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MINERALS

Prepared by:
Guisando, Rachelle Anne
Relorcaza, Carlos John
Alagao, Jerille Shane
Hilario, Kendylyn
Salonga, Angel

Minerals
Substances that

make up rocks

Minerals
Naturally occurring

inorganic, crystalline
solid found on Earths
crust

Minerals
Formed as a result

of geological
processes.

Minerals may be
either:
Elements
Compound

Element
An element is a

pure, single
substance.

Compound
A compound is a

two or more
substances bound
together.

Three main groups


of Minerals:
Metals
Non-metals
Metalloids

Metals
Contain native

elements and ores


from which minerals
can be extracted.

Metals
Typically hard
Opaque and shiny
Good electrical and

thermal conductor.

Examples
Gold
Copper
Zinc
Platinum

Non-Metals
Lacks metallic

attributes.

Non-Metals
Highly Volatile
Low Elasticity
Good insulators of

heat and electricity

Examples:
Carbon
Phosphorous
Iodine
Sulfur

Metalloids
Has properties in

between those of
metals andnonmetals.

Examples:
Aluminum
Polonium
Selenium
Boron

Identifying Minerals
Color and Streak
Luster
Hardness
Crystal forms and

Cleavage

Color
is the most obvious

property of a mineral,
but it is often nondiagnostic.

Streak
is the color produced

by scratching the
surface to get a small
amount of powder,

which, is often a
different color from
the solid mineral.

Examples of Streak

Luster
is the way mineral

reflects light and with


experience it is
possible to identify

which have a
brilliant,
glassy/vitreous or
metallic luster.

Hardness
is tested in the field

by trying to scratch
one mineral with
another or with a
metal instrument.

Geologists
use a scale
of hardness
called Mohs
scale

to compare and
measure hardness in
the field.

Crystals
Different minerals

have different
crystals, and large
crystals are easy to

identify because each


mineral has its own
distinctive form.

Cleavage
is the way mineral

splits or flakes.
runs parallel to the
faces of mineral
crystals.

Example of Cleavage

Specific Gravity
Number representing

the ratio of the weight


of the mineral to the
weight of an equal
volume of water.

Using Minerals
The minerals in the

Earth are used for


industry and
commerce, to build

houses, cities,
factories, roads and
machines.
Most metals are
important to man.

Classification of
Minerals

Silicates
Silicon and oxygen

containing materials
Most abundant
Examples of silicates:

Quartz

Semiprecious stones
Optical instruments
Radio and electronic

equipment

Quartz

Concrete
Manufacture of

glass and silica brick


Ingredient of
porcelain

Micas
For insulation in

electrical equipment
Wall papers and
fireproof materials

Zeolites
Give off water
Permutit process of

softening water

Serpentine
Source of asbestos
Use as fireproofing

and insulation

Talc
Used in paints,

ceramics and
cosmetics

Kaolinite
Used in making of

fine china and


porcelain

Non-metallic
Minerals

Rock formers

Calcite

Most abundant of

the carbonate
minerals
Used in the
manufacture of

Calcite
Usually white or

colorless but may be


brown or black when
in pure

Sulfur

Yellow and brittle


Burns rapidly

Sulfur
Used in the

manufacture of
rubber and paper
products

Halite

Either colorless or

white
Used as food
preservative

Kernite
Used in

manufacture of soap,
enamels, glass and
washing powders

Kernite
Colorless or white
Has a sweetish-

alkaline taste

Graphite

Black or steel-gray
Has a greasy feel
Used as lubricant

Metal ore
Minerals

Mixtures of metallic

minerals with waste


materials of little
commercial worth
called gangue

Metal ore Minerals


Results of long
series of chemical and
physical changes.

Gold

Least reactive of the

metals
Forms very few
compounds

Iron

An abundant metal

ore mineral present


as:

Hematite is the

most important iron


ore

Magnetite has

strong magnetism;
the variety lodestone
is a natural magnet

Pyrite is called

fools gold because


of its resemblance to
gold

Limonite iron ore

present in yellow
places and soils;

causes brown and

yellow stains on
rocks; used pigment
for paints.

Mercury

Its important ore is

Cinnabar, which
serves as source of
mercury for
thermometers.

Copper

Malachite and

azurite are two of its


important ores both
of which chemically
CuCO3

Uranium

Pitchblende, is the

chief source
Used in atomic
fission

Uranium

Occurs in porous

sediments associated
with petrified woods
and other plant
remnants

Gem Minerals
Precious and

semiprecious stones
used in jewelry

Opal

Has opalescent

reflection of different
colors within the
stone

Opal
White, milky blue or

yellow

Jade
Either sodium or

silicate

Jade
Mostly green but

could also be whitegray, blue-gray,


violet-gray and
yellowish in colors

Corundum
Occur in several

colors:
Ruby red
Sapphire blue

Corundum
Emery, a variety of

corundum is used as
an abrasive.

Diamond
An allotrope of

carbon
Usually pale yellow
or colorless

Diamond
Has high index of

refraction
Hardest substance
hence used is used as
abrasive.

End