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BIOLOGY

CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS


Fourth Edition
Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 17
Plants, Fungi, and the
Colonization of Land
Modules 17.1 17.3
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plants and FungiA Beneficial Partnership


Mutually beneficial associations of plant roots
and fungi are common
These associations are called mycorrhizae
They may have enabled plants to colonize land

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Citrus growers face a dilemma


They use chemicals to control disease-causing
fungi
But these also kill beneficial mycorrhizae

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17.1 What is a plant?


Plants are multicellular photosynthetic
eukaryotes
They share many characteristics with green algae
However, plants evolved unique features as they
colonized land

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PLANT

LEAF
performs
photosynthesis
CUTICLE
reduces water
loss; STOMATA
allow gas exchange

STEM
supports plant
(and may perform
photosynthesis)
Surrounding water
supports the alga

ROOTS
anchor plant;
absorb water and
minerals from
the soil (aided
by mycorrhizal
fungi)

ALGA

WHOLE ALGA
performs
photosynthesis;
absorbs water,
CO2, and
minerals from
the water

HOLDFAST
anchors the alga
Figure 17.1A

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Unlike algae, plants have vascular tissue


It transports water and nutrients throughout the
plant body
It provides internal support

Figure 17.1B
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PLANT EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY


17.2 Plants evolved from green algae called
charophyceans
Molecular studies indicate that green algae
called charophyceans are the closest relatives of
plants

Figure 17.2A, B
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Cooksonia was one of the earliest vascular land


plants

Sporangia

Figure 17.2C
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17.3 Plant diversity provides clues to the


evolutionary history of the plant kingdom
Two main lineages arose early from ancestral
plants

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Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

MESOZOIC

CENOZOIC

An
gio

sp
e rm

Gymnosperms
(e.g., conifers)

Seedless vascular plants


(e.g., ferns, horsetails)

Bryophytes (e.g., mosses)

Charophyceans (a group of green algae)

PALEOZOIC

Radiation of
flowering plants

First seed plants

Early vascular plants

Origin of plants

Figure 17.3A

One lineage gave rise to bryophytes


These are plants that lack vascular tissue
Bryophytes include mosses, which grow in a low,
spongy mat

Figure 17.3B
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Vascular plants are the other ancient lineage


Ferns and seed plants were derived from early
vascular plants and contain
xylem and phloem
well-developed roots
rigid stems

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Ferns are seedless plants whose flagellated


sperm require moisture to reach the egg

Figure 17.3C
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A major step in plant evolution was the


appearance of seed plants
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms

These vascular plants have pollen grains for


transporting sperm
They also protect their embryos in seeds

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Gymnosperms, such as pines, are called naked


seed plants
This is because their seeds do not develop inside
a protective chamber

The seeds of angiosperms, flowering plants,


develop in ovaries within fruits

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ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS AND


PLANT LIFE CYCLES
17.4 Haploid and diploid generations alternate in
plant life cycles
The haploid gametophyte produces eggs and
sperm by mitosis
The eggs and sperm unite, and the zygote
develops into the diploid sporophyte
Meiosis in the sporophyte produces haploid
spores, which grow into gametophytes

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is
s
i to

Gametophytes
(male and female)
n

Spores
n

Meiosis

it o
si

Gametes
(sperm and eggs)
n

HAPLOID

Fertilization

DIPLOID

Zygote
2n

Sporophyte
2n

si
o
it

Figure 17.4
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17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte


Most of a mat of moss consists of gametophytes
These produce eggs and swimming sperm
The zygote stays on the gametophyte and
develops into the less conspicuous sporophyte

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5 Mitosis and

Sperm (n) (released from


their gametangium)

development

Spores
(n)

Gametangium
containing the egg (n)
(remains within
gametophyte)

Gametophytes
(n)

Egg

HAPLOID

Meiosis

Fertilization

DIPLOID
Sporangium

Stalk

4
Zygote
(2n)
Gametophyte
(n)

3 Mitosis and

development

Sporophytes (growing from gametophytes)

Figure 17.5
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17.6 Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant


sporophyte
Ferns, like mosses, have swimming sperm
The fern zygote remains on the small,
inconspicuous gametophyte
Here it develops into the sporophyte

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Sperm (n)

Mitosis and
development

Spores
(n)

Gametophyte (n)
(underside)
Egg (n)

Meiosis

HAPLOID
Sporangia

Fertilization

DIPLOID
2

Zygote
(2n)

3 Mitosis and

development

Sporophyte (2n)

New sporophyte growing


out of gametophyte
Figure 17.6

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17.7 Seedless plants formed vast coal forests


Ferns and other seedless plants once dominated
ancient forests
Their remains formed coal

Figure 17.7
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Gymnosperms that produce cones, the conifers,


largely replaced the ancient forests of seedless
plants
These plants remain the dominant
gymnosperms today

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17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny


gametophytes in its cones
Sporangia in male cones make spores that
develop into male gametophytes
These are the pollen grains

Sporangia in female cones produce female


gametophytes

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Female gametophyte (n)

Haploid spore cells in


ovule develop into
female gametophyte,
which makes egg.

5 Male gametophyte (pollen)

Egg (n)

grows tube to egg and


makes and releases sperm.

Sperm (n)

HAPLOID
DIPLOID

MEIOSIS

Ovule

Male gametophyte
(pollen grain)
Fertilization

Scale
Sporangium
(2n)

Seed
coat

3 Pollination
HAPLOID
Pollen grains
(male
gametophytes)
(n)

Embryo
(2n)

Integument

1 Female cone

bears ovules.

6 Zygote develops

MEIOSIS

into embryo, and


ovule becomes
seed.

2 Male cone produces


spores by meiosis;
spores develop into
pollen grains

Zygote
(2n)

7
Sporophyte

Seed
Seed falls to
ground and germinates,
and embryo grows into tree.

Figure 17.8
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17.9 The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm


reproduction
Most plants are angiosperms
The hallmarks of these plants are flowers
Pollen grains
Anther

Stigma
CARPEL
Ovary

STAMEN

PETAL

Ovule

SEPAL

Figure 17.9A, B
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17.10 The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with


gametophytes in its flowers
The angiosperm life cycle is similar to that of
conifers
But it is much more rapid
In addition, angiosperm seeds are protected and
dispersed in fruits, which develop from ovaries

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

2 Haploid spore in each

Stigma

Egg (n)

ovule develops into


female gametophyte,
which produces egg.

3 Pollination

Pollen
grain

and
growth
of pollen
tube

Ovule

Pollen
tube

1 Haploid spores

in anthers develop
into pollen grains:
male gametophytes.
Pollen (n)
Meiosis

Sperm

HAPLOID

Fertilization

DIPLOID

7 Seed

Ovary

Seeds

germinates,
and embryo
grows into plant.

Ovule

Sporophyte
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6 Fruit

Zygote
(2n)

Food supply

5 Seed

Seed
coat

Embryo
(2n)

Figure 17.10

17.11 The structure of a fruit reflects its function in


seed dispersal
Fruits are adaptations that disperse seeds

Figure 17.11A-C
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17.12 Connection: Agriculture is based almost


entirely on angiosperms
Gymnosperms supply most of our lumber and
paper
Angiosperms provide most of our food
Fruits, vegetables, and grains

Angiosperms also provide other important


products
Medications, fiber, perfumes

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17.13 Interactions with animals have profoundly


influenced angiosperm evolution
Angiosperms are a major source of food for
animals
Animals also aid plants in pollination and seed
dispersal

Figure 17.13A-C

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17.14 Connection: Plant diversity is a


nonrenewable resource
20% of the tropical forests worldwide were
destroyed in the last third of the 20th century
The forests of North America have shrunk by
almost 40% in the last 200 years

Figure 17.14
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Some plants in these forests can be used in


medicinal ways
More than
25% of
prescription
drugs are
extracted
from plants

Table 17.14
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FUNGI
17.15 Fungi and plants moved onto land together
Plants probably moved onto land along with
mycorrhizal fungi
These fungi help plants absorb water and
nutrients
They are mutualistic organisms

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Other fungi are


parasites

predators

decomposers of
dead organisms
Figure 17.15A-C
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17.16 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside


their bodies
Fungi are heterotrophic eukaryotes
They digest their food externally and absorb the
nutrients

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A fungus usually consists of a mass of


threadlike hyphae
This forms a network called a mycelium

Hypha

Mycelium
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Figure 17.16A-B

Most fungi cannot move


But they grow around and through their food
very rapidly

Figure 17.16C, D
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17.17 Many fungi have three distinct phases in


their life cycle
Fungal spores germinate to form haploid
hyphae

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In some fungi such as mushrooms, the fusion


of hyphae results in a unique dikaryotic phase
of their life cycle
Each cell contains two haploid nuclei from
different parents

The dikaryotic mycelium forms a fruiting body,


the mushroom
This structure contains specialized cells in
which the nuclei fuse
These diploid cells then undergo meiosis,
producing a new generation of spores
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3 Spores

2 Diploid nuclei
on
si
Fu

1 Fruiting body

released

(mushroom)

i
lo
ap

ei
os
is

h
of

Haploid
nucleus

d
cl
nu
ei

DIPLOID
Spore

DIKARYOTIC

HAPLOID

Germination of spores
and growth of mycelia

6 Growth of

dikaryotic mycelium

5 Fusion of two hyphae

of compatible mating types


Figure 17.17

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17.18 Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically


with photosynthetic organisms
Lichens are associations of algae or
cyanobacteria with a network of fungal hyphae
The fungus receives food in exchange for
housing, water, and minerals

Algal
cell
Fungal
hyphae

Figure 17.18A, B
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Lichens survive in hostile environments


They cover rocks and frozen tundra soil

Figure 17.18C
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17.19 Connection: Parasitic fungi harm plants and


animals
Parasitic fungi cause disease
Dutch elm disease
Corn smut
Athletes foot

Figure 17.19A-C
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17.20 Connection: Fungi have an enormous


ecological and practical impact
Numerous fungi are beneficial
Many are important in the decomposition of
organic material and nutrient recycling

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Fungi are also important as food


Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of
subterranean fungi
Yeasts (unicellular fungi) are essential for baking
and beer and wine production
Fungi are used to ripen
certain cheeses

Figure 17.20A
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Some fungi produce antibiotics


Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered

Staphylococcus
aureus

Penicillium
Zone of
inhibited
growth

Figure 17.20B
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