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Oil Exploration & Production

Completion
Agenda

At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:


Define completion
Describe the process of completion
List and define the different types of completion
Describe surface control equipments
Define subsea completion

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion

Introduction

After exploratory drilling confirms the presence of an oil or


natural gas reservoir, the hydrocarbons are brought to the
surface.

Once the design well depth is reached, the formation is


tested and evaluated to determine whether the well is to be
completed for production, or plugged and abandoned.

Safety Equipment
PLATFORM

This decision is taken based on the information available on


reservoir characteristics.
To complete the well production, casing is installed and
cemented, and the drilling rig is dismantled and moved to
the next site.

A service rig is brought in to perforate the production casing


and run production tubing along with downhole equipments.

The installation of surface safety equipments takes place


and production begins.

Completion Process

SEA BED
30 CASING
20 CASING

13 3/8 CASING

Production casing (9 5/8)

7 LINER

Downhole Equipment

RESERVOIR

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
What is Completion?
Well completion creates a dependable pathway
to the surface for the hydrocarbons.
Once the well is drilled, it has to be made ready
for the safe and efficient production of oil.
The term completion describes the assembly of
Down hole tubulars and other safety equipments
that is required to enable the safe and efficient
production of oil or gas from the well after it has
been drilled.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities

Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

If it is decided that the well will not be completed,


then it will be plugged and abandoned.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities
Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

Conducting Drill Stem Test (DST)


To determine the potential of a producing formation, the operator may order a drill stem test
(DST). The DST crew makes up the test tool on the bottom of the drill stem, then lowers it to the
bottom of the hole. Weight is applied to the tool to expand a hard rubber sealer called a packer.
Opening the tool ports allows the formation pressure to be tested. This process enables workers
to determine whether the well can be produced.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities
Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing & perforation
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

Setting Production Casing


Production casing is the final casing in a well. It can be set from the bottom to the top.
Sometimes a production liner is installed. This casing is set the same as other casings, then
cemented in place.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


BOP

PLATFORM

SEA BED
30 CASING

PRODUCTION TUBING

20 CASING

13 3/8 CASING

9 5/8 CASING

GAS
O
WATIL
ER

RESEVOIR

Oil Exploration & Production


PLATFORM

WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT

Only this casing


is visible
from outside
SEA BED
30 CASING

PRODUCTION TUBING

20 CASING

13 3/8 CASING

Production casing (9 5/8)


9 5/8 CASING
7 LINER

GAS
O
WATIL
ER

RESEVOIR

BACK

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities
Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing & perforation
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

Running Production Tubing and Downhole Equipments


A well is usually produced through tubing inserted down the production casing. Oil and gas is
produced more effectively through this smaller-diameter tubing than through the large-diameter
production casing. Joints of tubing are joined together with couplings to make up a tubing string.
Tubing is run into the well similar to casing, but it is smaller in diameter and is removable.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities
Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing & perforation
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

Installing Surface Safety Equipments


Though the tubings and downhole equipments are present in the well, production cannot
start without installing surface control equipments. They are required to prevent
uncontrolled oil flow out of the well.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Completion Activities
Well completion activities include:

Conducting drill stem test


Setting production casing & perforation
Running production tubing along with downhole
equipments
Installing surface safety equipments
Starting production flow

.
Starting Production Flow
Production flow is started by washing in the well and setting the packer. The pumping in of water
or brine to flush out the drilling fluid is called washing in. Usually this is enough to start the well
flowing. If this does not work then the flow might be started by pumping high-pressure gas into the
well after setting the packer.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The parts of a downhole equipment are:
Hydraulic Control Line
Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Well Head
The surface termination of a wellbore that
incorporates facilities for installing casing hangers
during the well construction phase is the well head.
It is a means by which the production tubing is hung,
the Christmas tree and the surface flow-control
facilities are installed, in preparation for the
production phase of the well. The BOP also sits on
top of well head.
The well head is installed on top of the casing before
starting to drill. It has two or three sections. Each
section has two flanges to facilitate the connections at
both the ends.

Surface Control Equipments

well head
Sections

Flanges

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Components of a Well Head
Each well head section has three
components:
Casing Bowl
Casing Hanger
Tubing Head

Surface Control Equipments

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Components of a Well Head
Each well head section has three
components:
Casing Bowl
Casing Hanger
Tubing Head

Casing Bowl
The casing bowl consists of heavy fittings that provide a
seal between the casing and the surface. It also supports
the entire length of casing that is run all the way down the
well. This piece of equipment typically contains a gripping
mechanism that ensures a tight seal between the head and
the casing itself.

Surface Control Equipments

Sealing

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Components of a Well Head
Each well head section has three components:
Casing Bowl
Casing Hanger
Tubing Head
Casing Hanger
This is the sub-assembly of a well head that supports the
casing string when it is run into the wellbore. The casing
hanger provides a means of ensuring that the string is
correctly located and generally incorporates a sealing
device or system to isolate the casing annulus from upper
well head components.

Surface Control Equipments

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Components of a Well Head
Each well head section has three components:

Casing Bowl
Casing Hanger
Tubing Head

Tubing Head
The tubing head is a well head component that supports
the tubing hanger and provides a means of attaching the
Christmas tree to the well head.

Surface Control Equipments

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Tubing Hanger
The tubing hanger is a device attached to
the topmost tubing joint in the well head to
support the tubing string.
The tubing hanger is located in the tubing
head, with both components incorporating
a sealing system to ensure that the tubing
conduit and annulus are hydraulically
isolated.
The tubing hanger assembly supports the
weight of the tubing string and seals the
annulus from the upper well head and
Christmas tree components. It also
provides connections at the surface, which
controls the flow of fluids out of the well.

Surface Control Equipments

Anchor bolts to
hold tubing
hanger in place

Oil Exploration & Production


Tubing hanger
comes here

Anchor Bolts
Well Head

C Section

Production Casing
(9 5/8)
terminates here
1.5 m

B Section

A Section
20 Casing Terminates Here

30 Casing Remains
Outside

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Christmas Tree
The assembly of valves, spools, pressure gauges,
and chokes that are fitted to the well head of the
completed well is called a Christmas Tree. It is used
to control the flow of oil through the tubing hanger.
The function of a christmas tree is to:
Prevent the release of oil or gas from an oil
well into
the environment
Direct and control the flow of formati
on fluids from the well
When the well is ready to produce oil or gas, valves
are opened and the release of the formation fluids is
allowed through a pipeline leading to a refinery.

Surface Control Equipments

Oil Exploration & Production

Crown/ Swab Valve


Wing Valve
Oil which
flows from the tubing
is diverted through this
pipe to the main header
and from there
to the process platforms
Top part of the C-section
of well head

Surface Control Equipments

Upper Master Valve


Lower Master Valve
Tubing hanger comes up
to this point

Oil Exploration & Production


Oil Well After Completion

X-mas Tree

Tubing
hanger

Well Head

Hydraulic
Control Line
Safety
Valve

Production
Tubing

Reservoir
Gas Lift
Valve

Packer

Pump Out
Plug

Surface Control Equipments

Perforation

Sump

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Types of Completion
The types of completion include:
Natural Completions
Natural completions are those in which little or no stimulation is required for production.
Sandstone and carbonate systems with good permeability and mechanical stability are
ideal for natural completions.
Stimulated Completions
These completions are generally applied to improve the natural drainage patterns of
hard, low-permeability formations. It is used to remove barriers that prevent easy
passage of fluids into the wellbore.
Sand-Control Completions
Sand-control completions support the formation while allowing the flow of fluids. They
are performed in young, unconsolidated or less mechanically competent sandstones.

Completion Process

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Subsea Completions
Subsea production systems are wells located on the
sea floor, as opposed to at the surface. The safety
equipments are installed underwater on the seabed.
They enable early production from deepwater, remote,
and marginal fields.
The evolution of subsea well completions has attracted
a lot of attention because they offer a means of
producing field extremities not reachable by directional
drilling from existing platforms.
They also offer production options where field
economics do not justify the installation of one or more
additional platforms.

Subsea Completion

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The tubings along with the downhole equipment are lowered into the 95/8 casing of the well.
The parts of a downhole equipment are:
Packer
Hydraulic Control Line
Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

Packer is a device consisting


of a sealing device, a holding
or setting device and an inside
passage for fluids. It expands
externally to seal the well bore.
It helps in blocking the fluids
through the annular space
between the pipe and the well
bore wall. Packers use flexible,
electrometric elements that
expand. It is set hydraulically
from the surface.

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The parts of a downhole equipment are:
Gas Lift Valve
Hydraulic Control Line
Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

The gas lift valve is a device installed


on a gas lift cylinder or mandrel. This
device is used to control the flow of
gas between the exterior and interior
of well tubing. It consists of an inlet,
outlet, a main valve, a main chamber
and so on. The design of the side
pocket is such that the components
that are installed do not obstruct
the flow of production. This enables
access to the well bore and the
other components of completion.

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The parts of a downhole equipment are:

Hydraulic Control Line

Safety Valve
Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

A safety valve is a device that is


installed in the upper well bore to
provide emergency closure of the
channels that produce oil. The
valve has a housing and a
movable valve element that
controls the flow of fluid in the
well.

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The parts of a downhole equipment are:

Hydraulic Control Line


Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

Hydraulic Control Line

Hydraulic control line is a device filled with hydraulic fluid


and connected to a hydraulic fluid source.
Hydraulic control line is used to operate the
safety valve. When the control line is pressurized up to
a certain pressure limit, the safety valve opens.
Its one end connects at the top of the safety valve
and the other end to a pressurizing panel at the surface.
It is lowered along with the safety valve while lowering
the tubing string during completion.

Oil Exploration & Production


Completion
Downhole Equipment
The parts of a downhole equipment are:

Hydraulic Control Line


Safety Valve
Gas Lift Valve
Packer

Pump Out Plug

Completion Process

X
Pump Out Plug
Since the tubing is open at the bottom, the packer cannot be set as the
whole tubing string needs to be pressurized to set it. So a pump out plug
(POP) is used for this purpose.
A steel ball is dropped inside the tubing string from the surface. This goes
all the way down and sits on the POP seat at the bottom.

When water is pumped from the top, the ball is pressed against the POP
Well
Sump
seat and
forms
a seal. When pressure in the tubing string reaches a certain
limit, the packer is set. This is indicated in the pumping unit in the form of a
sharp fluctuation
of the
pressure
reading.
A well sump
is the
extra bore
space below the perforated
zone that allows the collection of junk for example steel ball.
Then the pressure is increased, further, to shear the POP seat pins. This is
done to remove the steel ball. When the pins are sheared, the POP seat drop
along with the ball into the well sump.

Oil Exploration & Production

In a traditional well, components such as valves control the flow of


fluids.
Screens or gravel packs stop sand from entering the well.
Pipe joints and packers needed to ensure the well retains its
integrity over its producing life.

However traditional wells do not respond to changing conditions and


all the fluids (oil,gas and water) have to be produced together and
separated at the surface.

Oil Exploration & Production

IQ for Intelligent Wells


Intelligent Wells
Automatic Surface Interaction/Continuous
Monitoring/Automatic Flow control/Extensive
Downhole communication
Semi Intelligent Wells
Manual Surface Interaction/Limited
Downhole communication
Conventional
Limited Interaction

Oil Exploration & Production


Smart Wells
Smart wells offer the possibility to respond to changing conditions.
Smart wells combine existing state-of-the-art technologies such as
wireless technologies,remote sensing capabilities, remote control
mechanism and robotic tools.
Remote sensors can immediately show what is going on in the down
hole.
Valves down the hole can be adjusted, controlling flow or shutting off
production at one level and increasing it from another.
Fluid processing can take place down the hole with gas and liquids being
separated by devices such as hydro-cyclones

Oil Exploration & Production


Drivers

Improved Reliability
Optimum Production leading to longer well and reservoir life.
Optimization of reservoir drainage
No mechanical intervention is required freeing up resources.
Lower Operating Cost
Less number of work overs
Decrease Water Production
Better sand control
Increase Reservoir Knowledge
Monitoring of fluid/gas contact zone movements
Improved reservoir characterization (saturation, structure,
pressure, temperature)

Oil Exploration & Production

Smart Well
Packers
Hydraulic or Electrical Control Lines
Sensors
Inflow Control Valves ICV
Surface Control Unit (Monitoring and Remote Operation)

Oil Exploration & Production

Oil Exploration & Production

Oil Exploration & Production

Examples of Controls in Intelligent Wells


Controlling Commingled production
Controlling Down Hole Water Separation
Controlling Down Hole Gas Separation and Re-injection

Oil Exploration & Production

Application for Intelligent Wells

Marginal Reserves
Highly Deviated. Horizontal and MLW
Deepwater Wells
High Volume Wells

Shell has about 20 intelligent wells worldwide and is working to increase


that number.
One of its showcase pieces is a well in the North Seas Brent field. The well
produces oil but also has a perforated gas zone up hole thats opened for a
short period each year to meet a gas contract.

Oil Exploration & Production

Oilfields

Data

Extract

Interpret

Data

Clean

Data Store

Analyze

Data

Transform

Data Warehouse

Communicate

Data

Load

Decide

Partners,Agencies
Operation
Management

Oil Exploration & Production

Devise Process
Control Methodologies

Modeling
Processes
Requiring
Real time
Management

Reservoir Management Team

Monitor Dynamic
Production Data

Life Cycle
Cost and
Benefits

Down hole
Equipment
Design