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Training Session on Energy

Equipment
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Cogeneration

Training Agenda: Cogeneration

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Introduction
Types of cogeneration systems
Assessment of cogeneration systems
Energy efficiency opportunities

Introduction

Thermal Equipement/
Cogeneration

Whats a Cogeneration/CHP System?


Generation of multiple forms of
energy in one system: heat and
power
Defined by its prime movers

Reciprocating engines
Combustion or gas turbines,
Steam turbines
Microturbines
Fuel cells
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Introduction

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Efficiency Advantage of CHP


Conventional Generation (58%
Overall Efficiency)

36 Units
(Losses)

Combined Heat & Power (85%


Overall Efficiency)

60

24
Uni
ts

= 40%

68

100

40

34
Uni
ts

= 85%

6 Units
(Losses)

(UNESCAP, 2004)

10 Units
(Losses)

Introduction

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Benefits of Cogeneration / CHP)


Increased efficiency of energy conversion and
use
Lower emissions, especially CO2
Ability to use waste materials
Large cost savings
Opportunity to decentralize the electricity
generation
Promoting liberalization in energy markets
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Training Agenda: Cogeneration

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Introduction
Types of cogeneration systems
Assessment of cogeneration systems
Energy efficiency opportunities

Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Steam turbine
Gas turbine
Reciprocating engine
Other classifications:
- Topping cycle
- Bottoming cycle

Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Steam Turbine Cogeneration System


Widely used in CHP applications
Oldest prime mover technology
Capacities: 50 kW to hundreds of MWs
Thermodynamic cycle is the Rankin cycle
that uses a boiler
Most common types
Back pressure steam turbine
Extraction condensing steam turbine
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Type of Cogeneration Systems


Back Pressure Steam Turbine
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Steam exits the turbine at a higher pressure


that the atmospheric
HP Steam

Boiler

Advantages:
-Simple configuration
-Low capital cost
-Low need of cooling water
-High total efficiency

Turbine

Fuel
Condensate

Process

LP
Steam

Figure: Back pressure steam turbine

Disadvantages:
-Larger steam turbine
-Electrical load and output
can not be matched
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Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Extraction Condensing Steam


Turbine
HP Steam

Steam obtained by
extraction from an
intermediate stage
Remaining steam is
exhausted
Relatively high
capital cost, lower
total efficiency
Control of electrical
power independent
of thermal load

Boiler

Turbine

Fuel
LP Steam
Condensate

Process

Condenser

Figure: Extraction condensing steam turbine


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Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Gas Turbine Cogeneration System


Operate on thermodynamic Brayton cycle
atmospheric air compressed, heated,
expanded
excess power used to produce power
Natural gas is most common fuel
1MW to 100 MW range
Rapid developments in recent years
Two types: open and closed cycle

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Type of Cogeneration Systems


Open Cycle Gas Turbine
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Exhaust
Gases

Open Brayton cycle:


atmospheric air at
increased pressure to
combustor
Old/small units: 15:1
New/large units: 30:1

Condensate
from Process
HRSG
Steam to
Process
Combustor
Fuel

Exhaust gas at 450600 oC

G
Generator

High pressure steam


produced: can drive
steam turbine

Compressor

Turbine

Air

Figure: Open cycle gas turbine cogeneration


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Type of Cogeneration Systems


Closed Cycle Gas Turbine
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Heat Source

Working fluid circulates


in a closed circuit and
does not cause
corrosion or erosion
Any fuel, nuclear or
solar energy can be
used

Heat Exchanger

G
Generator
Compressor

Turbine

Condensate
from Process

Steam to
Process

Figure: Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

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Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Reciprocating Engine Cogeneration


Systems
Used as direct mechanical drives
Many advantages:
operation,
efficiency, fuel
costs
Used as direct
mechanical drives
Four sources of
usable waste heat
Figure: Reciprocating engine cogeneration system
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(UNESCAP, 2000)

Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Topping Cycle
Supplied fuel first produces power
followed by thermal energy
Thermal energy is a by product used
for process heat or other
Most popular method of cogeneration

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Type of Cogeneration Systems

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Bottoming Cycle
Primary fuel produces high
temperature thermal energy
Rejected heat is used to generate
power
Suitable for manufacturing processes

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Training Agenda: Cogeneration

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Introduction
Types of cogeneration systems
Assessment of cogeneration systems
Energy efficiency opportunities

17

Assessment of Cogeneration
Systems
Performance Terms & Definitions
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Overall Plant Heat Rate (kCal/kWh):


Ms x (hs hw)
Power Output (kW )
Ms = Mass Flow Rate of Steam (kg/hr)
hs = Enthalpy of Steam (kCal/kg)
hw = Enthalpy of Feed Water (kCal/kg)

Overall Plant Fuel Rate (kg/kWh)


Fuel Consumption * (kg / hr )
Power Output (kW )

18

Assessment of Cogeneration
Systems
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Steam Turbine Performance


Steam turbine efficiency (%):
Actual Enthalpy Drop across the Turbine (kCal / kg )
x 100
Isentropic Enthalpy drop across the Turbine (kCal / kg )

Gas Turbine Performance


Overall gas turbine efficiency (%) (turbine
compressor):
Power Output (kW ) x 860
x 100
Fuel Input for Gas Turbine (kg / hr ) x GCV of Fuel (kCal / kg )
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Assessment of Cogeneration
Systems
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG)


Performance
Heat recovery steam generator efficiency
(%):
M s x ( hs hw )
[ M f x Cp (t in t out )] [ M aux x GCV of Fuel (kCal / kg )]
Ms = Steam Generated (kg/hr)
hs = Enthalpy of Steam (kCal/kg)
hw = Enthalpy of Feed Water (kCal/kg)
Mf = Mass flow of Flue Gas (kg/hr)
t-in = Inlet Temperature of Flue Gas (0C)
t-out = Outlet Temperature of Flue Gas (0C)
Maux = Auxiliary Fuel Consumption (kg/hr)

x 100

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Training Agenda: Cogeneration

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Introduction
Types of cogeneration systems
Assessment of cogeneration systems
Energy efficiency opportunities

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Energy Efficiency Opportunities


Steam Turbine Cogeneration System

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Steam turbine:
Keep condenser vacuum at optimum value
Keep steam temperature and pressure at
optimum value
Avoid part load operation and starting &
stopping

Boiler & steam see other chapters


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Energy Efficiency Opportunities


Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Gas turbine manage the following parameters:

Gas temperature and pressure


Part load operation and starting & stopping
Temperature of hot gas and exhaust gas
Mass flow through gas turbine
Air pressure

Air compressors see compressors chapter


Heat recovery system generator see waste
heat recovery chapter
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Training Session on Energy


Equipment
Thermal Equipment/
Cogeneration

Cogeneration
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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