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Submitted By,
Group-5
Devanshi Piprottar
(131011)
Rajvi Trivedi
(131039)
Shailaja Sampat
(131046)
Preksha Chavda

OVERVIEW OF RADIO RECEIVER


SYSTEM
Electric Field
V
f

A
Antenn
a

Radio
Receiver

AM station

FUNCTIONS OF RADIO RECEIVER AT A


GLANCE

Separation of signal of required frequency i.e. tuned in the


radio

Minimizing effect of all other signals present around


(dependent on power of the signal and geographic distance)

Amplification of the extrapolated* signals, obtaining


information from them and reproduction of that information
into original form

* Extrapolation: When incoming signal is sampled periodically, using


the current data values for approximation of the next data point values
is called extrapolation.

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:

Oscillatory Input Circuit (Inductor + Capacitors (variable &


coupling)):
C1

Uses:

1. Signal Separation

2. Voltage Amplification
C

Characteristics of Oscillatory Circuit:

- Resonance Frequency

Extras:

- Impedance(Z)

1/C*, 1/F

- Voltage between two ends of oscillator (V)= Current (A)*


Impedance ( )

- Resonance frequency is set to be equal to the carrier frequency of


AM wave
* Resonant Frequency value varies in inverse proportion as variable
capacitance changes its value

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:
Currently tuned
frequency

Lower
boundary

Upper
boundary
carrier frequencies of different radio
transmitters

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:

D
Serial Diode Detector (Diode + Capacitor + Resistance of
headphones):
C

Uses:

1. Extraction of Information

Extras: - Diode should be of low-power germanium type

Output device (Headphones):

Uses: 1. Information Restoring


Extras:
- Receiver will work better as resistance in parallel to
headphone is bigger

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:

Antenna:

Extra:
- Antenna is made of copper wire (more convenient is Litz
wire*) which is thick enough to get protection against weather
conditions
- The Longer is antenna, Better its functionality (> 6m)
- Antenna is the best HF (High Frequency) amplifier

CAUTION: Put antenna such that it remains isolated from network


cables / walls / metal parts in surrounding
*Litz wire: which has huge number of thin threaded copper wires

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:
Inductor (Coil):
Extras:

- Coil is generally made up of cylindrically shaped isolation


material (here aluminium with diameter 0.3mm) and
#turns also
matters (provided the length of wire)
- Lesser the diameter, more #turns
- Parasite capacitance = Trimmer capacitor* + Variable
capacitor
in parallel
and L

- Cx is assumed to be some specific value (here Cx=15pF)


is calculated

* Trimmer Capacitor: The electronic parts whose capacitance can be


changed freely. Trimmer capacitors are variable capacitors they need not be
adjusted continuously which is used in tuning of radio.

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:

Ground:

Extras:
- Connecting receiver to the ground (for better reception)
- Water plumbing, Electrical ground, Soil beneath are possible
ground methods
Others:
Extras:
- Hubs with isolated plates
- Coupled capacitor which is responsible for transferring signals from
antenna to oscillatory circuit and its value depends on length of
antenna

COMPONENTS OF DETECTOR RADIO


RECEIVER:
Variable Capacitor:
Extras:
- 2 variable capacitance + 2 trimmer capacitor
(with minimal capacitance) in parallel
(4 + 4 capacitors in parallel in commercial radios)

WORKING METHODOLOGY:
Reception antenna behaves as a voltage generator, having
internal resistance and capacitance. Resistance damps the
oscillatory circuit and reduces its selectivity (prevents mixing
of stations) and sensitivity (signal strength reduction).
Antenna's Capacitance reduces the reception bandwidth.
These both factors are undesirable. Capacitance at which
signals from antenna will not be much weakened while
simultaneously considering appropriate selectivity and
bandwidth. Hence choose largest Capacitance value (>30pF)
at which all the stations of interest are included and the
strongest of them does not jam the reception of other stations.
Output of Reception antenna is provided to oscillatory circuit.
Then inductance value is calculated as described previously.

ADVANTAGES OF RADIO RECEIVER

Simplicity

Very less power consumption (from antenna itself)

No need of external power sources

Good ground facility added to it provides better distant


transmission

LIMITATIONS OF RADIO RECEIVER


Normal reception wont be possible due to geographic distance
dependency of transmitter
Cover only signals of the local and powerful radio transmitters
Antenna has to be long enough and voltages induced should also
be high enough
Amplifier should be strong enough to give the end result better
and nullify the effect of noise

THE SIMPLEST AMPLIFIED RADIO


RECEIVER
To overcome the limitation of previous radio receiver that is
it can perform sound reproduction loud enough only in case
of signals from very powerful radio transmitter is being
received, this receiver with Low Frequency amplifier (NPN) is
invented. It also helps to achieve limitation of length of
antenna.

THE SIMPLEST AMPLIFIED RADIO


RECEIVER:
Differences w.r.t Simplest Radio Receiver:
-

The electrical load in the detection stage is resistor R1 instead


of headphones

Voltage negative feedback using capacitor C4

Current negative feedback using resistor R3

Printed circuit can be achieved


using vitroplast plate*
*Vitroplast: vitro means derived from
vitrinite (a type of natural source) and
plast is derived from plasty.

Thank You
Reference:
http://www.mikroe.com/old/books/rrbook/chapter3/chapter3a.ht
m#3.1. The Simplest Radio Receiver