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Biomedical Instrumentation

Prof. Dr. Nizamettin AYDIN


naydin@yildiz.edu.tr
naydin@ieee.org
http://www.yildiz.edu.tr/~naydin

Amplifiers and Signal Processing

Applications of Operational Amplifier


In Biological Signals and Systems

The three major operations done on biological


signals using Op-Amp:
Amplifications and Attenuations
DC offsetting:
add or subtract a DC

Filtering:
Shape signals frequency content

Ideal Op-Amp
Most bioelectric signals are small and require amplifications
Op-amp equivalent circuit:

The two inputs are 1 and 2. A differential voltage between them causes
current flow through the differential resistance Rd. The differential voltage is
multiplied by A, the gain of the op amp, to generate the output-voltage
source. Any current flowing to the output terminal vo must pass through the
output resistance Ro.
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Inside the Op-Amp (IC-chip)

20 transistors
11 resistors
1 capacitor
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Ideal Characteristics

A = (gain is infinity)
Vo = 0, when v1 = v2 (no offset voltage)
Rd = (input impedance is infinity)
Ro = 0 (output impedance is zero)
Bandwidth = (no frequency response limitations) and no
phase shift
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Two Basic Rules

Rule 1
When the op-amp output is in its linear range, the two input terminals are
at the same voltage.

Rule 2
No current flows into or out of either input terminal of the op amp.
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Inverting Amplifier
o

i
Rf

10 V

Ri

-10 V

10 V

Slope = -Rf / Ri

(a)
-10 V

vo

Rf
Ri

vi

Rf

vo
G
vi
Ri

(b)

(a)An inverting amplified. Current flowing through the input resistor


Ri also flows through the feedback resistor Rf .
(b)The input-output plot shows a slope of -Rf / Ri in the central
portion, but the output saturates at about 13 V.
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Summing Amplifier
Rf

R1
1

R2
2

o
+

v1 v2
vo R f

R1 R2

Example 3.1
The output of a biopotential preamplifier that
measures the electro-oculogram is an
undesired dc voltage of 5 V due to electrode
half-cell potentials, with a desired signal of 1
V superimposed. Design a circuit that will
balance the dc voltage to zero and provide a
gain of -10 for the desired signal without
saturating the op amp.

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Answer 3.1
We assume that vb, the balancing voltage at vi=5 V. For vo=0,
the current through Rf is zero. Therefore the sum of the
currents through Ri and Rb, is zero.

vo vb
Ri vb 10 4 (10)

0 Rb

2 10 4
Ri Rb
vi
5
+10

Rf

Ri
10 k

100 k

+15V
5 k

Rb
20 k
vb

o
+

Voltage, V

i + b /2
0

Time

-15 V
-10
(a)

(b)

o
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Follower ( buffer)
Used as a buffer, to prevent a high source resistance
from being loaded down by a low-resistance load. In
another word it prevents drawing current from the
source.

vo vi

G 1

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Noninverting Amplifier
o
i
Ri

i
Rf

10 V
Slope = (Rf + Ri )/ Ri
-10 V

10 V

vo

R f Ri
Ri

vi

-10 V

R f Ri
Ri

Rf

1
Ri

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Differential Amplifiers
Differential Gain Gd

vo
R4
Gd

v4 v3 R3

v3
v4

Common Mode Gain Gc


For ideal op amp if the inputs are equal
then the output = 0, and the Gc = 0.
No differential amplifier perfectly rejects
the common-mode voltage.

Common-mode rejection ratio CMMR


Typical values range from 100 to 10,000

R4
vo
(v4 v3 )
R3
Gd
CMRR
Gc

Disadvantage of one-op-amp differential amplifier is its low


input resistance
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Instrumentation Amplifiers

Differential Mode Gain

v3 v4 i ( R2 R1 R2 )
v1 v2 iR1
v3 v4 2 R2 R1
Gd

v1 v2
R1
Advantages: High input impedance, High CMRR, Variable gain
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Comparator No Hysteresis
+15

v1 > v2, vo = -13 V


v1 < v2, vo = +13 V

v2

-15

o
i

ref

10 V

R1

-10 V

R1
+

ref

R2
-10 V

If (vi+vref) > 0 then vo = -13 V


else
R1 will prevent overdriving the op-amp

vo = +13 V

Comparator With Hysteresis


Reduces multiple transitions due to mV noise levels by
moving the threshold value after each transition.
o
i

ref

R1

With hysteresis

10 V

R1
+

-10 V

10 V
- ref

R2

R3

-10 V

Width of the Hysteresis = 4VR3


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Rectifier
R
xR

(1-x)R

D1

D2

o
10 V

-10 V

R
D4

10 V

D3

vo

vi
x

-10 V
(b)

+
(a)

xR

Full-wave precision rectifier:


For i > 0, D2 and D3 conduct, whereas
D1 and D4 are reverse-biased.
Noninverting amplifier at the top is active

(1-x)R

D2

vo

(a)

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Rectifier
R
xR

(1-x)R

D1

D2

o
10 V

-10 V

R
D4

10 V

D3

vo

vi
x

-10 V
(b)

+
(a)

Full-wave precision rectifier:


For i < 0,
D1 and D4 conduct, whereas D2 and D3 are
reverse-biased.
Inverting amplifier at the bottom is active

xRi

D4

vo

+
(b)

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One-Op-Amp Full Wave Rectifier


i

Ri = 2 k

Rf = 1 k
v

D
RL = 3 k

(c)

For i < 0, the circuit behaves like the inverting


amplifier rectifier with a gain of +0.5. For i > 0, the
op amp disconnects and the passive resistor chain
yields a gain of +0.5.
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Logarithmic Amplifiers
Uses of Log Amplifier

Multiply and divide variables


Raise variable to a power
Compress large dynamic range into small ones
Linearize the output of devices
Rf /9

Ic

VBE

IC
0.06 log
IS

Rf

Ri

o
+

vo 0.06 log

vi

13
Ri 10

(a)

(a) A logarithmic amplifier makes use of the fact that a transistor's VBE is related
to the logarithm of its collector current.
For range of Ic equal 10-7 to 10-2 and the range of vo is -.36 to -0.66 V.
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Logarithmic Amplifiers
VBE

Ic

Rf /9

vo
10 V

VBE
i

Ri

9VBE

Rf

-10 V

10 V

o
+
(a)

(b)

-10 V

10

(a) With the switch thrown in the alternate position, the


circuit gain is increased by 10. (b) Input-output
characteristics show that the logarithmic relation is
obtained for only one polarity; 1 and 10 gains are
indicated.
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Integrators
1
vo
Ri C f

t1

v dt v
i

ic

Zf
Vo ( j )

Vi ( j )
Zi

Rf
Vo j

Vi j Ri jR f Ri C
Vo j
1

Ri
Vi j
jRi C
Rf

vo R f

vi
Ri
1
fc
2R f C f

for f < fc

A large resistor Rf is used to prevent saturation


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A three-mode integrator
With S1 open and S2 closed, the dc circuit behaves as an inverting amplifier. Thus
o = ic and o can be set to any desired initial conduction. With S 1 closed and S2
open, the circuit integrates. With both switches open, the circuit holds o constant,
making possible a leisurely readout.
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Differentiators
A differentiator
The dashed lines indicate that a small capacitor must
usually be added across the feedback resistor to prevent
oscillation.

dvi
vo RC
dt
Zf
Vo ( j )

Vi ( j )
Zi
Vo ( j )
jRC
Vi ( j )
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Active Filters- Low-Pass Filter


A low-pass filter attenuates high frequencies
Vo j R f
1
Gain G

Vi j
Ri 1 jR f C f

|G|

Ri

Rf

(a)

Rf/Ri
0.707 Rf/Ri

fc = 1/2RiCf

freq
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Active Filters (High-Pass Filter)


A high-pass filter attenuates low frequencies
and blocks dc.
R
C R
Vo j R f jRi Ci

Gain G

Vi j
Ri 1 jRi Ci
+
i

(b)

|G|
Rf/Ri
0.707 Rf/Ri

fc = 1/2RiCf

freq
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Active Filters (Band-Pass Filter)


A bandpass filter attenuates both low and high
frequencies.
C
j R f C i
Vo j

Vi j 1 jR f C f 1 jRi Ci

Ci

Ri

Rf

|G|

(c)

Rf/Ri
0.707 Rf/Ri

fcL = 1/2RiCi

fcH = 1/2RfCf

freq
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Frequency Response of op-amp and Amplifier

Open-Loop Gain
Compensation
Closed-Loop Gain
Loop Gain
Gain Bandwidth Product
Slew Rate

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Input and Output Resistance

Rd

ii

d
+

Ro

Ad

io
RL

CL

vi
Rai
( A 1) Rd
ii

vo
Ro
Rao

io A 1

Typical value of Rd = 2 to 20 M

Typical value of Ro = 40
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Phase Modulator for Linear variable differential


transformer LVDT

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Phase Modulator for Linear variable differential


transformer LVDT

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Phase-Sensitive Demodulator
Used in many medical
instruments for signal detection,
averaging, and Noise rejection

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The Ring Demodulator


If vc is positive then D1 and D2 are forward-biased and vA = vB. So vo = vDB
If vc is negative then D3 and D4 are forward-biased and vA = vc. So vo = vDC

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