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Automatic Fire Detectors

Do we really need a detector

Kerosene

Kerosene

Speed & Aftermath of Fire

Yes

Fire Detectors
detect fires at
their earliest
stages and
sound a loud
warning to
help you
get out

safely

Detection

Typical room

Typical room
Alarm bell
Corridor

Stair pressurisation fan


Fire escape stair
Fire AlarmPanel

Bell

Typical room in hotel


Alarm bell
Corridor

Stair pressurisation fan


Fire escape stair
Fire AlarmPanel

Bell

Detector
Sprinkler

Fire starts in room

Smoke detector activates alarm


Smoke fills guest room
Alarm sounds in rooms and at lobby
Stairway fan pressurisation begins

Occupants make way to stairwell


Smoke slowly spills into corridor
Stairwell provides SAFE egress path to outside of building

Sprinklers in room operate, discharging water, controlling and extinguishing


fire
Occupants exit from building

Occupants leave building to safe area


Smoke is discharged from building

Detection
Detectors sense the existence
of a fire
Fire Panels
acknowledge the detectors,
test the system,
check for faults
operate the alarms
Alarms inform the occupants
of a fire and assist the
evacuation

1. Concentration of energy

Ignition
and fire
growth

2. Source of oxygen
3. Spontaneous oxidation at
surface of combustible
material
4. Release of particles into
atmosphere
5. Exponential propagation of
chain reaction
6. Release of energy in the
form of light and heat

Fire Growth
VISIBLE SMOKEFLAMING FIRE INTENSE HEAT

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

SMOKE DENSITY AND HEAT OUTPUT

INCIPIENT STAGE - NO VISIBLE SMOKE

TIME

STAGE 3

STAGE 4

Detectors

Smoke
Flame
Heat
CO

Smoke
Detector
Detects the presence of
smoke particles
Inexpensive, early
detection for
smouldering fires
No need for line of sight
Indoor applications only
Subject to occassional
false alarms

Smoke
Detector

Ionisation
Optical
Beam
Sampling
Installed
every 10m

Ionisation

Smoke
Detector

ION-CHAMBER SMOKE
Alpha source
Collector

Battery

Chamber cover

Working of Ionisation Detector

Smoke
Detector
Double Chamber
Ionization
Detector

OPTICAL SMOKE
Insect
Screen
Insect
Screen
Fins
Smoke Path

Sampling
Volume

Optical

Detector
Light Scatter Type

Optical
Detector

Obscuration
Type

Sampling
Detector

What is an Air Sampling System?


Air samples are drawn
into the sampling pipe
and carried through to the
Detector by the aspirator.

Detail of
Sampling
point
Sampling pipe

Sampling point

Air samples

VESDA

Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus


Display

Air enters detector

Inlet manifold

Ultra pure air is used


to keep optical surfaces clean

Laser
Chamber
Air sample is
moved through
the laser chamber
via the aspirator
and filter

Aspirator

The signal is then


passed to the
Dual Stage Filter
processor card for
and onto the Display
Dust is filtered Module
out

Operation of the VESDA Detector

Radiation / Flame Detectors

Forms of radiant energy produced by a fire

Flame
Detector

Detects radiation from


flame
Analyses one or more UV
or IR frequencies
Extremely fast on flaming
fires
Long range, line of sight
Sophisticated and
expensive
Suitable for high risk,
liquid and gas hazards

Infra-red (IR)
Radiation Detector

Scanning Infra-red (IR)


Radiation Detector

Ultra-violet (UV)
Radiation Detector

FALSE ALARMS
Ultra Violet
Welding
X-ray
Lens contamination
High power consumption

Infra Red
sunlight

Heat
Detector

Senses temperature or
temperature change
Immune to false alarms in
most cases
Reliable, fairly slow
detection
Fire must be near detector
Low maintenance
Inexpensive

Heat
Detector
Fixed temperature
Rate-of-rise

Heat
Detector

Expansion of
single metal
strip

Heat
Detector

Expansion of
single metal
strip

Heat
Detector
Expansion of
bi-metallic
strip

Heat
Detector

Expansion of
gases

Heat
Detector

Expansion of
gases

Heat
Detector

Linear
Heat Detecting
Cables

Optical Fibre
Distributed Temperature Sensing
Technology provides continuous profiles of
temperature using a single optical fibre as the
sensing element
An instrument containing an Optical Time
Domain Reflectometer and signal processing
software
Monitors hundreds of points in seconds
Sensor is insensitive to EMI
Sensor is Intrinsically safe

Beam
Detectors
Effects of Flame
on IR Beam

Effects of Smoke
on IR Beam

Carbon
Monoxide
Detector

CO is a toxic gas
CO is the major cause of
death in fires
CO detectors sense slow
smouldering fires before
smoke detectors
Best option for hotels,
hospitals, nursing homes

CARBON MONOXIDE

SOMETHING NEW
IN

FIRE DETECTION?

FACTS
Carbon Monoxide Gas
Produced in fires
Odourless
Colourless
Travels more freely than smoke
Makes victims lethargic,
disoriented
Brain damage, death at high ppm

FACTS
Slow Smouldering Fires
Vast quantities of CO before
flaming
Cause of many deaths
Difficult to detect using traditional
Ion- or Optical based detectors
Cause of backdraft?

Fire Growth
INCIPIENT STAGE - NO VISIBLE SMOKE

VISIBLE SMOKEFLAMING FIRE INTENSE HEAT

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

STAGE 3

SPRINKLER

SMOKE DENSITY AND HEAT OUTPUT

BEAM

PHOTO
VESDA
ION

TIME

STAGE 4

FLAME

HEAT

Call
Points

Allow manual alarm of fire


Different types include:
Breakglass
Push button
Lever
Located at exits and
throughout risk

Panels

Panels are the Brains


that receive the detector
inputs and decide the
action or output
response
The panels and detectors
are configured into
SYSTEMS
There are two types of
system configurations:
CONVENTIONAL and
ADDRESSABLE

Conventional
systems

Simple installation
Detectors and
inputs are
grouped into
ZONES
2 Core

Each detector and


input is individually
Addressable identified
Systems
One wire connects
different types of
inputs
2 Core

Outputs

Alarms

Bells
Sirens
Lights

EVAC systems

Voice commands for


regulated evacuation

Drivers for control

Suppression system
Shutdown of air
handling
Control of doors

Prevention issues

Selecting
Detectors

Life safety,
Business interruption,
Asset protection,
Explosion prevention

Tolerable damage levels

Fire issues
Slow or rapid development
Smouldering or flaming
Solids or liquids

Analyse relative importance of:


Speed of response

Selecting
Detectors

Range of response
Sensitivity and discrimination
Reliability
General immunity to false alarm
sources
Immunity to specific radiation
sources
Electronic interface
Cost

Early Detection
leads to
Life Safety