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Corrosion and Degradation of

Materials
How does corrosion occur?
Which metals are most likely to corrode?
What environmental parameters affect
corrosion rate?
How do we prevent or control corrosion?

Chapter 17 - 1

THE COST OF CORROSION


Corrosion:

automobiles and
other equipment

Cost:

EHStock/iStockphoto

-- the destructive
electrochemical
attack of a material.
-- Ex: Rusting of

-- 4 to 5% of the Gross National Product (GNP)*


-- in the U.S. this amounts to just over $400 billion/yr**
* H.H. Uhlig and W.R. Revie, Corrosion and Corrosion Control: An Introduction
to Corrosion Science and Engineering, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
1985.
**Economic Report of the President (1998).
Chapter 17 - 2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 12.2

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 12.4

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 12.5

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 12.6

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION
Ex: consider the corrosion of zinc in an acid solution
Two reactions are necessary:
-- oxidation reaction:
-- reduction reaction:
H+
Oxidation reaction
Zn
Zn2+
H+

Zinc

flow of e- 2ein the metal

H+

H+ +
H
H+
H2(gas)
H+
reduction reaction

Acid
solution

Adapted from Fig. 17.1,


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
(From M. G. Fontana, Corrosion
Engineering, 3rd edition. Copyright
1986 by McGraw-Hill Book
Company. Reproduced with
permission.)

Other reduction reactions in solutions with dissolved oxygen:


-- acidic solution

-- neutral or basic solution

Chapter 17 - 7

STANDARD HYDROGEN ELECTRODE


Two outcomes:
-- Electrodeposition

H2(gas)
Mn+ H+
ions
H+

e-

25C

e-

ne -

2e -

Mn+
ions

metal, M

metal, M

ne -

e-

Platinum

e-

H+ 2e H+

H2(gas)

Platinum

-- Corrosion

25C

1M Mn+ soln 1M H + soln

1M Mn+ soln 1M H+ soln

-- Metal is the anode (-)

-- Metal is the cathode (+)

o
Vmetal
0

(relative to Pt)

o
metal

Standard Electrode Potential

(relative to Pt)

Adapted from Fig. 17.2,


Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
Chapter 17 - 8

STANDARD EMF SERIES

more anodic

more cathodic

EMF series
metal
Au
Cu
Pb
Sn
Ni
Co
Cd
Fe
Cr
Zn
Al
Mg
Na
K

o
Vmetal

Metal with smaller


o
Vmetal
corrodes.

+1.420 V
Ex: Cd-Ni cell
+0.340
o
o
V
<
V
Cd corrodes
Ni
Cd
- 0.126
- 0.136
+
- 0.250
V o =
- 0.277
0.153V
- 0.403
- 0.440
Cd
Ni
25C
- 0.744
- 0.763
- 1.662
1.0 M
1.0 M
- 2.363
Cd 2+ solution Ni 2+ solution
- 2.714
Adapted from Fig. 17.2,
Data based on Table 17.1,
Callister & Rethwisch 9e.
- 2.924 Callister 9e.
Chapter 17 - 9

GALVANIC SERIES

more anodic
(active)

more cathodic
(inert)

Ranking of the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater


Platinum
Gold
Graphite
Titanium
Silver
316 Stainless Steel (passive)
Nickel (passive)
Copper
Nickel (active)
Tin
Lead
316 Stainless Steel (active)
Iron/Steel
Aluminum Alloys
Cadmium
Zinc
Magnesium

Table 17.2, Callister &


Rethwisch 9e.
Source is M.G. Fontana, Corrosion
Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1986. Reprinted with
permission)

Chapter 17 - 10