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This cement contains high aluminate
percentage usually 35%.
It gains strength very rapidly with in 24
It has resistance to sulphates, action of
frost, action of acid and high
It is also used for construction of
chemical industries and other heavy


Lime stone and china clay free from
iron oxide are suitable for its
This cement is called snowcrete.
It dries quickly, has more strength and
has good aesthetic view.
It is used for floor finish, pastering
work, ormental work etc.,
It is mainly used for architectural
finishing in the buildings.

(8)Portland Puzzolana
Cement (PPC)
It is manufactured by grinding Portland
cement clinker and puzzolana (usually
fly ash 10 to 25% by mass of PPC).
The resistance to chemical attack
increases making it suitable for marine
It has low heat evolution and is used in
the places of mass concrete such as
dams and in places of high temperature.

(9) Expanding Cement

It is produced by adding an expanding
medium like supho aluminate and a
stabilizing agent to ordinary cement.
This cement expands but other types of
cements shrinks.
It is used for construction of water
retaining structures.
It is also used for repairing of damaged
concrete surfaces.

(10) Coloured Cement

It is prepared by adding required
colouring pigments (5 to 15%) before
the cement is ground.
Iron oxide is added to give red and
yellow colours.
These are much costlier than OPC.
It is used for floor finish, external
surfaces etc.,


Testing of Cement
1. Field testing
2. Standard consistency test
3. Fineness test
4. Soundness test
5. Compressive Strength test

Field Testing
Open the bag and take a good look at the
cement, then it should not contain any visible
Colour of cement should be greenish grey.
One should feel cool when thrusting hand into
cement bag.
When we touch the cement, it should give a
smooth &not a gritty feeling.
When we throw the cement on a bucket full of
water before it sinks the particles should flow.

Standard Consistency Test

The standard consistency of a cement paste is
defined as that consistency which will permit a Vicat
plunger having 10 mm diameter and 50 mm length
to penetrate to a depth of 33-35 mm from the top of
the mould.

Used to find out the percentage of water
required to produce a cement paste of
standard consistency.
This is also called normal consistency.

For first trial, take about 300gms of cement & water of 30%by weight of
After mixing, Fill it in Vicats mould with in 3-5min.
After filling, shake the mould to expel air.
A standard plunger, 10 mm diameter, 50 mm long is attached and brought
down to touch the surface of the paste and quickly released.
Note the reading according to depth of penetration of the plunger.


Conduct trials continuously by taking different water

cement ratios till the plunger penetrates for a depth
of 33-35mm from top.
This particular percentage is known as percentage of
water required to produce cement paste of standard
This is usually denoted as P.


Conducted in a constant temperature of 270+20C.

Constant Humidity 90%.

Setting Time Test:

In cement hardening process, two
instants are very important, i.e.
initial setting and final setting.


The time elapsed between the
moment that the water is added to
the cement, to the time that the
paste starts losing its plasticity.
Normally a minimum of 30 min has
maintained for mixing & handling
It should not be less than 30 min.


The time elapsed between the moment the
water is added to the cement, and the
time when the paste has completely lost
its plasticity and has attained sufficient
hardness to resist certain definite pressure.
It should not exceed 10 hours for OPC.
The time at which the needle should not
make any impression on the cement paste,
is known as Final setting time.

The fineness of cement has an important bearing on the rate
of hydration, rate of gain of strength, evolution of heat.
Finer cement offers greater surface area.
Disadvantage of fine grinding is that it is susceptible to air
set & early deterioration.
Maximum no. of particles in a sample of cement less than
The smallest particle should have a size if 1.5microns.
Large particle should have a size of 10microns.
Fineness of cement is tested in two ways.
By sieving.
By determination specific surface by air permeability

Finer cements react quicker with

water and develop early strength,
though the ultimate strength is not
affected. However finer cements
increase the shrinkage and cracking
of concrete

Take correctly 100grams of cement on
a standard IS sieve No.9
Break down the air-set lumps & sieve
it then weigh it.
This weight shall not exceed 10% for
ordinary cement.
Sieve test is rarely used.

It is very important that the cement after setting shall not
undergo any appreciable change of volume.
This test is to ensure that the cement does not show any
subsequent expansions.
The unsoundness in cement is due to the presence of excess
of lime combined with acidic oxide at the kiln.
This is due to high proportion of magnesia & calcium sulphate.
Therefore magnesia content in cement is limited to 6%.
Gypsum 3-5.


It consists of a small split cylinder of spring brass.

It is 30mm diameter & 30mm high.
Cement paste filled into the mould & kept on a glass plate
& covered with another glass plate.
This is immersed in water at a temperature 27 0c-320c for 24
Measure the distance between indicators.
Heat the water & bring to boiling point of about 25-30min.
Remove the mould from the water after 3 hours.
Measure the distance between the indicators.
This must not exceed 10 mm for ordinary, rapid hardening,
low heat Portland cements.
If this expansion is more than 10mm the cement is said to
be unsound.


This is the most important of all
properties of hardened cement.
Due to excessive shrinkage and
cracking the strength tests are not
made on heat cement paste.
Standard sand is used for finding the
strength of cement.

Take 555gms of standard sand. 185gms of cement
(i.e., 1:3 ratio of cement and sand)
Mix them for 1min, then add water of
Mix three ingredients thoroughly until the mixture is
of uniform colour.
The time of mixing should be 3min to 4min.
Then the mortar is filled into a cube mould of 7.06cm.
Compact the mortar.
Keep the compacted cube in the mould at a
temperature of 27C 2C and at least 90 per cent
relative humidity for 24 hours.
After 24hours the cubes are removed & immersed in
clean fresh water until taken for testing.

(1) Mixing and crushing of raw materials
a. Dry process
b. Wet process
(2) Burning
(3) Grinding

(a) Dry process:

In this process calcareous material such as lime
stone (calcium carbonate) and argillaceous
material such as clay are ground separately to fine
powder in the absence of water and then are mixed
together in the desired proportions. Water is then
added to it for getting thick paste and then its cakes
are formed, dried and burnt in kilns. This process
is usually used when raw materials are very strong
and hard.
In this process, the raw materials are changed to
powdered form in the absence of water.

(b) Wet process:

In this process, the raw materials are changed to
powdered form in the presence of water.
In this process, raw materials are pulverized by using
a Ball mill, which is a rotary steel cylinder with
hardened steel balls. When the mill rotates, steel
balls pulverize the raw materials which form slurry
(liquid mixture). The slurry is then pumped into
storage tanks, where correct proportioning is done.
Proper composition of raw materials can be ensured
by using wet process than dry process. Corrected
slurry is then fed into rotary kiln for burning.

(b) Wet Process:


This process is generally used when raw

materials are soft.
Actually the purpose of both processes is to
change the raw materials to fine powder.

(2) Burning:
Collected slurry is feed to rotary kiln, which
is a 45 m or more long, 4 m or more in
diameter and temperature arrangement is up
to 1500-1650 degree C.
At this temperature slurry losses moisture
and forms into small lumps, after that
changes to clinkers. Clinkers are cooled in
another inclined tube similar to kiln but of
lesser length.

(3) Grinding:
Now the final process is grinding of clinker, it
is first cooled down to atmospheric
temperature. Grinding of clinker is done in
large tube mills. After proper grinding,
gypsum (Calcium sulphate) of 01-04 % is
added for controlling the setting time of
Finally, fine ground cement is stored in
storage tanks from where it is drawn for