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DEMOLITION

OF
BUILDINGS

S.RAVIKIRAN(116K1A
0121)
SAMEER.G(116K1A01
18)
K.B.SUKRUTHA(116K1

GLANCE OF THIS PRESENTATION:


INTRODUCTION TO CONSTUCTION
DEMOLITION
SEQUENCE OF DEMOLITION
METHODS OF DEMOLITION
INTRODUCTION OF DEMOLITION WASTE
TYPES OF DEMOLITION WASTE
DESCRIPTION AND RECYCLING OF EACH
HIERARCHY OF C&D WASTE
CONCLUSION

WHAT IS
DEMOLITION?????
Demolition
means dismantling, razing, destroying
or wrecking any building or structure or any part
by pre-planned and controlled methods.
Demolition is the tearing-down of buildings
and other structures

WHY DEMOLITION????
The structures which have already passed their
design life need to be reconstructed, for safety
and operational requirements.
The old structures need to be demolished for
replacement by new structures.
Small structures can be demolished by
manual methods but machinery and advanced
techniques are required for demolition of bigger
structures.
Advanced techniques are also required for
faster demolition and demolition in confined
areas.

DEMOLITION SEQUENCE
Demolition sequence shall be determined based on
Actual site conditions, Restraints, The building layout,
The Structural layout and its construction.
In general, the following sequence shall apply:
1) UTILITIES disconnection.Electricity,plumbing water
lines, drainage, connections etc..
2)All cantilevered structures, canopies, verandahs
and features attached to the external walls shall first
be demolished prior to demolition of main building
and its internal structures on each floor
3)When demolishing the roof structure, all lift machine
rooms and watertanks at high level shall be
demolished in top down sequence to the main roof
level

DEMOLITION SEQUENCE
3)Demolition of the floor slabs shall begin at mid span
and work towards the supporting beams.

4) Floor beams shall be demolished in


the order of cantilevered beams,
secondary beams and then main
beams.
5) Non-load bearing walls shall be
removed prior to demolition of load
bearing walls.

Columns and load bearing walls shall be


demolished after removal of beams on top.

If site conditions permit, the first floor slab


directly above the ground floor may be
demolished by machine standing on ground.

DEMOLITION METHODS
Demolition methods used
commonly are
Manual Method
Using machines
Using Hydraulic Crushers
Using Wrecking Ball
Using Explosives
Using Robotic Machines

MANUAL METHOD
Manual methods are carried out top down,
proceeding, in general, from the roof to ground.
The sequence of demolition may vary,
depending on
1. site conditions and
2. structural elements to be demolished.

DEMOLITION BY
MACHINES

DEMOLITION BY HYDRAULIC RUSHERS


The crusher attachment breaks the
concrete and the reinforcement by the
hydraulic thrust through the long
boom arm system.
The hydraulic crusher can be operated
from the ground outside
the
building. This method is also suitable
for dangerous buildings, silos and
other industrial facilities.
The operation shall have a minimum
clear space of the building
height as a safety zone for the falling
debris.

DEMOLITION BY WRECKING BALL


The wrecking ball application
consists of a crane equipped
with a steel ball having weight
ranging from 450 kgs to 5400
kgs
The destruction of the building
is by the impact energy of the
steel ball suspended from the
crawler crane. The wrecking
ball operates outside the
building.
This method is suitable for
dilapidated buildings, silos and
other industrial facilities.

DEMOLITION BY
EXPLOSIVES

ADVANCED TECHNIQUES USING


ROBOTIC MACHINES

Composition of
Construction &
Demolition Waste in
India
25%

5%

2% 2% 1%

65%

Concrete
Bricks & Tiles
Wood
Metals
Others
Plastic

Waste from Construction


Industry
Inert Material

Non-inert Material

e.g. rocks,
concrete, asphalt,
rubble, bricks,
stones and earth

Public Fill
(80%)
22

e.g. bamboo,
plastic, timber,
packaging waste
and other organic
material

Construction
and
Demolition
Waste

WHAT DOES C & D


WASTE CONSISTS OF?
Concrete
Brick
Timber
Sanitary ware
Glass
Steel
Plastics

CONCRETE:

o Concrete is one of the most important construction material.


o Approximately one ton of concrete is used per capita per year
through
out the world.
o Recycling of concrete reduces

Cost of aggregates
Disposal costs
Environmental damage
Consumption of natural resources &
Valuable landfill space

o Recycled coarse aggregates may be more durable than virgin


material.
o It can also be used in residential construction

C&D Recycling Encouraged in the


Commonwealth

On site crushed
concrete used for
backfill

BRICK:
o Broken & discarded brick can be used as
construction infill or as aggregate for non-structural
concrete.
o Brick that are part of demolish rubble can be
crushed and used in the same way.
o Brick masonry rubble contains mortar upto
20% by volume.
o Crushed brick & roofing tiles are the bulk of
demolition waste which were earlier being dumped
in landfills, but now they can be recycled into mortar
plaster & building blocks.

You can recycledamagedbricks and blocks and


use them:
to make aggregate for use as general fill or
highway sub-base
in landscaping
to produce new bricks and blocks
to make sports surfaces such as tennis courts
and athletics tracks
as plant substrate

TIMBER:
o It is mostly crushed into chip & used as fuel.
o It can also be utilized to manufacture wood-chip
concrete by injecting cement grout into voids of
compacted wood-chips in moulds.
o Wood-chip concrete can be used as building
material.
o This chip can be sawn & nailed as well.
o In Japan alone about 12 million cubic meters
of used timber from demolished houses are used.

Reclaimed wood can be used in applications and


materials including:
chipboard, oriented strand board and fibreboard
manufacture
bedding products for animals
play surfaces and pathways
remanufactured products - eg fibre composites
architectural components
landscaping
commercial products - eg logs, fuel chips
liquid fuel (ethanol and methanol)
biofuel for combined heat and power plant

SANITARY WARE:
o Sanitary ware includes tiles also.
o There can be reused as it is, if they are not
damaged.
o If sanitary ware are chipped (or) cracked(or)
otherwise damaged are advised to crush and
use them as construction infill (or) as filler in
concrete.
o Pozzolanic value of such crushed & powdered
sanitary ware, is a desirable property in
concrete mixes.

GLASS:

o One ton of recycled waste glass corresponds


to savings in energy equivalent to 125lit of fuel
oil & 1.2tons of raw materials.
o Recycling of glass reduces non-biodegradable
glass out of landfills.
o Glass can be used as substitute for Quartz &
Feldspar in the manufacturing of high strength
procelain sanitary ware.

o It can also be used to make mineral wool- an insulation product &


in
granular form as part of the aggregate in concrete mixes.
o In USA an experiment was conducted on metal free-glass
constituents
separated from municipal incinerator residue. This glass was

Recovered glass can also be used for:


aggregates
decorative materials
fluxing agent in the manufacture of
bricks and ceramics
filtration medium
insulation
containers
sports turf applications
abrasives

STEEL:
o Steel is most commonly used metal in the world.
o Steel reinforcement from demolished concrete
is usually separated from the rubble on site &
sold scrap to recycling plants.
o The world produces over 783 million tons of
raw steel. It currently recycles over 320 million
tons of iron & steel every year.
o Scrap metal can yield energy savings of upto 76% .
o In Europe steel is most recycled .

Steel is ideal for recycling because it does not lose any of


its inherent physical properties during the process, which
can be repeated ad infinitum. Steel is 100% recyclable
and therefore, recycled steel can be used for the same
applications as steel produced from virgin material.
Products that are made of recycled steel include:
Construction materials for roads, railways, infrastructure
and buildings
Electrical appliances
Cans and containers
Automobiles and other vehicles
Office supplies
Hardware: bolts, nuts, screws, etc.

PLASTIC:
o There is an over abundance of waste plastic.
o It is very difficult to dispose plastics.
o Waste plastics can be shredded & used as
filler in other materials such as concrete
& also in construction of roads
o House hold plastic waste can also be recycled
to obtain artificial light weight aggregates
for mortar.
o Plastics reduces the possibilities of cracking.

Recovered plastic can be used in construction for damp


proof membrane, drainage pipes, ducting and flooring. It
can also be used in many other applications including:
as a filler (thermoset plastics)
packaging
landscaping - eg walkways, jetties, pontoons, bridges,
fences and signs
textile fibre and clothing - polyester fleece clothing and
polyester filling for duvets and coats is frequently made
from recycled bottles
street furniture - eg seating, bins, street signs and
planters
bin liners and refuse sacks
traffic management products and industrial strapping

The iimportant iinitiatives sited are::


1. Promoting separation of C&D waste at source
2.

Promoting recycling

3.

Developing market for recycled products

4.

Production of concrete bricks and paving blocks

5.

Guidelines for using C&D waste

6. Developing designs which ffacilitate deconstruction


iinstead of outright demolition

Hierarchy for C & D waste management

Conclusion:
It has been established that materials & components from
demolished buildings are being reused for new construction
works as
well as renovation projects, especially by low- income
communities in
developing countries.
In developing countries most of the demolition rubble is
dumped, the
developed world has now started to recycle it into aggregate
for nonstructural concrete.
It is hoped that recycling waste materials for use in the
building will
cut down costs of producing new raw materials thereby

The Choice Is Yours

To Landfill

To Recycle

References
Dr., Asokan Pappu and Dr., Mohini Saxena
and Dr., Shyam R. Asolekar (2007) Solid
wastes generation in India and their recycling
potential in building materials.Indian Journal Of
Environmental Protection . pp. 2311-2321
L.Y.Shen, D Drew, and C.M. Tam, (2004),
Construction Waste recycling, Journal of
Construction
Engineering
and
Management,4,Vol 130,pp 472-481