes the business methods
defined in the beans component interface(s) to provide any
application specific

business method invocation


creation
removal
finding
activation
passivation, database storage
database loading logic

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

33. Session Context


The Container has already reference to the bean
The bean interacts with the Container through SessionContext and

retrieves home interfaces


gets and sets transactions attributes
obtains security attribute

The setSessionContext method is used to inform the bean


about the session context

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

34. Stateless Session EJB


Stateless session EJBs have the following behaviour

provide a single use service


do not maintain state on behalf of the client
are relatively short lived
do not survive EJB server crashes
any two instances of the same stateless session EJB
type are always identical
each instance can be shared by multiple clients

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

35. Stateless Session EJBs View


Stateless Session

EJB Client

EJB
Client

Home
Remote

Logic

LocalHome Local

Client Process
Network

input

EJB Pool

output

J2EE EJB Container/Server

EJB Impl Developer View


EJB gets requests and generates responses
An instance can service multiple clients over time
EJB Client Developer View
creates it, uses it and then its done

EJB Container View


can pull instances from pool upon client request
can shrink/grow pool as needed
A few pooled beans can service thousands of clients

36. Life Cycle of Stateless Session Bean


Each method call is an
invocation from the
container to the Bean

Container decided it
needs more instances
in the pool to service clients

Bean Instance
does not exiist
Class.newInstance()
setSessionContext()

ejbRemove()

ejbCreate()

Pool of equivalent
method ready instances
Client called another
Transactional business method
on the EJB Object.

Transactional
Business Method

Client called remove()


on the EJB object
(or the client times out)

37. Stateful Session EJBs View


Stateful Session

EJB Client

EJB
Client

Home
Remote

Logic
State

LocalHome Local

Client Process
Network

input

EJB Pool

output

J2EE EJB Container/Server


EJB Impl Developer View
EJB gets requests and generates responses
An instance can service multiple clients over time
EJB Client Developer View
creates it, uses it and then its done
EJB Container View
can pull instances from pool upon client request
can shrink/grow pool as needed

38 .Life Cycle of Stateful Session Bean


Each method call is an
Invocation from the
container to the Bean

Client called remove()


on the EJB object
(or the client times out)

Bean Instance
does not exiist

Client called create(args)


on the home Interface.

Class.newInstance()
setSessionContext()
Client called a
non-transactional business
method on the EJBObject

Bean instance is ready


to service method calls

ejbPassivate()
ejbActivate()

Client called a transactional


business method on the
EJB Object

beforeCompletion()
afterBegin()

Client called another


Transactional business method
on the EJB Object.

Client times out

ejbCreate(args)
Non-Transactional
Business Method

If transaction ended
in a commit..

ejbRemove()

Containers limit of
instantiated beans
are reached, so it must
swap your bean out.

afterCompletion(true)

Bean instance is within


a transaction and ready
to service method calls

afterCompletion(false)

Client called a method


on a passivated bean, so
Container must swap your
Bean back in

We need to write all


the methods that
are there in the

Transactional
Business Method

Bean instance is in
the passive state

Implemented class

If we implement Javax.ejb.SessionSynchronization then we need to


write these methods.

If transaction ended
in an abort.

39. Stateful vs Stateless


Stateful Bean

Stateless Bean

A stateful bean contains a conversational state that is


retained across method calls and transactions.

A stateless bean does not have any state between calls to


its methods.

The create method takes arguments


e.g. create(String id) , create(int I , String id)
There can be one or more arguments in a create method

The create method does not take arguments


e.g create()
There can be no arguments in a create method

e.g
An EJB that unzips 100 bytes of data
An EJB that checks to see if a stock symbol is valid

e.g
An EJB that books a flight and rents a car at a travel agents
web site.

Method by method comparison can be seen in EJB20Matrix.doc at http://www.volantec.biz/cmp20.htm

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

40. Entity Bean


Entity Bean has the following behaviour

They are a representation of persistent data


They can survive a crash
Multiple clients can be using EJBs that represent the
same data
The EJB instance contains a copy of the data in the
persistent store
has a Primary key like in a Database record.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

41. BMP Entity EJBs


(BMP = Bean-Managed Persistence)
Entity Bean (BMP)

EJB Client
LocalHome Local

Client Process
EJB
Client

Hand
Coded
Logic

Home
Remote

Network

EJB Pool

input
output

J2EE EJB Container/Server

Persisted objects (via hand-coding)

data

EJB Impl Developer View


encapsulates data from a data source as objects
implements object-relational mapping (often JDBC)
implements inserts, deletes, queries and updates
EJB Client Developer View
creates, finds, updates and removes entity objects
EJB Container View
persists and manages concurrent access of instances

42. Primary key class

Applicable only to entity beans


Uniquely differentiates instances sharing the same
EJBHome
Class must be a legal value type in RMI-IIOP

Implements java.io.Serializable
all the members should be public
It should implement hashCode() and equals(.. ) methods
does not implement java.rmi.remote

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

43. Shared Entity Bean


When multiple clients share an Entity EJB they

receive their own instance


share the underlying data
do not have to handle synchronization

App Server
EJB Container

CLIENT

EJB
Network

CLIENT
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

EJB

DB

44. Life Cycle of BMP Entity Bean


Each method call is an
Invocation from the
container to the Bean

Container decided it
needs another
Entity Bean insinstance

newInstance()

unsetEntityContext()
JVM will garbage
collectt and call finalize()

setEntityContext()
Client called instance
independent ejbHome()
Business method

Client called a finder


Method on the home
interface
ejbHome()

Client called create() on


the home interface (this will
Create new database data)

Container determined
that the database is out of
synch with the bean. The
Bean needs to load the
new Database data.

ejbFind()

Pooled

Activates the Bean

Passivates the Bean

ejbCreate()

ejbActivate()

ejbStore()\

ejbPostCreate()

ejbLoad()

ejbPassivate()

ejbLoad()
Client called a business
method on a EJBObject

Container decided it
doesnt need the
Entity Bean instance
anymore

Does not exiist

Ready

Business Method

ejbRemove()

ejbStore()

Client called remove()


on the EJB object
(this will destroy
Database data)

Container determined
that the database is out of
synch with the bean. The
Bean needs to store its
Data into the Database

45. CMP Entity EJBs


(CMP = Container-Managed Persistence)
Entity Bean (CMP)

EJB Client
LocalHome Local

Client Process
EJB
Client

Generated
Logic

Home
Remote

Network

EJB Pool

input
output

J2EE EJB Container/Server


Persisted objects (via container services)

data

Persistence
Persistence
DDs
DDs

EJB Impl Developer View


specifies CMP fields and relations among entities in DDs
specifies queries via EJB-QL in DDs
uses tools to map standard object view to specific relational view
EJB Client Developer View
creates, finds, updates and removes entity objects
EJB Container View
persists and manages concurrent access of instances

46. Life Cycle of CMP Entity Bean


Each method call is an
Invocation from the
container to the Bean

NOTE : BMP has no ejbSelect()

Container decided it
needs another
Entity Bean in

newInstance()

unsetEntityContext()
JVM will garbage
collectt and call finalize()

setEntityContext()
Client called instance
independent ejbHome()
Business method
ejbHome()
Client called create() on
the home interface (this will
create new database data)

Container determined
that the database is out of
Synch with the bean. The
Bean needs to load the
new Database data.

Client called a finder


method on the home
Interface, or bean
called its own
ejbSelect()
method to locate
Database data

ejbFind() or ejbSelect()

Pooled

Activates the Bean

Passivates the Bean

ejbCreate()

ejbActivate()

ejbStore()\

ejbPostCreate()

ejbLoad()

ejbPassivate()

ejbLoad()
Client called a business
method on a EJBObject

Container decided it
doesnt need the
Entity Bean instance
anymore

does not exiist

Ready

Business Method
Or ejbSelect()

ejbRemove()

ejbStore()

Client called remove()


on the EJB object
(this will destroy
Database data)

Container determined
that the database is out of
Synch with the bean. The
Bean needs to store its
Data into the Database

47. BMP vs CMP


Bean Managed Persistance

Container Managed Persistance

BMP offers a tactical approach

CMP is more strategic

The developer takes care of handling persistence

Vendor takes care of everything by using O-R or OODB


mappings using metadata.

BMP uses hard coded queries so we can optimize our


queries

A developer cannot optimize performance as the vedor


takes care of it

We should start developing CMP beans, unless we require some kind of special bean, like multi-tables, that
cannot be completely realized with a single bean. Then when we realize that we need something more or that
we prefer handling the persistence (performance issue are the most common reason), we can change the bean
from a CMP to a BMP

Method by method comparison can be seen in EJB20Matrix.doc at http://www.volantec.biz/cmp20.htm


Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

48. Message Driven Bean


MDB has the following behaviour
Is stateless
is a JMS listener
when a JMS message arrives the method
onMessage() is executed
does not survive EJB server crashes
provides a single-use service
is relatively short lived
is only a bean class no interfaces

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

49. Message Driven EJBs


Producer Process
Message
Producer

Messaging

Messaging
Service
Message

Network

API

Message-Driven Bean

Message
Queue

Handler Logic
input

Message

Message
Listener

EJB Pool

J2EE EJB Container/Server

Asynchronous messaging
EJB Impl Developer View
gets async requests via messaging paradigm-specific interface
An instance can service multiple clients over time
EJB Client Developer View
Messages sent to endpoint & handled by messaging service
Specific to particular messaging paradigm used
EJB Container View
pulls instance from pool and delivers message

50. Life Cycle of Message Driven Bean


Each method call is an
Invocation from the
container to the Bean

Container decided it
needs another
Message DrivenBean
Instance

Does not exiist

newInstance()
ejbRemove()
setMessageDrivenContext()
ejbCreate()

Pooled

onMessage()

51. Deployment
Deployment involves taking an EJB compliant bean and

creates XML that describes the EJB


packages the bean and XML into a Jar
generates container files for the EJB
configures properties of the EJB Server

Declaring without programming helps the application assembler to change the XML file easily.
BEAN Provider declares components middleware service requirements in a DEPLOYMENT DESCRIPTOR File.
Bean Provider describes how the Container should perform the LifeCycle Management, Persistence, Transaction and Security.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

52. Other interfaces and classes

Local interfaces are used for access within server context

javax.ejb.EJBLocalHome

javax.ejb.EJBLocalObject

Interfaces for serializing EJB references

E.g.:
Inter component calls
Servlet invocation

HomeHandle - reference to EJBHome


Handle - reference to EJBObject

EJBMetaData interface provides mechanism to gather


information about the bean

reference to EJBHome object


Home, component interface and primary key classes
functions to determine bean type

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

53. Exceptions

System exceptions are unchecked and propagated to the


client as java.rmi.RemoteException
Application exceptions are checked and propagated to the
client as a descendant of java.lang.Exception

EJB-specific exceptions include FinderException,


CreateException, RemoteException (all in javax.ejb
package)

Business method exceptions are at the discretion of the


EJB developer

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

EXAMPLE 1
STATELESS BEAN

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

54. Steps to Develop an EJB


C

Start

Write .java files for the BEAN, HOME


and REMOTE interfaces
Write the Deployment descriptor
Compile all the STEP 1 files into
.class files
Using the Jar utility create an EJB Jar
file containing STEP 2 & STEP 3 files
C

1
5
2

Configure your EJB Server.


E.g DB connections thread pooling etc
Then copy the EJB Jar file

Start your EJB container and


6 confirm that it has loaded
the EJB Jar file.

3
Connect to your EJB by writing a test
7 Client .java file compile it and run it .
4
End

Please download the trial Application Server software from the links provided on the Reference slide at the end.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

55. Hello World Object Model using RMI


We will apply the previous slide flow chart procedure to make up our first EJB
example
These Interfaces comes with Java 2 Platform
java.rmi.Remote

java.io.Serializable

These Interfaces comes with EJB distribution


Javax.ejb.EJBObject

Javax.ejb.EJBHome

Javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean
Javax.ejb.SessonBean

Supplied by the Bean Provider / Developer/ We will write !

We need
to CODE
only Interface
this block
Hello world Remote Interface
Hello
World Home
Generated for us by the Container verdors tools
Hello world EJB Object

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Hello World Home Object

Hello World Bean


Implementation Class

NOTE : Object implementation


is Vendor specific. The container
may implement either
A single object for each client or
A single object for all the clients.

56. Hello World Object Model using LOCAL


If all the processing is done in the same Application server then we use EJB Local (Object & Home) interfaces.
Using local interfaces are optional. Local interfaces pass by REFERENCE and EJB (Object/Home) which is the
previous slide model you saw will pass by VALUE. As these interfaces does not extend Java.rmi.Remote the
overhead of creating stubs, skeletons,network traffic is avoided and so it is faster but the drawback is if our
code relies on Local interfaces then we cannot call a bean remotely.

No Network so
LOCAL IMROVES
PERFORMANCE

These Interfaces comes with Java 2 Platform


java.rmi.Remote

These Interfaces comes with EJB distribution


Javax.ejb.EJBLocalObject

Javax.ejb.EJBLocalHome

java.io.Serializable
Javax.ejb.EnterpriseBean
Javax.ejb.SessonBean

Supplied by the Bean Provider / Developer/ We will write !


Hello world LocalInterfaceWe need
Hello to
World
Local
Home
CODE
only
thisInterface
block

Generated for us by the Container verdors tools


Hello world EJB LocalObject
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Hello World Local Home Object

Hello World Bean


Implementation Class

NOTE : Object implementation


is Vendor specific. The container
may implement either
A single object for each client or
A single object for all the clients.

57. HelloBean Home Interface


EJB Example requirement :
When the client interacts with the EJB we need to return a Hello World greeting.
To provide an EJB with the above requirement we have to create Remote & Home
Interfaces , Bean Business logic class and a deployment descriptor. For clarity please
see the previous slide Hello World Object Model using RMI.
This is the Home Interface for the Home EJB (HelloBean).
Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
package examples ;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
Importing the required files
import javax.ejb.CreateException;
import javax.ejb.EJBHome;
public interface HelloHome extends javax.ejb.EJBHome
Our interface HelloHome is extending EJBHome means it has all the behaviour of EJBHome
{
Hello create() throws java.rmi.RemoteException,
javax.ejb.CreateException;
Interface methods should end with a semicolon ;

This method creates/manufactures the EJBObject and returns it . This create() method corresponds to the
ejbCreate() method in HelloBean.
As for every Interface we need implementation,Note
so Container
implement
code) for Remote
this Home
Interface
In Home will
Interface
we are(autogenerate
throwing 2 exceptions
and
Create .for us, which is the EJBHome Object

NOTE : Rules of Interfaces states that there should be no implementation so you will find only method signatures.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

58. HelloLocalHome Interface


So now lets code the HelloLocalHome Interface
This is the LocalHome Interface for the Home EJB (HelloBean).

package examples ; Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
import javax.ejb.EJBLocalHome;
import javax.ejb.CreateException;
import javax.ejb.FinderException;
import java.util.Collection;
Our interface HelloLocalHome is extending EJBLocalHome means it has all the behaviour of EJBLocalHome

public interface HelloLocalHome extends javax.ejb.EJBLocalHome


{
HelloLocal create() throws javax.ejb.CreateException;
This methodsocreates/manufactures
the EJBLocal
Objectcode)
and
returns
. This
create()
method
corresponds
to the
As for every Interface we need implementation,
Container will implement
(autogenerate
for this itLocal
Home
for us,
which
isathe
LocalHome
Interface
methods
should
end
with
semicolon
; Object
ejbCreate() method in HelloBean.
Note
LocalHome
Interface
we are
throwing
Create and not Remote
there
is no network
NOTE : Rules
of In
Interfaces
states
that there
should
be only
no implementation
so you exception
will find as
only
method
signatures.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

59. HelloBean Remote Interface


So lets code the Remote Interface
Clients interact with the EJB Object through this Remote interface that is why we need to write this interface .

package examples ; Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
import java.util.*;
Importing the required files
import javax.ejb.EJBObject;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
public interface Hello extends javax.ejb.EJBObject
Our interface Hello is extending EJBObject means it has all the behaviour of EJBObject
{
public String hello() throws java.rmi.RemoteException;
As our requirement wants a business logic to greet Hello World a single method would be sufficient .
}
Interface methods should end with a semicolon ;
As Remote interface is used to interact with the Bean we need to mirror all the method signatures what
are there in a Bean class so that is why we are writing only one method in this Remote interface.
Note EJB specification states that all remote calls should throw RemoteException so we are throwing it.
As for every Interface we need implementation, so Container will implement (autogenerate code) for this Remote Interface for us, which is the EJBObject

NOTE : Rules of Interfaces states that there should be no implementation so you will find only method signatures.
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

60. HelloLocal Interface


Clients interact with the EJB Object through this Local interface when there is no network involved. .

package examples ; Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
import javax.ejb.EJBLocalObject;
public interface HelloLocal extends javax.ejb.EJBLocalObject
Our interface Hello is extending EJBLocalObject means it has all the behaviour of EJBLocalObject
{
Interface methods should end with a semicolon ;
public String hello() ;
As our requirement wants a business logic to greet Hello World a single method would be sufficient .
}
As Local interface is used to interact with the Bean we need to mirror all the method signatures what
are there in a Bean class so that is why we are writing only one method in this Local interface.
Note As there is no remote calls no Remote Exception is thrown

As for every Interface we need implementation, so Container will implement (autogenerate code) for this Local Interface for us, which is the EJB Local Object

NOTE : Rules of Interfaces states that there should be no implementation so you will find only method signatures.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

61. The Bean Class


So now lets code the actual EJB Class
This is where we will code our Business logic

package examples ; Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
import java.util.*;
Importing the required files
import javax.ejb.*;
public class HelloBean implements javax.ejb.SessionBean
NOTE : Note
If it is: Entity
this isBean
a class
weand
will not
implement
an Interface
javax.ejb.EntityBean
like the other two
and
(Home
if it is /Message
Remote).driven
This isbean
implementing
we will implement
SessionBean
javax.ejb.MessagedrivenBean
so it is a Session Bean
As per the below note in red we need to write all the methods what are in javax.ejb.SessionBean .
{
private SessionContext
Thisctx;
ejbCreate() corresponds to the Homeobject Create(). NOTE : in Stateless Bean no arguments are sent
public void ejbCreate() { System.out.println(ejbCreate()); }
There is nothing much to clean up.
public void ejbRemove() { System.out.println(ejbRemove());}
These are called
Management or
In Statelss Bean ejbActivate
public void ejbActivate() { System.out.println(ejbActivate());}
Call back methods
and ejbPassivate Do not apply
public void ejbPassivate() { System.out.println(ejbPassivate()); }
public void setSessionContext(javax.ejb.SessionContext ctx) {
Storing the Context in a variable so that it can be queried later .
NOTE : Because it is a Session Bean we are using setSessionContext for Entity Bean we
this.ctx = ctx; }
use setEntityContext and for Message Driven Bean we use setMessageDrivenContext.
public String hello() { System.out.println(Hello());
return Hello World! ; }
Our Business method which matches
} our Remote Interface method signature
Java does not support multiple inheritance so you can extend only one class. To overcome
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

this they had given us the Implementation option . So when we use implement we need to
implement or write all the methods what are there in the interface we implemented.

62. The Deployment descriptor


So now lets complete our EJB by writing the deployment descriptor.

THERE ARE MANY


TOOLS WHICH
CREATES THE
DESCRIPTOR
FOR US

As a Bean provider we need to specify the Middleware needs through this descriptor.
<!DOCTYPE ejb-jar PUBLIC -//Sun Microsystems, Inc. // DTD Enterprise JavaBeans 2.0 //
EN http://java.sun.com.dtd/ejb-jar_2_0.dtd>
XML Standard requirement
<ejb-jar>
<enterprise-beans>
<session>
<ejb-name> Hello </ejb-name> The nickname for this particular Bean
<home>examples.HelloHome</home> The fully qualified name of the Home Interface
<remote>examples.Hello</remote> The fully qualified name of the Remote Interface
<local-home>examples.HelloLocalHome</local-home>
The fully qualified name of the Local HomeInterface
<local>examples.HelloLocal</local> The fully qualified name of the Local Interface
<ejb-class>examples.HelloBean</ejb-class> The fully qualified name of the EJB Class
<session-type>Stateless</session-type> Whether the session bean is stateful or stateless
<transaction-type>Container</transaction-type>
</session>
</enterprise-beans>
</ejb-jar>
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

63. The Client


So now lets code our Client to access our simple stateless session bean.
package examples; Rules of Java says package declaration should be at the beginning and ends with a semi colon
import javax.naming.Context;
importing the necessary files
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import java.util.Properties;
As there is static key word this main method executes first before any other method in that class
public class HelloClient {
public static void main(String [] args) throws Exception{
Properties props = System.getProperties(); Assigning props variable with properties information for JNDI initialization
Context ctx = new InitialContext(props); Obtaining the JNDI initial context is the starting point for connection to a JNDI tree
By passing environment properties we will choose our JNDI driver,network
a reference
to the Home
Object obj = ctx.lookup(HelloHome); Get
location
of the server
etc. Object- the factory for Hello EJB Objects.
HelloHome home = (HelloHome) javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject.narrow(
obj, HelloHome.class);
Use the factory to create the Hello EJB Object. We are then calling the hello() method
We are casting HelloHome here, as Home Objects are RMI-IIOP objects and so we
Hello hello = home.create();
On the EJB Object. The EJB object will delegate the call to the Bean,receive the
Need to use a special RMI-IIOP cast.
Results and return it to us . We then print it on the screen.
System.out.println(hello.hello());
hello.remove();}}
Once we are done with the EJB Object, we can remove it.

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

NOTE : To call Local Interface you need not cast with the PortableRemoteObject. So the
block in red will be changed to
Object obj = ctx.lookup(java:comp/env/HelloLocalHome); ( to get a ref to LocalHome Object)
HelloLocalHome home = (HelloLocalHome)obj;

64. EJB Jar File


The folder structure within the Ejb-jar file is
META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
META-INF/ejb-jar.xml
examples/HelloBean.class
examples/HelloLocalHome.class
examples/HelloLocal.class
examples/Hello.class

Properties
File

Remote/Local
Interface

HomeLocalHome
Interface

Enterprise
Bean Class

Deployment
Descriptor

Jar
Manifest

Jar Creator

Jar
file

DEPLOYED

Or manually run C:\>Jar cf HelloWorld.jar *


Jar file is a .ZIP compression format . META-MF file is a listing file automatically created by the Jar utility.
Please read the Deployment instructions provided by the Application server as it is Vendor specific
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

65. EJB Application Assembler


Jar
file

.JAR

JAR ARC HIEVE (.jar)


EJB-JAR.XML
REMOTE
HOME
EJB

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Deployment
Descriptor

.WAR

Deployment
Tool
WEB ARCHIEVE (.war)
WEB.XML
Enterprise Archive
(.EAR Files)
(Application.XML)

HTML

JSP
Servlets

EXAMPLE 2
STATEFUL BEAN

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Session Remote Interface


package declaration should be in the beginning
package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb;
import java.util.*;
import javax.ejb.EJBObject;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
import samples.ejb.stateful.simple.tools.BookException;

Importing the required classes

Remote Cart is extending EJBObject means Cart has all the behaviour of it
public interface Cart extends EJBObject
Our bean class CartBean methods are mirrored here
{
public void addBook(String title) throws RemoteException;

public void removeBook(String title) throws BookException, RemoteException;

public Vector getContents() throws RemoteException;


}

EJB spec says all remote interface methods need to throw remote exception
There will not be any implementation in Interfaces

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Session Home Interface


package declaration should be in the beginning
package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.rmi.RemoteException;
import javax.ejb.CreateException;
import javax.ejb.EJBHome;

Importing the required classes

CartHome is extending EJBHome means CartHome has all the behaviour of it


public interface CartHome extends EJBHome {
In a Stateful Bean you can have more than one create method taking arguments
Cart create(String person) throws RemoteException, CreateException;
In our bean class CartBean these represent
ejbCreate(String person) & ejbCreate(String person, String id)

Cart create(String person, String id) throws RemoteException,


CreateException;
}

EJB spec says all Home interface methods need to throw remote & create exceptions
There will not be any implementation in Interfaces

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Session Bean Class


package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb;

package declaration should be in the beginning

import java.util.*;
import javax.ejb.*;
import samples.ejb.stateful.simple.tools.BookException;
import samples.ejb.stateful.simple.tools.IdVerifier;

Importing the required classes

public class CartBean implements SessionBean {

CartBean Class is implementing sessionbean means this bean class is a session bean
String customerName;
String customerId;
Vector contents;

We definedThis
this also
method
in the Cart
interface. person) method
represents
the remote
Home create(String

public void ejbCreate(String person) throws CreateException {


if (person == null) {
throw new CreateException("Null person not allowed.");
} else {
customerName = person;
}
customerId = "0";
contents = new Vector();

as this is the Bean class we will implement the business logic here

NOTE : AS we are implementing and not extending we need to write all the methods that are there in the Sessionbean
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Session Bean Class


public void ejbCreate(String person, String id) throws CreateException {
if (person == null) { This also
Werepresents
defined this
the Cart remote
interface
themethod
Home in
create(String
person,
String
throw new CreateException("Null person not allowed.");
} else {
customerName = person;
}

id) method we defined

The new operator is instantiating the instance of a class


IdVerifier idChecker = new IdVerifier();
if (idChecker.validate(id)) {
customerId = id; We are calling the validate(id)
} else {
throw new CreateException("Invalid id: " + id);
}

method from the class ID Verifier

// This block is a supporting business method written in idVerifier class


contents = new Vector();
}

We defined this method in the Cart remote interface

public void addBook(String title) {


contents.addElement(title);
}

We defined this method in the Cart remote interface

public void removeBook(String title) throws BookException {


boolean result = contents.removeElement(title);
We defined contents as
if (result == false) {
throw new BookException(title + " not in cart.");
}
}
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

a vector

Stateful Session Bean Class


We defined this method in the Cart remote interface
public Vector getContents() {
return contents;
}
public CartBean() {}
public void ejbRemove() {}

Bean class constructor


We need to write these methods as we are implementing SessionBean

public void ejbActivate() {}


public void ejbPassivate() {}
public void setSessionContext(SessionContext sc) {}
}

Rules of implement states we need to implement all methods that are there in the implemented interface
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Deployment Descriptor


THERE ARE MANY
TOOLS WHICH
CREATES THE
DESCRIPTOR
FOR US

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>


<!-Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
SUN PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
-->
<ejb-jar version="2.1" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchemainstance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/ejb-jar_2_1.xsd">
<display-name>CartJAR</display-name>
required by any XML document
<enterprise-beans>
<session>
<display-name>CartEJB</display-name>
The nickname for this particular Bean
<ejb-name>CartEJB</ejb-name>
<home>samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb.CartHome</home> The fully qualified name of the Home Interface
The fully qualified name of the Remote Interface
<remote>samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb.Cart</remote>
<ejb-class>samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb.CartBean</ejb-class> The fully qualified name of the EJB Class
<session-type>Stateful</session-type>
Bean type is mentioned here
<transaction-type>Container</transaction-type>
<security-identity>
<use-caller-identity/>
</security-identity>
</session>
Closing session and ejb
</enterprise-beans>

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Stateful Deployment Descriptor


<assembly-descriptor>
<container-transaction>
<method>
<ejb-name>CartEJB</ejb-name>
<method-intf>Remote</method-intf>
<method-name>getContents</method-name>
</method>
<trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute>
</container-transaction>
<container-transaction>
<method>
<ejb-name>CartEJB</ejb-name>
<method-intf>Remote</method-intf>
<method-name>removeBook</method-name>
<method-params>
<method-param>java.lang.String</method-param>
</method-params>
</method>
<trans-attribute>NotSupported</trans-attribute>
</container-transaction>

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Passing Bean class methods and parameter info

Passing Bean class methods and parameter info

Stateful Deployment Descriptor


<container-transaction>
<method>
<ejb-name>CartEJB</ejb-name>
<method-intf>Remote</method-intf>
<method-name>addBook</method-name>
<method-params>
<method-param>java.lang.String</method-param>
</method-params>
</method>
<trans-attribute>Required</trans-attribute>
</container-transaction>
</assembly-descriptor>
</ejb-jar>

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

Passing Bean class methods and parameter info

Stateful Session Client


package declaration should be in the beginning

package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.ejb;
import java.util.*;
import javax.naming.Context;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import javax.rmi.PortableRemoteObject;
public class CartClient {

Importing the required classes

Client class

public static void main(String[] args) {


As static is there this main method will execute first
try {
The new operator is instantiating the instance of
Context initial = new InitialContext();
Object objref = initial.lookup("java:comp/env/ejb/SimpleCart");

a class

Looking into JNDI


CartHome home =
(CartHome)PortableRemoteObject.narrow(objref,
Casting with
CartHome.class);
Cart shoppingCart = home.create("Duke DeEarl","123");
shoppingCart.addBook("The Martian Chronicles");
shoppingCart.addBook("2001 A Space Odyssey");
shoppingCart.addBook("The Left Hand of Darkness");
Vector bookList = new Vector();
bookList = shoppingCart.getContents();

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

a suitable RMI IIOP object


Creating the object
adding books to the object

Invoking the bean class method through remote interface Cart

Stateful Session Client


We defined booklist as a vector

Enumeration enumer = bookList.elements();


while (enumer.hasMoreElements()) {
String title = (String) enumer.nextElement();
System.out.println(title);
}

After storing in the variable title we are printing it

shoppingCart.removeBook("Alice in Wonderland");
shoppingCart.remove(); Removing a particular
System.exit(0);

book using the bean class method removeBook through


remote interface Cart as we defined it this way
Cart shoppingCart = home.create("Duke DeEarl","123");

} catch (BookException ex) {


System.err.println("Caught a BookException: " + ex.getMessage());
System.exit(0);
We had written a new class BookException
} catch (Exception ex) {
System.err.println("Caught an unexpected exception!");
ex.printStackTrace();
System.exit(1);
}
}
}

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

and using its method to catch any errors

Book Exception
package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.tools;

public class BookException extends Exception {


/**
* Default constructor.
*/
public BookException() {
}
/**
* Constructor with a <code>String<code> as a parameter.
* @param msg message, describing the exception.
*/
public BookException(String msg) {
super(msg);
}
}

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

ID Verifier
package samples.ejb.stateful.simple.tools;
public class IdVerifier {
/**
* Default constructor.
*/
public IdVerifier() {
}
public boolean validate(String id) {
boolean result = true;
for (int i = 0; i < id.length(); i++) {
if (Character.isDigit(id.charAt(i)) == false)
result = false;
}
return result;
}
}

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

ALL EXAMPLES
CAN BE SEEN AT
http://www.weblogic.com/docs/examples/ejb/Package-examples.ejb.html
http://my.execpc.com/~gopalan/java/entity.html
http://java.sun.com/developer/onlineTraining/Beans/EJBTutorial/
http://developers.sun.com/prodtech/javatools/jsstandard/reference/techart/entitybeans.html

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

66. Component Comparison


Component Distributability
EJB
Can implement the Remote or Local Interface
ActiveX
Uses Microsofts architecture for determining how clients
invocation requests are sent to components. DCOM used as
underlying transport mechanism
CORBA
ORB makes use of GIOP and other protocols to perform IPC

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

67. Component Comparison


Components provide interfaces in the form of Operations
EJB
exports operations through Remote Interface
ActiveX
exports operations in the same interface
CORBA
exports methods through Interface Repository

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

68. Component Comparison


Self Container Components
EJB
Containers inject code to handle transactions, database management,
security, distributability and other customisable services. Containers
can be provided independent of App Server and EJB providers

ActiveX
Transactions, database management, legacy integration have to be coded
into the logic of the component. Security policy can be inherited from
NTLM. Transactions can be aided through MTS

CORBA
CORBAServices have different APIs. CORBAServices can be complicated
to code with. CORBAServices are not supported by all ORBs
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

69. Component Comparison


Components provide interfaces in the form of Properties.
EJB
Properties are not explicitly exported but can be
mimicked through accessor operations
ActiveX
exports Properties in the same interface
CORBA
Properties not explicitly exported but can be
mimicked through attributes
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

70. Component Comparison


Components provide interfaces in the form of Events.
EJB
Events supported through JMS with Message
Driven Bean
ActiveX
exports Events in the same interface
CORBA
Events supported through Event Service but cannot
be exported
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

71. Component Comparison


Component Reusability
EJB
Incorporating the contents of an EJB can be done
in two ways:
by having the new EJB use the services of an old
EJB as a direct client
or
by writing an EJB class that inherits from an
existing one
These two methods of leveragability give developers
maximum flexibility
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

72. Component Comparison


Component Reusability
Active X
Incorporating the contents of an ActiveX can be done
in two ways:

by having the new ActiveX use the services of an


old ActiveX as a client
or
by Delegation

The Components being reused must be registered on


the development machine
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

73. Component Comparison


Component Reusability
CORBA
Every CORBA object has to have its own interface
definition
CORBA objects can use the services of other Objects
No mechanism for inheritance or Object reuse
inherently supported, though

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

74. Component Comparison


Components Shareability
EJB
Application Server makes multiple instances of EJB Objects. Client
contexts can be stored in different thread contexts. Different types
of EJBs identify levels of shareability.

ActiveX
uses Microsoft's inprocess/out-of-process architecture for sharing
multiple ActiveX components and Client components.

CORBA
ORB makes multiple instances of CORBA objects. Clients contexts are
managed by ORB but can behave differently based upon vendors
Implementation.
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

75. Conclusion
We successfully completed a Tour on EJB . We looked at how an EJB is identified. How many
different types of EJBs are there and what each EJB type implements. Why
LocalInterfaces were introduced. We disected the EJB and went deeper into each part i.e. BEAN
Class, Remote Interface, EJB Object, Local Object, Local Interface, Home Object. We looked
Into the deployment descriptor and also seen all the files in EJBJar. We looked into each
Beans
Methods and also learned why we needed those methods. We had done 2 different Beans
examples and we were directed to the Web links where all the examples are demonstrated.
Once
you can get an idea of all the Interfaces, methods & exceptions raised, you can attempt to
try
some examples to get familiar and master EJB. There are nearly 100s of Application servers
but in this presentation you can see a few majorly used AppServers sample
implementation
web links. Just download any one of them and try out for yourself.

CONGRATULATIONS!
Now you know
as much as he
know of EJB

Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

If you have any comments or appreciations then please email him at


Kanti1@donegal.net, Kanti.Prasad@donegal.net
He likes to hear your feed back!

76. References
Application Server Information , EJB Documentation & Tutorials are found here
Notes on Deploying on different Application Servers.
The Art of EJB Deployment http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-08-2001/jw-0803-ejb.html
Most of EJBs related information can be seen at http://www.volantec.biz/ejb.htm
http://www.theserverside.com/ Mastering Enterprise Java Beans
by Ed Roman , Scott Ambler & Tyler Jewel.
EJB Documentation http://java.sun.com/products/ejb/javadoc-2_0-fr/
http://my.execpc.com/~gopalan/java/java_tutorial.html
Application Servers download information . Most of them are either free or have a 60 day trial version
For JBOSS Open Source go to http://www.jboss.org/downloads/index
http://www.kevinboone.com/jboss_tut_1.html
SUNs downloads and examples
http://developers.sun.com/prodtech/javatools/jsstandard/reference/docs/s1s5/partsuppliers.html

http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html ,http://java.sun.com/j2ee/1.4/docs/tutorial/doc/
http://java.sun.com/developer/onlineTraining/EJBIntro/EJBIntro.html
BEA WebLogic downloads and examples
http://commerce.bea.com/index.jsp , http://www.weblogic.com/docs/examples/index.html
http://dev2dev.bea.com/codelibrary/code/examples_ejb20.jsp
WebSphere downloads and examples
http://www-306.ibm.com/software/webservers/appserv/doc/v20dcadv/doc/howto/ep001.html
REDHAT Application Server and Examples
http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/rhaps/jonas-guide/
Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved

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Copyright 2004 Kanti Prasad All rights reserved