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Cement Bond Log

Why Cement Bond Logging?


Evaluate zone-to-zone isolation:
Casing to Cement Bond
Cement to Formation Bond
Identify cement top
Evaluate cement quality after squeeze jobs
Correlation log GR-CCL

The Ideal Wellbore


Annular gap
Minimum: 3/4-in.
Ideal: 1 1/2-in.
Properly conditioned hole
and mud
Gauge diameter

NO LOSSES

No sloughing
Uniform as possible
( no washouts or restrictions)
NO FLOW

Casing centered in borehole


Thin, impermeable mud filter cake
(not gelled or unconsolidated)

Accurate BHST and BHCT

Typical Well Completion

Cementing Problems
Placement (mud removal)
Poor centralization channel
Incorrect flow regime channel, mud film, fluid
contamination

After placement before setting

Slurry segregation
free water and/or settling
Formation fluid invasion gas or water
Debonding (microannulus)
Water loss
Permeable formation interactions

After placement once set


Debonding
Mechanical failure (Pressure, temperature, drilling,
tectonics)

Cement Evaluation Methods

Hydraulic testing
Temperature, nuclear (cement top)
Acoustic
Sonic (CBL/VDL, CBT)
Ultrasonic (USI): high resolution image

Analysis of cement job data

Cement Bond Logging


Zero bond is like ringing a bell
Loud ringing (high amplitude sound wave)
Good bond is like a blanket on a bell
Low amplitude sound wave

Sonic Path in Cased Hole

Sonic
(CBL/VDL
)
Principle

Casing

Cement

Formation

Mud

20 kHz
Transmitter
3 ft
Receiver

Bonded cement
CBL amplitude
t

5 ft
Receiver
VDL

0
100
CBL amp

CBL - VDL
CBL measures casing to cement bond
VDL indicates cement to formation bond

CBL Free-Pipe Reference


Casing Weight Estimated transit Expected
size
(lb/ft)
time (msec)
free-pipe
reading
5 in.

5.5 in.

7 in.

7.625 in.

9.625 in.

10.75 in.

13.375 in.

15
18
21
15.5
17
20
23
23
26
29
32
35
38
40
26.4
29.7
33.7
39
40
43.5
47
53.5
40.5
45.5
48
51
54
55.5
48
68

SLS-W

SLS-C

245
243
241
254
253
251
250
278
276
275
273
272
271
269
288
287
285
283
320
318
317
315
340
339
338
337
336
335
385
380

238
236
234
248
247
245
243
271
270
268
267
265
264
262
282
280
278
276
313
312
310
308
333
332
331
330
329
328
378
373

77mV

71 mV

61 mV

59 mV

52 mV

50 mV

47 mV

Effects on CBL and TT


Effect

CBL
mV

TT
us

Good cement

Decrease

May increase

No cement

Equals FP valueConstant

Channeling

Slight increase Constant

Eccentered tool

Decrease

Erratic

Fast formation

Erratic

Decrease

Microannulus

Increases

Constant

Noise

Erratic

Decrease

Cycle skipping

Increase

Increase

Casing collars

Decrease

Slight increase

Stretch

Constant

Slight increase

LQC, Basic Interpretation


TT is the best LQC
CBL = CBSL and TT = TTSL
Microannulus makes CBL read higherrun USIT

LQC, Basic Interpretation


VDL should be railroad tracks in free pipe
CBL Free pipe values should be within 5% of
expected free pipe values.
At collars, TT & TTSL should increase slightly for 3 ft
At collars, CBL & CBSL will decrease
Eccentralization will cause TT & TTSL to decrease or
increase
In good bond, transit times may increase due to
stretch or cycle skipping
You will see clear casing arrival in bad cement

Good Cement
CBL flat,
low

QC

CBL

Strong
formation arrival

Mean Z
8
MRayl

Weak casing
arrival

USI

VDL

Mud Channel and Contaminated Cement


Weak formation
arrival

CBL
variable,
high

Strong casing
arrival

Channel

Low-Z
cement

QC

CBL

USI

VDL

Cement Top
Weak formation arrival
Strong casing
arrival

CBL flat, high

Traces of
contaminated
cement

QC

CBL

USI

VDL

Channel and Squeeze


Channel

After squeeze

Perfos
USI

CBL

USI

BI

VDL

USI

BI

VDL

Microannulus / Debond
A small gap (< 0.2 mm) between casing and cement formed by

pressure and temperature changes, or a mud film left on the


casing
USI and CBL respond in different ways

Microannulus

USI

CBL

Wet

Weakly affected for Strongly affected


gaps <0.1 to 0.2 mm

Dry

Reads gas.
Special microdebonding
processing

Weakly affected
for very small
gaps (microns)
VDL "bitty"

Acoustic Evaluation at a Glance


Cement

USI CBL

Heavy, medium, goodbond


Verylight, goodbond
Debonded, dry
microannulus
Liquidmicroannulus
Mudlayer
Mudchannel
Contaminated
Gas channel

Good interpretation
Ambiguous
Very ambiguous or not detectable