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Teaching

Young Sherlock Holmes

ysh

Teaching Young Sherlock Holmes

1. Holmes and Detective Fiction


2. Young Sherlock Holmes -Production History
3. Category and Genre
- generic hybrid; tone
4. Narrative
- two narratives, plot and story,
narrative structure
5. Language - mise en scene, cinematography,
editing, sound
2

1. Holmes and Detective Fiction

Holmes and Detective Fiction

17th C. growth of journalism - broadsheets


would be rushed out after major crime or
execution

although writing about crime been going on a


long time, genre really took off in 19th century
4

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Detective fiction given boost by real life


detective: Eugene Francois Vidocq
Former criminal,
became police
informer, finally
policeman
Founded the
Sret - first
professional police
force in France

Gerard Depardieu as Vidocq

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Innovator - card-index records; introduced


police to ballistics
Master of disguise (as is Holmes) and
surveillance
Set up first private detective agency
Published his (unreliable) memoirs which
influenced subsequent crime fiction
6

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Edgar Allen Poe (1809-49),


Poet and novelist
Drew on Vidocqs memoirs and
created tales of ratiocination
and brilliant detective
Auguste Dupin (eg Murders in
the Rue Morgue)
Highly intelligent gentleman crime-solver, tackling
crime police unable to solve Conan Doyle great
admirer (even if Holmes not!)
7

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Born Edinburgh 1859, studied


medicine in Edinburgh
University where he started
writing
Holmes thought to be partly
based on Professor Joseph
Bell, known for his ability to
observe patients and deduce
facts about with amazing
accuracy
First significant work, novel A
Study in Scarlet

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Wrote four novels and fifty-six Holmes short


stories. All but four stories are narrated by
Holmes's friend and biographer, Dr John H.
Watson.
Grew tremendously in popularity when started
to appear in Strand Magazine in 1891; further
series of short stories and two serialised novels
appeared until 1927.
Stories cover a period from around
1878 up to 1907, with final case in 1914.

Holmes and Detective Fiction

What Holmes shares with general corpus of


detective fiction.
Detective story defined as a novel or short story
in which a crime, usually a murder the identity of
perpetrator unknown solved by a detective
through a logical assembling and interpretation of
palpable evidence, known as clues. *
Good detective story generally follows six
unwritten rules :
* Hugh Holman A Handbook to Literature

10

Holmes and Detective Fiction


The Good Detective Story
1 Crime must be significant, worthy of the attention it
receives
2. Detective must be in some way a memorable character
-must be very intelligent, clever and observant. Should
-also stand out because of some individual style, eg
-eccentricity of dress or speech.
3. Must be an outstanding opponent, a criminal clever
enough to be a match for the hero.

11

Holmes and Detective Fiction


The Good Detective Story cont

4. Because large part of the attraction of genre is


opportunity for the reader to try to figure out the
solution along with the detective, all suspects must be
introduced early.
5. All clues detective discovers must be made available to
reader as well as detective.
6. Solution must seem obvious, logical, possible not
result of accident or supernatural causes; and detective
must be able to explain all aspects in reasonable way.12

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Useful to get pupils to apply these rules to


Holmes stories
Does it work for The Speckled Band?
Does it work for other Holmes stories?
Does it work for Young Sherlock Holmes?
Effective exercise
13

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Repertoire of
elements?
Term usually
associated with film
genres but can be
applied to genre prose
fiction
Perhaps can even say
there is a Sherlock
Holmes genre

14

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Popular image of Holmes combination of Conan


Doyle and number of illustrators, esp Sydney
Paget in Strand Magazine.

Stage adaptation
anchored Holmes
image in popular
imagination where
has remained
15

Holmes and Detective Fiction

16

Holmes and Detective Fiction

The corpus of genre consists of works of


Arthur Conan Doyle, ie the canon (Conan?)
But might also be said to consist of works
emanating from canon to include
stage plays - particularly important in
establishment of Holmes image in public
imagination
adaptations (film and TV)
pastiche works
graphic novels
17

Genre

Holmes Genre: Repertoire of Elements


Holmes props:
Deerstalker, Inverness cloak, Meerschaum
pipe, magnifying class, scientific
instruments,
Catch-phrases:
The game is afoot;Elementary, my dear
Watson (exact words not used in Conan
Doyle) You look but you do not see

18

Genre

Holmes Genre: Repertoire of elements


Holmess use of disguise (eg A Scandal in
Bohemia)
No interest in women (apart from Irene Adler)
Holmess powers of observation and deduction
eg in The Speckled Band - able to work out
details of Helen Stoners journey that morning
from a ticket and mud-splashes on her clothes
19

Genre

Holmes Genre: Repertoire of elements


Recurring characters:
Professor Moriarty - arch-nemesis
Inspector Lestrade (wants Holmes help but
tries to take credit)
Baker Street Irregulars - street urchins who
do odd jobs for Holmes (eg A Study in
Scarlet)
Brother Mycroft
20

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Examples of adaptations
Basil Rathbone films of 1940s
ITV series with Jeremy
Brett (1970s)
Tended to be reasonably
faithful to original models
though Rathbone films often
switched settings to 1940 (eg
wartime exploits against nazis)

21

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Not just in Englishspeaking world:


Russian television
produced adapations from
1979 - 1986
with Vasily Ivanov

22

Holmes and Detective Fiction


Many films used Sherlock Holmes myth for new
works - either straight or pastiche or parody
The Seven-Per-Cent Solution (d.
Herbert Ross) based on novel by
Nicholas Meyer. Pastiche of
Sherlock Holmes adventure, focusing
on Holmess drug addiction
Nicol Williamson as Sherlock Holmes,
Robert Duvall as Watson, and Alan
Arkin as Dr. Sigmund Freud. Laurence
Olivier played the brief role of
Professor Moriarty.
"It is cocaine," he said, "a seven-per-cent solution. Would you care to try
it? Holmes to Watson in The Sign of Four
23

Holmes and Detective Fiction


Celebrated German director Billy Wilders
The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (1968) with
Robert Stephens which speculated about Holmess
ambiguous sexuality

24

Holmes and Detective Fiction


Latest example in post-production (WB)

Sherlock Holmes directed by Guy Ritchie

.
Watson
played by
Jude Law

Holmes
played by
Robert
Downie
Junior

Based on Lionel Wigrams graphic novel (not published 25


yet)

Holmes and Detective Fiction

Young Sherlock Holmes and Holmes Genre will


be considered in Section 3
.

26

2.Young Sherlock Holmes Production History

27

2.Young Sherlock Holmes Production History

Released USA 1985


Rleeased UK (as Young
Sherlock Holmes and
the Secret of the
Pyramid) March 1986

28

Young Sherlock Holmes


Directed by Barry Levinson (1942 - )
Films include:

Diner (1982)
The Natural (1984)
Good Morning,Vietnam (1987)
Rain Man (1988) (Oscar for Best
Director)
Bugsy (1991)
Wag the Dog (1997)
Toys (1992),
29

Young Sherlock Holmes


Original script by Chris Columbus (1958 - )
Films include:

Home Alone (1990) (director)


Mrs. Doubtfire (1993)
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
(2001) (producer-director)
Harry Potter and the Chamber of
Secrets
(2002)(producer-director)
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
(2004) (producer)
30

Young Sherlock Holmes


Production Companies

Paramount Pictures

Amblin Entertainment
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM)

31

Young Sherlock Holmes

Paramount Pictures

One of traditional Big Five Hollywood Studios


Subsequently involved in distribution and finance
Rather than production
32

Young Sherlock Holmes

Amblin Entertainment

Founded in 1981 by Steven Spielberg and associates


Frank Marshall and Kathleen Kennedy.
Produces but does not distribute films

33

Young Sherlock Holmes

Industrial Light & Magic (ILM)

Visual effects company that was founded in May 1975


by George Lucas and owned by Lucasfilm.
34

Young Sherlock Holmes

CGI in YSH impressive given the date of the film.


Supplied by George Lucass Industral Light and
Magic company which developed the effects for
films such as Star Wars.

YSH was the first film to use a CGI that actually


interacted with the characters on screen.
35

Language

36

Young Sherlock Holmes

37

Young Sherlock Holmes


Executive Producer suggests overseeing rather
than hands-on role
Spielberg had just finished Indiana Jones and the
Temple of Doom (1984) (prequel to Raiders of the
Lost Ark (1981) )
Notable influence on Young Sherlock Holmes
-see section on genre
-Modest box office (not much more than
costs - c. $18 million)
But posthumous life on video/DVD

38

Young Sherlock Holmes


Certification
USA: PG-13
UK: PG
Could producers have toned down more frightening
scenes (eg Elizabeth about o be mummified)?
Same problem with Indiana Jones films

39

3. Genre and Other Categorisations

40

Genre

Genre most important


aspect of film
categorisation
Based on similarities in
the narrative and other
elements from which
films constructed.
41

Genre

Films usually categorized in terms of genre


according to their
setting: eg western
theme or topic or mood eg horror
audience eg teenpic, chickflick
protagonists occupation eg gangster
42

Genre

Iconography - repeated visual (and sound) motifs


associated with a genre
eg western - desert,
rugged landscape,
frontier town,
horses, stagecoaches

eg gothic horror gloomy gothic castle,


garlic, inn
with locals crossing
themselves at the name
of the vampire
43

Genre

Iconography - repeated visual (and sound) motifs


associated with a genre
eg sci-fi - gleaming
meallic surfaces,
advanced technology,
aliens

eg gangster backstreet urban


setting, bars and clubs
(speakeasys), weapons,
sharp clothes (for top
brass)

44

Genre

Genres never pure, even in early cinema


Eg singing cowboy films combined western +
musical
generic hybrids
But became more common post 1970s
eg Blade Runner : scifi + film noir
eg Star Wars: scifi + action-adventure
eg Prizzis Honor : gangster + screwball comedy

45

Genre

Young Sherlock Holmes a hybrid of different


genres.
detective genre
action-adventure genre
Action-adventure itself a hybrid of action and
adventure
46

Action film

Usually include spectacle, high energy, physical


stunts and chases, rescues, battles, fights,
escapes, destructive crises (floods, explosions,
natural disasters, fires, etc.), non-stop motion
Often two-dimensional heroes (goodies)
battling villains (baddies) - all designed for
pure audience escapism.
47

Action
Examples:

Die-Hard films

Lethal Weapon

48

Action

Often combine with other generic elements


such as police-procedural, espionage, war
The disaster film (eg
Towering Inferno) might
be classified as an action film
eg James Bond 'fantasy'
spy/espionage series, martial
arts films, and so-called
blaxploitation films.

49

Action

Clip Bond, James Bond/Holmes, Sherlock Holmes

50

Adventure

Considerable overlap in that adventure films


also action films but usually have new
experiences or exotic settings.
Can include traditional swashbucklers,
serialised films, and historical spectacles,
searches or expeditions for lost continents,
"jungle" and "desert" epics, treasure hunts,
disaster films, or searches for the unknown.
51

eg

Adventure

52

Adventure

Exotic locations usually mean some far-off


country where things are different from what the
audience is used to
Resolution usually involves large-scale action,
buildings destroyed etc
Usually appeal to a younger demographic that
straightforward action films
53

Action-Adventure
Most successful example of genre in recent years

Significant influence on Young Sherlock Holmes 54

Genre
The detective film

Other main genre strand of Young Sherlock


.
Holmes
- detective film (often overlapping
with suspense, thriller or mystery films)
Focus on the unsolved crime (often murder,
theft, blackmail or disappearance of one or
more of the characters, or a theft),

55

Genre
The detective film

Focus on central
character
- detective.
hero (either a
policeman or a private
investigator) who
faces various
adventures and
challenges in cold and
methodical pursuit of
the criminal or the
solution to crime

56

Genre
Detective

Plot often centers on the


deductive ability, prowess,
confidence, or diligence of
the detective as he/she
attempts to unravel the
crime or situation by
piecing together clues and
circumstances, seeking
evidence, interrogating
witnesses, and tracking
down a criminal.

57

Genre
Detective

Detective films
emphasize the
detective solving
the crime through
clues and
exceptional
rational powers.

58

Genre
Detective

The detective studies


intriguing reasons and events
leading to crime
- eventually determines the
identity of villain
- a murderer, a master spy,
an arch fiend, an unseen evil,
or a malignant psychological
force).

59

Genre
Detective

Genre has ranged


from early mystery
tales, fictional or
literary detective
stories, to classic
Hitchcockian
suspense-thrillers
to classic private
detective films and
films noirs.
60

Genre - Detective
Some notable examples
The 39 Steps (1935)
The Maltese Falcon (1941)
Maigret voit rouge/Maigret

Sees Red (1963)


Marlowe (1969)

Klute (1971)
Death on the Nile (1978)
Blade Runner (1982)
Dick Tracy (1990)
Lone Star (1996)

Most based on detective novels

61

Genre

In addition to the action-adventure and the


detective elements, other genres make an
appearance in Young Sherlock Holmes
Romance - the Holmes-Elizabeth relationship
Public school genre eg Tom Browns
Schooldays (1951)

62

Genre
Detective

Overlap between detective and actionadventure


detective genre put more emphasis on
detection investigation (amassing of clues)
forensics (using science to solve crimes) etc.
logical deduction
Action-adventure emphasis on derring-do

63

Genre

YSH and detective genre


Holmes establishes link early on between dead
men

64

Genre

YSH and detective genre


Using forensics (chemistry), able to find origin of
material worn by hooded figure - leads to
warehouse in docks area and discovery of Rame
Tep temple

65

Genre

YSH and detective genre


Intuition as well as deduction from
evidence
- cut on face reminds him of ring with Rame
Tep symbol worn by Rathe) - leads him to
identity of villain
Clip

66

Genre

YSH and detective genre

67

Genre

YSH and detective genre


In detective genre, resolution (see section on
Narrative) through deduction
Resolution to narrative not discovery of the
criminals (who done it?) but confrontation
with cult and final duel with Rathe EhTar
ie through action
Clip

68

Genre

69

Genre

Exotic locale a feature of action-adventure


However, in Young Sherlock Holmes exotic
is found close to home: the Rame Tep temple
in . . . Wapping, East London
Setting is exoticised

70

Genre

Mise en scene - chanting sect members


with shaven heads and eastern dress;
torches, animal heads etc
(Will be developed further in Language
section)
Clip

71

Genre

Final battle brings down whole temple


Holmes saved at last minute by Watsons ingenuity
Final confrontation with Rathe
Resolution of YSHs narrative therefore more
typical action-adventure than detective

72

Genre

In detective genre, sometimes violence


but minor key. Action-adventure however
tends to ends with large-scale set-piece
Compare climactic scene in Young Sherlock
Homes with Indiana Jones and the
Temple of Doom
clip

73

Clips from Indiana Jones and from


Young Sherlock Holmes

74

Holmes Genre

How are the repertoire of elements deployed in


Young Sherlock Holmes?

Props:
Deerstalker,
Inverness
cape and
Meerschaum
pipe
75

Characters

Holmes Genre

Lestrade shown as a younger detective - later (in the


Conan Doyle canon) brings in Holmes to help - and tries
to claim the claim credit - as Lestrade does in YSH

Mycroft Holmes referenced - when Holmes is expelled


76

Holmes Genre

Repertoire of elements
Catch-phrases: Elementary, my dear Watson
Waxflatter says, Elementary, my dear Holmes
The game is afoot!
Holmes says for first time when he is solving the
mystery of the missing trophy
You look but you do not see
Young Holmes says to young Watson
77

Genre

Holmes Genre: Repertoire of Elements


Narrative: 3-part structure
1. case brought to Holmess attention
2. Holmes investigates
3. Holmes unmasks culprit.
First person narration (by Watson), including
coda where Watson asks Holmes to explain how
he arrived at conclusions
78

Holmes Genre

Watson narration an important feature of


stories: in Young Sherlock Holmes, this done by
(older) Watsons voiceovers - Watson
voiceover used throughout film for comment
and exposition
Narrative coda (explanation of how Holmes
arrived at conclusions) done with a mixture of
dialogue and voiceover
Clip

79

Holmes Genre

Useful exercise when watching film


Get pupils to make a brief note when element from
the repertoire makes an appearance (more able)
Or provide a list and ask pupils to tick off as they
watch film (less able)

80

Other Categories: Tone

Excitement - flying machine heading for


Wapping
CLIP
Suspense - will Elizabeth be mummified?
Romance - Holmes and Elizabeth (tragic
romance - as Elisabeth dies)

81

Categories: Tone
Comedy

Waxflatters attempts to get machine to fly


- ends in failure each time
Almost a running gag
(ie a joke, situation or line that is repeated
several times, each time the comedy being
reinforced by memory of the previous
occurrence)
Clip

82

Categories: Tone

Comedy
Graveyard scene - food attacking Watson
Example of tonal shift ie, sudden change in
tone
-in this case from excitement/suspense to
(almost slapstick) comedy
-Does it work? Does the comedy detract from
the suspense?
CLIP

83

4. Narrative

The two narratives


Plot and story
Narrative Structure (Todorov)
Narrative Closure
Other aspects of narrative

84

2. Narrative

Two narratives
RAME TEP narrative:

SCHOOL narrative:

Murder of Bobster,
Rev. Duncan Nesbit,
Waxflatter

lessons, rivalries,
romance etc

85

Narrative

Two narratives
However, connections made between two
narratives
Mysterious visitor (we learn later is Cragwitch,
one of group being targeted by sect)
Mysterious hooded figure with jangling
bracelet - appears in school library and school
grounds
86

Narrative: two narratives

At first kept (more or less) separate and merged


into one after Waxflatters death and Holmess
(subversive) return to Brompton
Preceded by Watsons v/o about Holmess triumph
in his bet with Dudley:
Clip

87

Narrative

Plot and story


Story = all the events we see and hear, plus all
those we infer or assume to have occurred,
arranged in chronological order,
Plot =the way these events presented to the
audience.
In plot, story elements might be in completely
different order
88

Narrative

Plot and story


STORY
Inferred
events

Explicitly presented
events

Added nondiegetic
material

PLOT
89

Narrative

Plot and story


A murder has been committed. That is, we know the
effect but not the causes - the killer, the motive,
perhaps also the method. The mystery tale depends
strongly on curiosity, our desire to know events that
have occurred before the plot action begins. It is the
detective's job to disclose, at the end, the missing
causes-to name the killer, explain the motive, and reveal
the method.
That is, in the detective film the climax of the plot line
(the action that we see) is a revelation of prior
incidents in the story (events which we do not
see)
from Film Art (Bordwell & Thomson)
90

Narrative

Plot and story


(a) crime conceived
(b) Crime planned

STORY

(c) crime committed


(d) Crime discovered
PLOT

(e) Detective investigates


(f) Detective reveals a, b and c

Bordwell &Thomson, Film Art p67

91

Narrative

Plot and story


(a) Egyptian village burned down and protesting villagers killed by
army protecting group of investors who desecrated sacred site.

S
T
O
R
Y

(b) Rame Tep sect swear revenge - send (Anglo-Egyptian) Eh Tar


to England to seek revenge.When they grow up, he and sister
employed at Bromton (where Waxflatter - one of investors based).
(c) Attacks on members of investors group leading to deaths.

P
L
O
T

(d) Holmes suspicious about suicides - investigates - discovers


sect, tracks down to their temple.
(e) locates Cragwitch (mysterious visitor to Waxflatter);
discovers the story behind sect and their revenge.
(f) discovers Rathes role; causes temple to burn down. Defeats
Rathe/Ethar but Elisabeth killed

92

Narrative

Narrative structure: Todorov model


Most common narrative structure in
mainstream texts as analysed by Todorov
1 Equilibrium (state of normality)
2 Disruption - event that kicks off narrative
3 Resolution - moment when conflicting forces
fight key battle
4 Return to equilibrium - new state of normality
93

Narrative

Narrative structure: Todorov model


Equilibrium
Watson arrives
at Brompton,
meets Holmes;
normal life of
the school
(lessons, rivalry,
romance, etc
94

Narrative

Disruption
Attacks on members of the group leading to
deaths
Frequently, disruption is intimated before
equilibrium has chance to be established so film
opens with attack on and death of the banker
Bobster

95

Narrative

Resolution
Climax in Rame Tep temple in Wapping destruction of temple, Holmes defeats
Rathe/Eh Tar; Elizabeth killed

96

Narrative

Return to Equilibrium
Rame Tep defeated
Holmess life without Elizabeth
Vows never to marry
Leaves Bromton

97

Narrative

Individual narratives within the overarching


narrative
Eg Watson has his own narrative and own new
equilibrium

98

Narrative

[Make a montage of w at start and w at end]

99

Narrative

Narrative closure
Tying up of loose ends, bringing narrative to clear
conclusion
Traditional in mainstream films but left open for
sequel potential
Cf Watsons final voice-over:

.. I was ready for whatever mystery or danger that lay


ahead. I was ready to take on the greatest and most
exciting adventure of them all and I knew it was bound to
involve Sherlock Holmes

100

Narrative

Narrative closure - also post-credit ending


Rathe/Eh Tar manages to survive - and become
the arch nemesis of adult Holmes
-Professor Moriarty, the Napoleon of crime

101

Narrative

Other aspect of narrative: repetition and


parallels help structure the narrative
The rule of three
Certain events in the film occur three
times, usually with an important variation
each time

102

Narrative
The rule of three

Three fencing duels with Rathe/Eh Tar


Three attempts to fly machine
Three confrontations with Lestrade

103

Narrative
The rule of three

Three fencing duels with Rathe/Eh Tar


First time Holmes loses - Rathe teaches him
about the need not to let emotions interfere
Second time their match is declared a draw as
Holmes was distracted by sunlight reflected on
Rathes ring.
Third time Holmes is victorious
104

Narrative
The rule of three

Three attempts to launch Waxflatters flying


machine (ie onscreen attempts - preceded by six
others!)
The first two end in failure but Holmes
successful the third time - able to follow
Rathe, who is driving coach and horses with
Elizabeth tied up, back to Rame Tep temple in
Wapping
Cf Slide 50

105

Narrative

The rule of three

Three times Lestrade dismisses Holmess suspicions


about the case.
1. When Holmes suggests there is a connection between
the victims of the attacks (29.12)
2. When Waxflatters dying words to Holmes make
Holmes realise Waxflatters death is connected with
the others. Lestrade will have none of it. (38.49)
3. When they are taken to Scotland Yard after
graveyard fracas where Lestrade refuses to have thorns
analysed and throws them out. However, a thorn pierces
Lestrades hand which will have consequences later. (1.01
106
53)

Narrative

The rule of three

Three (apparent) suicides


Bentley Bobster
Rev. Duncan Nesbit
Professor Waxflatter

107

Narrative Parallels

A number of parallels also structure the film


and make it hang together:
Watson arriving
at Bromton by
coach at the
start

Holmes leaving
Bromton by coach
by the end

CLIP
108

Narrative Parallels

Holmes is leaving
Bromton, having
been expelled. As
he leaves, Elizabeth
writes I LOVE
YOU on the
window pane

Holmes is leaving
Bromton at the end.
Holmes looks up at
the same window
but Elizabeth is dead

109

Narrative Parallels

110

Narrative Parallels

Holmes solves the case of the missing


trophy in the first half of the film
Holmes solves the case of the mystery
suicides and the Rame Tep cult in the second
half of the film
Foreshadowing
111

5. Language
Mise en scene
Cinematography
Editing
Sound

112

Language

Mise en scene - setting, props, lighting, blocking


etc
Cinematography - camera angle, camera distance,
camera movement; framing
Editing - pace and rhythm of editing; transitions
Sound - diegetic and non-diegetic
-particularly music: Bruce Broughams score
structured in leitmotifs - particular themes for
characters, locations and situations)
113

Language - mise en scene

Mise en scene - important in historical film to create


a convincing diegesis (story world)
- kind of
clothing,
transport,
decoration
etc tells us
we are in
the
nineteenth
century.
114

Language - mise en scene

The mise en scene of Brompton - wooden panels,


gothic architecture

115

Language - mise en scene

Within Bromton, mise en scene in Waxflatters


quarters suggests something very scientific
not twentieth century scientific with white lab
coats and shiny surfaces, but nineteenth century
scientific, with tubes and jars and exotic-looking
early scientific instruments. (cf Frankenstein)

116

Language - mise en scene

117

Language - mise en scene

Contrast with Bromton mise en scene in the Egyptian


tavern, with its oriental atmosphere created by
characters clothing, musical instruments etc.

118

Language - mise en scene

Contrast even more pronounced between


church where the priest receives the poison
dart and Rame Tep temple
Mise en scene of the church very traditionally
English (or Western European)

119

Language - mise en scene

Church contrasts with the mise en scene in the


Rame Tep temple
-connotes ancient Egyptian, with the sarcophagus,
the candlelit chandeliers, the pillars, carvings,
costumes (and haircuts) of the sect members and
priest
Mise en scene essential for essential exoticism of
Rame Tep, essential for action-adventure aspect
of generic hybrid
Clips
21.31 - 22.00 diss to 54.45 - 55.15

120

Language

121

Language - mise en scene

Mise en scene - lighting and shadow


Hooded figure effectively portrayed by use of
light and shadow - combined with other elements
such as music
CLIP

122

Language

Cinematography - camera angle


Film follows traditional practice of using low
camera angle to connote power or nobility and
high camera angle to connote vulnerability
Holmess winning Dudleys challenge (to find school
trophy) confidence indicated by low-angled
shots as he takes up challenge (23.49)
The game is afoot!
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Language - Cinematography

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Language - Cinematography

Cinematography - camera angle

Later, as he walks towards common room even if


time almost run out. (26.31). Soon after, more
extreme low angle at his moment of triumph
where the whole school cheering for him. (27.23)

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Language

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Language - Cinematography

Cinematography - camera angle

Another extremely low angle used when becoming


clear that Rathe is a villain. After Elizabeths
fight with Mrs Dribb, Rathe comes into the
room, Elizabeth appeals to him and he replies,
So, my dear, you have discovered our little
secret (1.15.13)
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Language - Cinematography

Cinematography - camera angle

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Language - Cinematography

Cinematography - framing:

dutch angle - use of canted frame to indicate


that not all is right with the world:
a cinematic tactic often used to portray the
psychological uneasiness or tension in the subject
being filmed.
A Dutch angle is achieved by tilting the camera
off to the side so that the shot is composed with
the horizon at an angle to the bottom of the
frame
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Language - Cinematography

Dutch angle 1 - occurs in pre-title sequence


involving Bobster (a banker, one of the group of
investors targeted by the Rame Tep cult)
Very marked dutch angle indicates extreme
psychological state which makes him, a short time
later, jump out of a building to his death

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Language - Cinematography

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Language - Cinematography

Dutch angle 2 - Used during Rathe and Holmess


friendly duel before Holmes due to leave Brompton
after being expelled.
Perhaps dutch angle suggests that things not
always as they seem and foreshadow Rathes real
identity

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Language

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Language

Editing
Two aspects:
TRANSITIONS
RHYTHM

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Language: Editing

Rhythm one of the essential features of film decisively contributes to mood and overall
impression on the spectator.
Rhythm of editing - change in rate of cutting
(ie moving from longer takes to shorter takes
when need for more action, energy)

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Language: Editing

Transitions
Refers to how editing joins two film clips
Vast majority of transitions are cuts - we
tend not to perceive them except in being
aware of rate of editing etc

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Language: Editing

Transitions

Other main transitions:


Fade (in/out)
Dissolve
- Less common:
wipe
iris
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Fade (in/out)

Traditionally, films use fades to begin the film


(fade-in or fade from black) or to end it (fadeout or fade to black)
Within film, fade used to separate parts of film
(like chapters in a novel) and usually means some
time has elapsed
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Fade and Dissolves

Note from clip from Vertigo (Hitchcock 1961)


Starts with fade, punctuates shorter scenes
with dissolves (usually indicating time has passed
and/or change of place)
Ends with fade out, indicating a longer pause,
almost like chapter marker in book

Clip

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Language: Editing - Transitions

Fade (in/out)

YSH uses fade-in/fade out to begin film and


first post-credit sequence.
However, does not fade out at end: surprise
post-credit scene revealing Rathe/Eh Tar has
survived and is Moriarty (Holmess nemesis)
doesnt fade to black but cuts to black reinforcing shock
Clip
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Language: Editing - Transitions

However, fades less common in recent times


and Young Sherlock Holmes has very few fades
or dissolves - favouring instead (abrupt) cuts to
shift from one scene/sequence to another perhaps a way of imbuing film with greater
energy
In this sequence we go from street to curio shop
to street to Egyptian tavern to Bromton library
using only cuts
Clip
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Dissolve:
Transition between two shots during which the
first image gradually disappears while the second
image gradually appears; for a moment the two
images blend in superimposition.
Used as an alternative to a fade in/out, often used
to suggest short time lapse (eg someone entering
building - series of dissolves links various
locations, cutting out dead time)
Can also be used to go from waking state to dream
state, or from present to flash-back
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Like fade-in/fade out, dissolves in YSL are


used sparingly, usually to indicate a (short) shift
in time and space
Here, we dissolve from the hooded figure
climbing over the wall of the school grounds
(returning after being chased by Elizabeths dog)
to inside the church where she is going next

Clip
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Wipe: transition between shots in which a line


passes across screen, eliminating the first
shot as it goes and replacing it with the next
one.
Mostly these horizontal (left to right or right
to Left); occasionally from both ends towards
centre;
Sometimes wipe goes diagonally across screen.
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Wipe very noticeable and dynamic transition


Often suggest a brief temporal ellipsis and
direct connection between the two images
Usually employed in action or adventure (or
action-adventure) films.
eg Star Wars (despite its setting etc, can be
seen as much action-adventure as scifi)
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Language: Editing - Transitions

Wipes
Young Sherlock Holmes uses on a few occasions,
particularly in the second half where actionadventure becomes more dominant genre
First example a diagonal wipe
Next one a vertical wipe but coming from both
ends of frame

Clips
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Language: Editing

Cross-cutting or parallel editing


.

Editing that alternates shots of two or more


lines of action occurring in different places,
usually simultaneously.
Two actions are therefore linked, associating
the characters from both lines of action.

Clip
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Language: Sound
Two broad categorisations of sound in film:
.

diegetic sound
- sound coming directly from story (if
characters can hear it is diegetic sound)
non-diegetic sound
- sound added to create atmosphere,
anchor a particular mood etc
(characters cannot hear non-diegetic
sound)
Young Sherlock Holmes employs both;

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Language: Sound

Diegetic
.

Most significant diegetic sound - tinkle from


bracelet of hooded figure (actually Mrs
Dribbs)
Becomes a sort of leitmotif, alerting us to her
presence imminence of a deadly attack
eg in outside restaurant at start of film

Clip

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Language: Sound

Distinction between diegetic/non-diegetic


usually
fairly straightforward but Young
.
Sherlock Holmes also used internal diegetic
sound
ie sound that comes from the story but only
one character can hear because it activated
by memory - ie sounds that actually
happened within the story (even if decades
before!)

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Language: Sound

Cragwitch
remembers the burning of the
.
Egyptian village, the bullets, the explosions, the
screams
However, it is not audible by other characters
and operates in a similar way to non-diegetic
sound - ie to create an atmosphere
Clip

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Language: Sound

Music in YSH
.

Main aspect of non-diegetic sound: music


Bruce Broughams score organised in leitmotifs
relating to character and situation
'Main Title - opens with lively flute melody
- acts as recurring leitmotif for Holmes
throughout the score, characterising his lust for
adventure, indomitable spirit and inquisitive mind.
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Sound

Main theme very adaptable. By adding simple orchestral


.
effects,
or by a change in instrumentation, Broughton
able to make his central melody convey multiple moods youthfully ebullient strings of 'Fencing Lesson
playful multiple settings of 'Solving the Crime
spine-tingling heroism of 'It's Rathe!' - theme is reorchestrated to act as an action fanfare.

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Sound

'Secret Ceremony' - large choral ostinato (continually


.
repeated
musical phrase or rhythm) that appears during
Rame Tep ceremony

Cf Orff's Carmina Burana; John Williams' thuggee


music from Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom deep and sinister connoting sects murderous intent

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Sound

.
Leitmotif cleverly carried over into the following
two cues, 'Chase/Crypt/Pastries/You're A
Hallucination
- Holmes and Watson are pursued into a graveyard
by cult's shaven-headed devotees

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Sound

'India/The
Letterhead', as Holmes finally
.
realises the identity of the RameTep's high
priest is Rathe

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Sound

Other important musical themes:


.
"flying" theme heard during 'Waxflatter's First
Flight' and 'Another Failed Flight
- depicting ill-fated efforts of the eccentric
professor to take to the air.

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Sound

Romantic motif for Holmes and Elizabeth


'Library
Love', 'Elizabeth in the Courtyard' and
.
'Love Theme'
- depicts nature of their relationship: chaste and
honourable, full of tenderness.
Orchestrated more tragically for Elizabeths death
scene

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Teaching Young Sherlock Holmes

.
desmurphy47@gmail.com
www.desmurphy.com

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