Anda di halaman 1dari 27

INAR 243

FLOORS

FLOORS

Structural element
Proper ground for functions

Functions

Load Bearing
Insulation
Water
Heat

and water vapour control


Sound

Fire control

Floors according to their functions and


positions

Internal and External


Ground and the others
Raised floors
...

According to their materials

Reinforceconcrete (R.C)
Timber
Steel
Stone
Combination

R.C Slabs

R.C Slabs

One way slab


One way Ribbed Slab(Joist Slab)
Two way Slab
Two way Waffle Slab (Grid)
Two Way Flat Slab

In Situ Cast Reinforced


Concrete Slabs

Reinforced concrete floors have a better


resistance to damage by fire and can safely
support greater superimposed loads than timber
floors of similar depth.
The types of reinforced concrete slabs that are
used for buildings are monolithic in situ cast
slabs, waffled grid slabs, self-centering T
beams and infill blocks, hollow beams and.

The word centering is used to describe the


temporary platform on which in situ cast
concrete floors are constructed and
supported until the concrete has sufficient
strength to be self supporting.The term selfcentering is used to define those precast
concrete floor systems that require no
temporary support.

Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Slabs

The word monolithic is used to describe one unbroken


mass of any material. A monolithic reinforced concrete
floor is one unbroken solid mass between 100 and 300
mm thick, of in situ cast concrete, reinforced with mild
steel reinforcing bars.
To support the concrete while it is still wet and plastic,
and for 7 days after it has been placed, temporary
centering has to be used. This takes the form of rough
timber boarding, plywood, block board or steel sheets,
supported on timber or steel beams and post.

The steel reinforcement is laid out on top of


the centering and raised 20 mm or more
above the centering by means of small
blocks of fine concrete which are tied to the
reinforcing bars with wire or by plastic
spacers.
The wet concrete is then placed and spread
on the centering and it is compacted and
levelled of.

Waffle Grid Slabs

If the column grid is increased from about


6.0 about 12.0 square or near square it
becomes economical to use a floor with
intermediate cross beams supporting thin
floor slabs.
The intermediate cross beams are cast on a
regular square grid that gives the underside
of the floor the appearance of a waffle,
hence the name.

The advantage of the intermediate beams


of the waffle is that they support a thin floor
slab and so reduce the dead weight of the
floor as compared to a flush slab of a similar
span.
The economic span of floor slabs between
intermediate beams lies between 900 and
3.5.
The waffle grid form of the floor may be cast
around plastic or metal formers laid on
timber centering.

Reinforced Concrete and


Clay Block Slabs
The particular advantage of this type of floor is
its good resistance to damage by fire.

To keep the death weight of the floor as low as


possible, compatible with strength, it is
constructed on in situ reinforced concrete
beams with hollow terra cotta infilling blocks
cast in between the beams.
The words terra cotta mean earth burnt.

This type of floor has to be given temporary


support with timber or steel centering.
The terra cotta blocks and the reinforcement
are set out on the centering and the pieces of
clay tile are placed underneath the reinforcing
bars.
Concrete is then placed and compacted
between the terra cotta blocks and spread 50
mm thick over the top of the block.

Precast T Beam and Infill Block Slabs

This type of reinforced concrete floor is much used for


comparatively small spans and loads.
The great advantage of this floor system is that, the
small units can be handled by two men without the need
for lifting gear.
Solid reinforced concrete beams usually shaped like an
inverted T in section are precast in manufacturers yard
to the required length.
The depth of the beams is from 130 to 250 mm and 20
mm wide at the bottom. The beams are made in lengths
of up to 6 meter.

The T beams are reinforced with mild steel reinforcing


bars.
Hollow precast light weight concrete infill blocks are
made to fit between and bear on the T beams.
These blocks are hollow and made for lightness in
handling and to minimize the weight of the floor.
The blocks are placed in position and floor completed
with a layer of constructional concrete toping, 50 mm
thick spread and levelled ready for a screed.
The under side or soft feet of the floor is covered with
plaster or will provide support for a suspended ceiling.

Hollow Beam Slab Units

Hollow, reinforced concrete beams are


precast around inflatable formers to
produce the hollow cross section.
The beams are rectangular in section
with the steel reinforcement cast in the
lower angles of the beam.
The sides of the beams are indented to
provide a key for the concrete toping.