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A Nation Grows with Improved Productivity

Why don’t you


The definite

Total
take care of me?
solution is
I’m badly sick...
TPM.

Productive
Maintenance
is for Everyone Don’t kill me!
I’ll do something
for you.
Four Development Stages of Maintenance in Japan

STAGE MODEL PERIOD


1 BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE ~ 1950
2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 1950 ~ 1960
- establishing maintenance functions
3 PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE 1960 ~ 1970
- recognizing importance of reliability, maintenance, and
economic efficiency of plant design

4 TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE 1970 ~


- achieving PM efficiency through a comprehensive system
based on respect for individuals and total employee
participation
PREDICTIVE AND DIAGNOSTIC MAINTENANCE
4+ 1985 ~
- adopting modern monitoring and analyzing techniques to
diagnose the condition of equipment during operation
- to identify the sign of deterioration or immense failure
What is Total Productive Maintenance?
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
combines the American practice of
preventive maintenance with the Japanese
Total Quality Control and total employee
involvement. The result is an innovative
system for equipment maintenance that
optimizes effectiveness, eliminates
breakdowns, and promotes autonomous
operator maintenance through day-to-day
activities.
The Five Pillars of TPM
1 TPM aims to maximize equipment overall
effectiveness.

2 TPM establishes a thorough system of PM for the


equipment entire life span.

3 TPM is implemented by various departments -


engineering, operations, and maintenance.

4 TPM involves every single employee, from top


management to workers on the floor.

5 TPM is based on the promotion of PM through


motivation management: autonomous small group
activities.
Principal Features of TPM
The word “total” in “total productive maintenance” has
three meanings that describe the principal features of
TPM:

1 Total effectiveness (referred to in point 1 above)


indicates TPM's pursuit of economic efficiency or
profitability.

2 Total maintenance system (point 2) includes


maintenance prevention (MP) and corrective
maintenance (CM) as well as preventive
maintenance (PM).

3 Total participation of all employees (point 3,4 and


5) includes autonomous maintenance by
operators through small group activities.
The Six Big Equipment Losses and Overall Equipment Effectiveness
Equipment Six big losses Calculation of overall equipment effectiveness

1 loading time - downtime


Equipment failure Availability = loading time x 100
Loading time
(e.g.)
400 mins - 60 mins
2 Availability = 460 mins x 100 = 87%
Setup and adjustment
Downtime
losses

Operating time 3
Idling and theoretical cycle time x processed amount
minor stoppages Performance efficiency = operating time x 100

(e.g.)
0.5 mins / unit x 400 units
4
Speed losses

Performance efficiency = 400 mins x 100 = 50%


Net Reduced speed
operating
time
5 processed amount - defect amount
Rate of quality products = x 100
Defects in process processed amount
(e.g.)
Defect losses

Valuable 400 units - 8 units


operating Rate of quality products = x 100 = 98%
6 400 units
time Reduced yield

Overall equipment effectiveness = Availability x Performance efficiency x Rate of quality products

(e.g.) 0.87 x 0.50 x 0.98 x 100 = 42.6%


Accurate Data is Essential
If we want to practice “profitable TPM” and pursue
optimal equipment effectiveness, the following two
factors are crucial. First, we must keep accurate
equipment operation records so that the appropriate
management and controls can be provided; and second,
we must devise a precise scale for measuring the
equipment operation conditions.
Equipment operation conditions are not reflected
accurately when they are based solely on the availability
(operation time ratio) figure. Of the six big equipment
losses, only downtime losses are calculated to determine
availability. Other equipment losses such as speed and
defect losses are not accounted for. To represent actual
equipment operating conditions accurately, all six
equipment losses must be included in the calculations.
Calculations of Overall Equipment Effectiveness
A: Running time per day = 60 minutes x 8 hours = 480 minutes
B: Downtime per day (downtime accounted for in the production schedule for
scheduled maintenance, or for management purposes such as morning
meetings) = 20 minutes
C: Loading time per day = A - B = 460 minutes
D: Stoppage losses per day (breakdowns - 20 minutes; setup - 20 minutes;
adjustment - 20 minutes) = 60 minutes
E: Operating time per day = C - D = 400 minutes
G: Output per day = 400 units
H: Rate of quality products: 98%
I: Ideal cycle time = 0.5 minutes / unit
J: Actual cycle time = 0.8 minutes / unit
Therefore,
F: Actual processing time = J x G = 0.8 x 400 = 320 minutes
T: Availability = E / C x 100 = 400 / 460 x 100 = 87%
M: Operating speed rate = I / J x 100 = 0.5 / 0.8 x 100 = 62.5%
N: Net operating rate = F / E x 100 = (0.8 x 400) / 400 x 100 = 80%
L: Performance efficiency = M x N x 100 = 0.625 x 0.800 x 100 = 50%
Overall Equipment effectiveness = T x L x H x 100 = 0.87 x 0.50 x 0.98 x 100
= 42.6%
What is the Ideal Overall Equipment Effectiveness?

The ideal conditions are:


• Availability: greater than 90%
• Performance efficiency: greater than 95%
• Rate of quality products: 99%
Therefore, the ideal overall equipment effectiveness
should be:
0.90 x 0.95 x 0.99 x 100 = 85+%
This figure is not just a remote goal. All the PM prize
winning companies in Japan have an equipment
effectiveness greater than 85 percent.
Calculations Chart for Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Calculations Chart for Overall Equipment Effectiveness


A B C D E F T G H I J L M N
Quantity processed
Running Planned Loading Dow ntime Operating Actual Operating Output Total Quality Standard Actual Operation Operation Net Number Number of Overall
time dow ntime time loss time processing time (number of (including losses ratio cycle cycle performance speed operation of minor exchanges equipment
time ratio quality products) and rew ork) time time ratio ratio ratio stoppages of diamond effectiveness
Process grindstones
(h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (h) (%) (unit) (unit) (%) (s) (s) (%) (%) (%) (%)
A-B C-D JxG E/C G1 G G1/G MxN I/J F/E TxLxH
Internal 17.75 2.30 15.45 0.00 15.45 10.94 100.00 4,000 4,018 99.55 9.50 9.80 68.63 96.94 70.80 2 2 68.32
finish 18.58 0.60 17.98 0.00 17.98 13.12 100.00 4,800 4,818 99.63 9.50 9.80 70.71 96.94 72.95 4 2 70.45
16.83 0.70 16.13 0.00 16.13 12.03 100.00 4,400 4,418 99.59 9.50 9.80 72.28 96.94 74.56 0 2 71.98
Total 53.16 3.60 49.56 0.00 49.56 36.08 100.00 13,200 13,254 99.59 9.50 9.80 70.57 96.94 72.80 6 6 70.29
6.50 0.10 6.40 0.50 6.40 4.62 100.00 1,187 1,190 99.75 14.00 16.60 60.88 84.34 72.19 1 3 60.73
External 17.75 0.70 17.05 0.00 17.05 16.38 100.00 3,513 3,542 99.18 14.00 16.65 80.79 84.08 96.08 0 8 80.13
finish 17.75 0.80 16.95 0.00 16.95 15.12 100.00 3,297 3,309 99.64 14.00 16.45 75.92 85.11 89.21 0 6 75.64
16.00 1.10 14.90 0.00 14.90 14.13 100.00 3,030 3,150 96.19 14.00 16.15 82.21 86.69 94.84 0 6 79.08
Total 58.00 2.70 55.30 0.50 55.30 50.25 100.00 11,027 11,191 98.53 14.00 16.46 77.28 85.04 90.87 1 23 76.15
6.50 0.10 6.40 0.20 6.20 3.47 96.88 1,187 1,202 98.75 9.50 10.40 51.16 91.35 56.01 0 1 48.94
External 17.75 0.70 17.05 0.00 17.05 10.48 100.00 3,513 3,593 97.77 9.50 10.50 55.61 90.48 61.46 0 4 54.37
finish 17.75 0.80 16.95 0.00 16.95 9.89 100.00 3,297 3,392 97.20 9.50 10.50 52.81 90.48 58.37 0 3 51.33
16.00 1.10 14.90 0.00 14.90 8.84 100.00 3,030 3,060 99.02 9.50 10.40 54.19 91.35 59.33 0 3 53.66
Total 58.00 2.70 55.30 0.20 55.30 32.69 100.00 11,027 11,247 98.04 9.50 10.45 53.73 90.91 59.11 0 11 52.68
The Five TPM Development Activities
There are some basic conditions for the development of
TPM that apply in most situation. Generally, the
successful implementation of TPM requires:
1 Elimination of the six big losses to improve
equipment effectiveness

2 An autonomous maintenance program

3 A scheduled maintenance program for the


maintenance department

4 Increased skills of operations and maintenance


personnel

5 An initial equipment management program


The Twelve Steps of TPM Development
1 Announce top management’s decision to introduce TPM
2 Launch education and campaign to introduce TPM
3 Create organization to promote TPM
4 Establish basic TPM policies and goals
5 Formulate master plan for TPM development
6 Hold TPM kick-off
7 Improve effectiveness of each piece of equipment
8 Develop an autonomous maintenance program
9 Develop a scheduled maintenance program for the maintenance department
10 Conduct training to improve operation and maintenance skills
11 Develop initial equipment management program
12 Perfect TPM implementation and raise TPM levels
A Nation Grows with Improved Productivity

Thank you
for
your patience

TPM
is
for Everyone

End of Presentation