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# SCHOOL OF

ENGINEERING

Introduction to Electrical
Systems
Chapter 2 Resistive
Circuits

Resistive Circuits
Series Resistances
A series combination of resistance has an equivalent
resistance equal to the sum of the original resistances

KVL:

## v=v1 +v2 +v3 = R1 i+ R2 i+ R3 i = (R1+R2+R3 )i= Req i

Req = R1+R2+R3

Resistive Circuits
Parallel Resistances
A parallel combination of resistance has an equivalent
resistance equal to the sum of the reciprocals of original
resistances

KCL:

## i=i1 +i2 +i3 = v/R1+ v/R2 + v/R3 = (1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 ) v= 1/Req v

1/Req = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3

KCL:

## i=i1 +i2 +i3 = Geq v (G conductance, [S])

1

Geq = G1+G2+G3

Resistive Circuits
Network Analysis by using Series and
Parallel Equivalents
Network analysis is the process of determining the current,
voltage, and power for each element given the circuit diagram
and the element values. The steps are:
1.Begin by locating a combination of resistances that are in series or
parallel. The best place to start is usually farthest from the source.
2.Redraw the circuit using the equivalent resistance for the combination
found in step 1.
3.Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit is reduced as far as possible.
Often (but not always) we end up with single source and a single
resistance.
4.Solve for the current and voltages in the final equivalent circuit. Then,
transfer results back each step and solve for all unknown currents and
voltages. Again, transfer the results back each step and solve.
5.Repeat until all of the currents and voltages are known in the original
circuit.

Resistive Circuits
Network Analysis by Using Series and Parallel
Equivalents - 1

Resistive Circuits
Network Analysis by Using Series and
Parallel Equivalents - 2

i1 3 A;
i2 2 A;
i3 1A.

Resistive Circuits
Network Analysis by Using Series and
Parallel Equivalents - 3

## Transfer results back

v2=Req1i1= 20 3A = 60V

## ps=-vs i1 =-(90) 3A = -270 W

(opposite to the passive configuration)

i2=v2/R2= 60V/30 = 2A

## p1= R1i12 =10(3A)2 =90 W

i3=v2/R3= 60V/60 = 1A

## p2= v22/R2=(60V)2/30 = 120 W

v1=R1i1=10 3A = 30V

p3= v22/R3=(60V)2/60 = 60 W
ps+ p1 + p2 + p3 =0 Energy conservation
8

Resistive Circuits
Voltage Divider - 1
Principle of voltage division:
Of the total voltage, the fraction that appears across a given resistance
in a series circuit is the ratio of the given resistance to the total series
resistance
Req = R1+R2+R3
i=vtotal /Req
v1=R1 i = R1 (vtotal /Req )
v2=R2 i = R2 (vtotal /Req )
v3=R3 i = R3 (vtotal /Req )

Resistive Circuits
Voltage Divider - 2

R1
v1 R1i
v total
R1 R2 R3
R2
v2 R2 i
v total
R1 R2 R3

10

Resistive Circuits
Voltage Divider - 3

R1
v1
vtotal
R1 R2 R3 R4
1000
15
1000 1000 2000 6000
1.5V

## What are v 2 , v 3 and v 4 ?

11

Resistive Circuits
Voltage Divider - 4

R1
v1
vtotal
R1 R2 R3 R4
1000
15
1000 1000 2000 6000
1.5V

## What are v 2 , v 3 and v 4 ?

v1 1.5V ;
v2 1.5V ;
v3 3V ;
v4 9V .

12

Resistive Circuits
Current Divider
Principle of current division:
For two (only) resistances is parallel, the fraction of the total current
flowing in a resistance is the ratio of the other resistance to the sum of
two resistances. [If more than two in parallel, they must be combined
only to two in the circuit.]
1/Req = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3
Req = (R1 R2)/(R1 + R2)
v=Req itotal
i1=v/R1 = [R2/(R1 + R2)] itotal
i2=v/R2 = [R1/(R1 + R2)] itotal

i1

G1
itotal ;
G1 G2

i2

G2
itotal
G1 G2

13

## Application of the Current Division Principle

RR
30 60
Req 2 3
20
R2 R3 30 60

i1

Req

i1

R2
v

itotal
R1 R1 R2

i2

R1
v

itotal
R2 R1 R2

is

20
15 10A
10 20

R1 Req
G1
i1
itotal ;
G1 G2 G3
i2

G2
itotal ;
G1 G2 G3

i3

G3
itotal
G1 G2 G3

60
1
5 3 A;
30 60
3
30
2
i3
5 1 A
30 60
3
i2

14

Resistive Circuits
Current and Voltage Divider Example

15

Resistive Circuits
position transducer potentiometer (Voltage Divider Example)
A transducer produces a voltage proportional to a physical quantity of interest
(such as distance, pressure, temperature, )

16

## Resistive Circuits Analysis

Series/parallel equivalents and the current/voltage division principles are
not sufficient to solve all circuits - the general approach is to apply
Kirchhoff equations
Example: 6 unknowns; 3 KVL and 3 KCL equations
(below is the same circuit drawn in a different way)
Systematic methods simplify equations compilation and
reduce the linear equations system order
Those systematic methods are:
Node Voltages analysis ( )
Mesh Currents analysis ( )

17

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - 1
Example: (note positive polarity at the head of the arrow)
Variables: node voltages V2 and V3

Reference node

For unknown Vx , using KVL for the loop with the unknown
-V2 + Vx + V3=0
Vx = V 2 - V 3

## Therefore, the voltage across any floating element

is the difference between node voltages Vy = V 2 V 1 ; Vz = V 3 V 1

Ohms law is used to find currents when node voltages are known
18

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - 2
To find the current flowing out of node n through a resistance
towards node k, we subtract the voltage at node k from voltage at
node n and divide the difference by the resistance between the nodes

## We apply KCL, adding all the currents leaving (entering) node n

and setting the sum to zero
Repeat the same for all independent nodes in the circuit
Straightforward for numerous current sources and grounded
voltage sources (common reference node)
More tricky if there are floating voltage sources (supernode)

19

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - 3
We use KCL to write an equation at each node.
Node 1:

Node 2:

## Three equations, three unknowns

Node 3:

(G1 G2 )v1 G2 v2 is ;
G2 v1 (G2 G3 G4 )v2 G4 v3 0;
G4 v2 (G4 G5 )v3 is
Matrix form:

v1 v1 v2

is
R1
R2

v2 v1 v2 v2 v3

0
R2
R3
R4
v3 v3 v 2

is
R5
R4

G2
0
G1 G2
G

G
2
2
3
4
4

0
G4
G4 G5

v1 is
v 0
2

v3 is

GV I
V G 1I

20

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - 3
G2
0
G1 G2
G

G
2
2
3
4
4

0
G4
G4 G5

v1 is
v 0
2

v3 is

## 1. Circuit must contain only resistances and

independent current sources
2. Diagonal terms of G sum of conductances
connected to corresponding node
3. Off diagonal terms of G negative conductance
between connected nodes

## g11 g12 g13

g

g
g
21
22
23

g 31 g 32 g 33

v1
v
2
v3

i1
i2
i3

GV I
V G 1I

21

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - 4
Node 1:

v1 v s

Node 2:

v2 v1 v2 v2 v3

0
R2
R4
R3

Node 3:

v3 v1 v3 v3 v 2

0
R1
R5
R3

## (G2 G4 G3 )v2 G3v3 G2v1

G3v2 (G1 G5 G3 )v3 G1v1

G3
G2 G4 G3

G
G

G
3
1
5
3

Matrix form:

v2 G2 v1
v Gv
3 1 1

GV I
V G 1I
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Resistive Circuits
Solving the Network Equations
Once we have written the equations needed for the node
voltages we put equations into standard form
We group the node-voltage variables on the left-hand side of the
equations and place terms that do not involve the node voltages
on the right-hand sides
Then we can solve for the node voltages by variety methods,
such as substitution and determinants, MATLAB etc.
I recommend on-line solver WIMS that is capable of making
parametric (symbolic) calculations
ang=en&+module=tool%2Flinear%2Flinsolver.en&+method=matrix
&+cmd=resume
23

Resistive Circuits
Solving the Network Equations WIMS - 1
WIMS numerical example insert numbers and press Solve

## Check the system is it indeed what you want to solve?

24

Resistive Circuits
Solving the Network Equations WIMS - 2

## Check the system is it indeed what you want to solve

25

Resistive Circuits
Solving the Network Equations WIMS - 3

A powerful tool
There may be no solution at all
If there is no unique solution infinite set of solutions (matrix A rank
is less than its size), WIMS will prompt about the structure of the
solutions family
26

Resistive Circuits
Solving the Network Equations
Example

## Solve using WIMS or Matlab

27

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Voltage Sources - 1
For this circuit it is impossible to
write a current equation in terms
of the node voltages for every
node because of the floating
voltage source
The circuit requires to form a
supernode

## The supernode is formed by drawing a dashed line around several

nodes, including the elements (voltage sources) connected between
them
The modified KCL for supernodes: The net current flowing through any
closed surface (enclosed by dash lines) must equal zero

28

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Voltage Sources - 2
The modified KCL for
supernodes: The net current
flowing through any closed surface
(enclosed by dash lines) must
equal zero.
Note v3 = -15 V because node 3
connected to the negative
terminal of the source
Then, for the supernode enclosing the 10-V source, we sum currents
leaving the supernode surface through one of the resistors

v1 v1 15 v 2 v 2 15

0
R2
R1
R4
R3
29

Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Voltage Sources - 3
Note, we obtain linearly
dependent equations if we
use all the nodes in writing
current equations, i.e., if we
would use current equations
for both supernodes (they
comprise all 4 nodes of the
circuit)
To avoid dependency we can
v2 v1 10
use KVL (clockwise sense) to
the loop that include the
v1 v1 15 v 2 v 2 15
voltage source

R2

R1

R4

R3

## These two equations form an independent set that can be used to

solve for v1 and v2
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Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Voltage Sources - 4
Exercise 2.13 (Page 91 - 92)
To solve for three voltages any two of
the following three KCL equations can
be used (one supernode and two normal
nodes, including the reference node)
Node 3 equation

v3 v1 v3 v 2
v

3 0
R2
R3
R4

Reference
node

v1 v1 v3 v 2 v 3

1
R1
R2
R3

v1 v2 10

## If node 1 or 2 is selected as ground (reference), the solution does not require

supernode
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Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Dependent Sources - 1
Write KCL equations at each node, including the current of the controlled
source the same as if it were an ordinary current source
(independent node):

v1 v2
is 2i x
R1

v 2 v1 v 2 v 2 v 3

0
R1
R2
R3
v3 v 2 v3

2i x 0
R3
R4
Then use one additional equation for the dependent source current
value ix in terms of node voltage

v3 v 2
ix
R3

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Resistive Circuits
Node Voltage Analysis - Circuits with Dependent Sources - 2

Substitution yields:
v v
v1 v2
is 2 3 2
R1
R3
v 2 v1 v 2 v 2 v 3

0
R1
R2
R3
v3 v 2 v3
v3 v 2

2
0
R3
R4
R3
Three equations, three unknowns

33

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 1 ( )

## Applying KVL to the loops with

normal branch currents:

## Applying KCL to the node:

i3 i2 i1
Combined equations:

34

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 2

## If a network contains only resistances and independent voltage sources,

we can write the required equations by following each current around its
mesh and apply KVL
i1 and i2 are mesh currents, normally chosen to flow clockwise
When several mesh currents flow through one element, we consider the current in
that element to be algebraic sum of the mesh currents
The current in R3 (referenced downwards) is i3 =i1 - i2 and v3 = R3 i3
You can write down mesh current equations rightaway as
R1 R3
R
3

R3
R2 R3

i1 v A
i v
B
2

35

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 3
Mesh current analysis advantages seen for more complex networks

Note actual current direction in the common resistor for two meshes
For example, if current in R2 referenced to the right, then i2 is algebraic
sum i1 - i3, if to the left, then i3 - i1
After solving for mesh currents, actual currents may take negative actual
values for selected reference directions
36

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 4

1R i i R i i v 0
2

## For mesh 2, we obtain:

R3 i2 i1 R4i2 v B 0
For mesh 3, we have:

R2 i3 i1 R1i3 v B 0

R1i1 R2 i1 i4 R4 i1 i2 v A 0
R5i2 R4 i2 i1 R6 i2 i3 0

R7i3 R6 i3 i2 R8 i3 i4 0

R3i4 R2 i4 i1 R8 i4 i3 0
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Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 5

R1 R3
R
3

R3
R2 R3

- 150 20 i1 10 (i1 - i 2 ) 0

30 i1 - 10 i 2 150

10 (i 2 - i1 ) 15 i 2 100 0

- 10 i1 25 i 2 - 100

i1 4.23 A
i 2 - 2.31 A

i1 v A
i v
B
2

## What is the total current flowing

through the 10 resistor ?
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Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 5

R1 R3
R
3

R3
R2 R3

- 150 20 i1 10 (i1 - i 2 ) 0

30 i1 - 10 i 2 150

10 (i 2 - i1 ) 15 i 2 100 0

- 10 i1 25 i 2 - 100

i1 4.23 A
i 2 - 2.31 A

i1 v A
i v
B
2

## i 3 i1 - i 2 4.23 - 2.31 1.92 A

39

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - 6

## You can write down mesh current equations

rightaway

R1 R2 R4

R4

R2

R4

R4 R5 R6
R6
0

R6
R6 R7 R8
R8

R2

i1 v A
i 0
0
2
i3 0
R8

R2 R3 R8 i4 0
40

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis with Current Sources - 1
Classic mesh current analysis voltage sources
Analysis for current sources is dual for node voltage analysis with voltage
sources
Current source in an individual mesh explicitly defines respected mesh current
(dual to a grounded voltage source that defines a node voltage)

## Example mesh 1 current is equal to current source current

KVL is applied to mesh 2

i1 2 A

10(i2 i1 ) 5i2 10 0
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Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis with Current Sources - 2

How do we write KVL for meshes 1 and 2 that have common current source?
Supermesh combination of meshes 1 and 2
KVL is applied to the supermesh first
i1 2 i 1 i3 4 i2 i3 10 0
Then KVL is applied to mesh 3
3i3 4 i3 i2 2 i3 i1 0
Then for the current source :

i1 i2 5

Finally, we can define all of the mesh currents from these equations

42

Resistive Circuits
Mesh Current Analysis - Controlled Current Source Example

Supermesh equation

20 4i1 6i 2 2i 2 0

Finally, we can define all of the mesh currents from these equations

i1 i2

vx
4

and

v x 2i2

i1 i2 / 2

i1 1 A
i2 2 A
43

Resistive Circuits
Thevenin Equivalent for Two-Terminal Circuits
Two-terminal (single-port) circuit is one (that can be of any
complex interconnections of resistances and sources) that has only
two points or nodes that can be connected to other circuits
The Thevenin equivalent of such circuits is one that consists of
only an independent voltage source in series with a resistance

44

Resistive Circuits
Thevenin Equivalent for Two-Terminal Circuits
The Thevenin equivalent with open-circuited terminals has no
current flowing through the circuit, therefore Vt v oc

## The Thevenin equivalent with short-circuited terminals has

resistance value is the ratio of open-circuit
voltage Voc of the original circuit to its shortcircuit current, isc
voc

Rt

isc
45

Resistive Circuits
Thevenin Equivalent for Two-Terminal
Circuits Example

i1

vs
15

0.1 A
R1 R2
100 50

Voc Vt R2 ii 5 volts
i sc

vs
15 v

0. 15 A
R1
100

Rt

Voc
5 volts

33.33
isc
0.15 A

46

Resistive Circuits
Finding Thevenin Resistance for Two-Terminal Circuits
Directly 

## When zeroing a voltage source, it becomes a short circuit. When

zeroing a current source, it becomes an open circuit.
We can find the Thvenin resistance by zeroing the sources in
the original network and then computing the resulting resistance
between the terminals.

47

Resistive Circuits
Example: Thevenin Equivalent with a
Dependent Source
We use node - voltage
analysis for the open-circuit
voltage (not direct)

and

Voc = 8.57 v

Short-circuit

48

Resistive Circuits
Norton Equivalent for Two-Terminal Circuits
The Norton equivalent consists of an independent current source In
in parallel with the Thevenin resistance

## If we zero the Norton current source (disconnecting it), the Norton

equivalent becomes a resistance
because if we zero the voltage
source in the Thevenin equivalent (by short circuiting) it also
becomes a resistance, that is equivalent to the internal resistance
of the original circuit.

49

Resistive Circuits
Norton Equivalent for Two-Terminal Circuits
If we place a short circuit across the Norton equivalent, the Norton current
becomes equal to the short-circuit current In = iSC

## Perform TWO of the following steps:

1. First determine the open-circuit voltage Vt =vOC
2. Next determine the short-circuit current In = iSC
3. Zero the current source and find the Thevenin resistance,
back into the terminals
Use Vt = Rt In to compute the remaining value

looking

50

Resistive Circuits
Norton Equivalent for Two-Terminal Circuits Example

Vx VOC - 15 Voc

0
4
20
20

KCL

Vx VOC - Vx

5
15

## VOC VOC - 15 VOC

0
16
20
20
Voc = 4.62 volts
Vx = 0 volts
isc = 15 v / 20 = 0.75 A

R TH

## VOC 4.62 volts

6.15
ISC
0.75 A
51

Source Transformations

i1 = 10 V / 15 = 0.67 A

i2 = 5 A * 5 / 15 = 1.67 A
i3 = 10 A * 5 / 15 = 3.33 A

52

Resistive Circuits
Maximum Power Transfer
Question: What load resistance RL should be connected to a two-terminal
circuit in order to maximize the power delivered to the load?

## The current through the resistor

The power delivered
Derivative of the power with respect to resistance
Solution is
Actual maximum power is
The load resistance that absorbs the maximum power from a two-terminal
circuit is equal to the Thvenin resistance.
53

Resistive Circuits
Superposition Principle
Suppose we have a circuit composed resistors, linear dependent (which follow
the linear function) sources and n independent sources
The current flowing in each element is a response to the independent sources
Consider zeroing all the independent sources (current sources become open
circuits and voltage sources become short-circuited) except the first source
The response ( while sources are zeroed) for that source is then r1 (could be
either current or voltage response)
If we keep only the second source the response becomes r2
We can repeat the process for each source in the circuit until response to the nth
source rn is obtained
The superposition principle states that he total response is the sum of the
responses due to each of the independent sources acting individually:

rT r1 r2 rn
54

Resistive Circuits
Superposition Principle Example
1.Only voltage source active
(apply voltage division principle)

in parallel)

## 3. Voltage across due to the current source

55

Resistive Circuits
Wheatstone Bridge
Wheatstone bridge is a circuit to measure unknown resistances

## The bridge is capable of responding to a very small currents (less

than 1 A) through a detector resistance Rx. Resistors R2 and R3 are
adjustable and can be tuned until the detector indicates zero current
and no voltage between terminals a and b.
In this conditions we say the bridge is balanced

56

Resistive Circuits
Wheatstone Bridge

## In balanced condition (ig =0, vab = 0) by applying KCL at nodes a and b

respectively KVL applied around the loop R1, R2 and detector
and since vab = 0

## Similarly KVL around R3, R4 and detector

Dividing one equation by the other we obtain the resistors ratio for the balanced
bridge:
57

Summary: Step-by-step
Thvenin/Norton-Equivalent-Circuit
Analysis
1. Perform two of these:
a. Determine the open-circuit voltage Vt = voc.
b. Determine the short-circuit current In = isc.
c. Zero the sources and find the Thvenin resistance Rt
looking back into the terminals. Cannot zero
dependent sources.
2. Use the equation Vt = Rt In to compute the
remaining value.
3. The Thvenin equivalent consists of a voltage
source Vt in series with Rt.
4. The Norton equivalent consists of a current
source In in parallel with Rt.
58