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DESIGN CONCEPTS

OF 33/11kV NEW
SUBSTATION

Planning 33/11kV Sub-Station

A- Decision of location
a-The location should be best suited at the load
centre of the 11kV net-work
b-Load density and voltage-regulation.
c-Capacity of the substation should be decided
keeping in view the future growth of the load
for at least next 5years without needing any
augmentation.

Contd

d- Selection of the site of sub-station


(i) Site should be free from all obstructions with
the convenience of terminating H.V. lines.
(ii) Site should not be in a low-lying area
otherwise it may get flooded during rainy seasons.
(iii) Site should be as near to the main roads as
possible and easily approachable in all the
seasons.

Contd

(iv) As far as possible it should be near a


town and away from garbage dumping
ground to avoid vulture faults. Site should
have drinking water facility. It should not be
within 3 km from aerodrome. It should not
be near military or police shooting ranges.

Contd
There should have adequate land keeping in view the
requirements for installation of required equipmentsLand for 2x3MVA is approx 50x40metres
For staff quarters Approx 3 acres
(vi) Land should be in level and should not have any
nallah or road crossing on it.
(vii) The site should be selected so as to accommodate
the length of 11kv outgoing feeder to connect the
existing net work. It should be possible to be taken
out 4-5 numbers of 11kV feeders.
(v)

Orientation of the Sub-Station

It should be such that the incoming and


outgoing feeders are easily accessible to the
sub-station structures.
Scope must be kept for future extension for
additional feeders in future

Planning the Layout

Should be economical
Ease of operation and maintenance
Safety of operating professional

Substation Equipments

Structures
Power transformers
Circuit Breakers
H.T. Fuses
Isolating Switches
Bus bar Arrangement
Insulators
Lightning Protection equipments-LAs

Contd
Instrument transformers -Current and Voltage
transformers for
(i) Protection System
(ii)Metering system

(i)
(ii)

CONTROL Panels with Various types of relays and


instruments
Control room
CablesPower cables
Control cables

Contd

Batteries for D.C. supply


Station transformer
Fencing / boundary wall, approach road, security hut etc.
Earthing system

Facilities:
(i) Lighting
(ii) Fire-fighting equipment
(iii) Staff quarters

Structures

Incoming outgoing gantries


Mounting structures for Power Transformers, Station
Transformers, breakers, isolators, HT fuses, insulator
supports ( For Post Insulators), C.Ts & P.Ts.
Bus-bar structures to provide entry from the overhead
line to the s/s and to extend required number of
feeders (Bays). Similarly other structures required to
mount the operating and other accessories. Minimum
clearance from ground level and from any live part is
to be maintained as per I.E. Rules.

continue

Structure are fabricated from steel sections or


rail and joist are used. P.C.C. poles cast in
reduced length (up to 7 meters) with strength
of 400kg are also being used for economy
purposes.

Power transformers
Power Transformers with different capacities are (i) 630kVA 33/11 step-down (Delta/Dy11)
(ii)1600kVA
(iii)3150kVA
(iv)5000kVA
Most of the Transformers are provided with off-circuit
tap Changers.However On Load Tap Changers are
being provided in the Power Transformers with
capacity of more than 5MVA

Protecting Devices
A Circuit Breakers
(i) 33kV
Oil type circuit breakers. Now being replaced with
vaccum/SF6 circuit breakers
Normal current - 630Amps voltage 36kV
Rated short circuit current 25 kA for 3 Sec
Metering and protection panel gets signals through
11kV/110V PTs and CTs which are provided with
separate cores for metering and protection System.

Contd
(ii) 11kV
Oil type circuit Breakers- Now being replaced
with SF6 or Vacuum Circuit Breakers
Normal current-400Amps and 800Amps
Short circuit current-25kA for 3Secs

Continue

Breaker panel is provided with motor operated


spring charging mechanism which operates at
230V single phase AC supply.
Circuit breakers for Transformers of more than
5MVA capacity are being provided. For lower
capacity Transformers protection through HG
fuses, on 33kV side are provided.
Outdoor type CTs and PTs are provided for 33kV
system.
CTs and PTs are supplied with 11kV breaker Panel

HT Fuse

Normally drop out fuse cut outs for current


rating of upto100Amps are being used. Fuses
have insulated base / fitting arrangements with
creep-age distance to earth not less than
320mm

Isolating Switches
Isolating Switches
-Switches are Used to isolate equipment for maintenance purposes

33kV:
For 33kV system horizontal type isolating switches are used.
Rated normal current - 630A at 36kV.
11kV:
Two type IS Are being used
(i) suitable for horizontal mounting
(ii)suitable for vertical mounting ating
Normal rating- 400amps- At 12kV

Bus Bars
Two types of bus bars - Rigid and Strain type
In rigid type- Pipes are used for bus-bar and also for
making connections. These are supported on bus post
insulators and requires large space.As the bus bars are
rigid the clearance remain constant.
Minimum ground clearance 3660mm from ground.
Since the clearance is not high, the maintenance is
easy.
The strain type Bus bars are over head system of
wires betn. Two supporting structures.
Material-ACSR Racoon for 33kV and 11kV bus-bars

Contd

33kV&11kV outgoing and incoming feeders


kept at 6400mm for ground clearance. The
other levels of live point in the s/s area are
different heights but a minimum of 3660mm is
to be maintained.
11kV jumpers are kept at 4500mm height for
ground clearance.

Insulators

Adequate insulation is required for reliability of


supply, safety of personnel and equipment etc.
Number of insulators is kept minimum for
aconomy reasons at the same time ensuring
reliability and security of supply.
Special insulator with higher leakage resistance
to be used, where problem of insulator pollution
is expected

Lightning protection

Metal oxide lightning arresters are used as


they have gapless construction and respond to
over-voltage without any time delay. They
have longer life and higher energy handling
capacity.
Rated voltage 30kV for use on 33kV system
and 9kV for use on 11kV. Nominal discharge
current rating 10 & 5kA

Instrument Transformers
Current Tranformers are required for protection &
metering system
Standard ratings for 33/11kV S/S are
300-150/5-5 or 5-5-1 Amps.
200-100/5-5 Amps.
100-50/5-5
Amps.
50-25/5-5 Amps.
Accuracy class for protection - 5P10 and for metering
Class 1
Oil filled or Resin cast CTs are being used depending
upon application

Contd

The CTs and PTs can be either Oil filled or


resin cast depending upon the application
Standard voltage ratio for PTs is 33kV / 110V
or 11kV / 110V .

Control and Relay Panels


C&R Panels normally consist of
Ammeter with selector switch
Voltmeter with selector switch
Energy meter
IDMT Relays
Differential Relay or REF relay for Transformer
protection
Various indications and Annunciations

Control Room

While designing control room requirement of


space for batteries, battery charger, ADLS, one
small store room should also be considered in
addition to space for 33kV C&R Panels and
11kV breaker panels along with sitting space
for operating staff.

CABLES

Care should be taken to segregate Power and


control cables on separate racks so that in case of
fire in power cables, control cables are not
damaged and vice versa.
The trenches should be designed for easy entry of
cables and properly sloped so as to avoid
accumulation of water.
If possible segregation of AC and DC cables
should also be considered.
All cables should be labeled for proper
identification and sheath should be earthed .

Battery and Charger

Normally 24/30 Volt, 150 AH lead acid or


NICAD Battery banks are used.
The Charger should be Single Phase AC
operated Float cum Boost type having capacity
of 5 Amps boost charging and 200 mA float
Charging and should be fully automatic with
alarm and indication system.

Station Transformer

Station Transformer with a capacity of 63 or


100kVA capacity is normally sufficient to cater
the needs of a 33/11kV substation.
However higher capacity station transformer
may be considered if supply is considered to
be provided to the staff Colony.

Other Facilities

Boundary wall or Fencing


Illumination of control room and switch yard
Provision of Fire Extinguishers

Earthing

Provision of adequate Earthing in a substation


is a must for safety of operating personnel and
proper operation of the syetm and protective
devices.The primary requirements are
The earthing resistance should be as low as
possible preferably less than 1 ohm.

Earthing - contd

Provision of earthing for following is made in a


substation
Neutral point of each equipment / system such as
transformer, capacitor bank, PT etc should have two
independent earthings
Earthing of equipment enclosures and non current
carrying parts
All metal frame works such as fencing wire mesh
fencing pole illumination pole etc.
Lightening arresters should also have two
independent earthings.

Earthing contd

Factors considered while designing EarthingDuration of fault


Magnitude of fault current
Resistivity of underlying strata
Resistivity of surface material
Material of the earth electrodes

Conductors
Loading Capacity
kW-km limit for Rabbit, weasel & squirrel
conductors

a. Rabbit
b. Weasel
c. Squirrel

0.8 P.F.

0.7 P.F.

11970
8100
5760

10800
7560
5445

STANDARDISATION :
WHILE DESIGINING THE 33/11 KV SUBSTATIONS, THE
DESIGNOR HAS TO KEEP IN MIND THE NEEDS FOR
STANDARDISATION.
WHY STANDARDISATION,
AVOIDING REPETATION OF DESIGN
REDUCTION IN DRAWING APPROVAL TIME
UNIFORMITY IN THE PRODUCTS
REDUCTION IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATIONTIME
MINIMUM DOWN TIME
INTERCHANGEABILITY
COST EFFECTIVENESS

STANDARDISATION :

POTENTIAL AREAS FOR STANDARDISATION :


LAYOUT
STRUCTURES
EARTHING
CABLES & CABLE TRENCH
BATTERY SIZING
CLAMPS & CONNECTORS
BUSBARS
ILLUMINATION
CONTROL, PROTECTION & METERING
CONTROL ROOM
ALL FOUNDATIONS

Minimum Clearances
Voltage level Standar
d bay
(kV)
widths
(in
Mtrs.)

For equipments
and rigid
conductors in air

Phase to Phase spacing in


isolators and switches

Phase
to
phase
(mm)

Phase to
earth
(mm)

Isolator
(mm)

Switches with
Arc Horns
(mm)

132

9.5

1700

1000

2135

3050

66

1220

750

1525

2135

33

4.6

915

610

765

1220

11

3.5

560

305

610

915

0.415

--

380

305

--

--

Other Parameters
Voltage
level
(kV)

Basic
Minimum
Insulation creepage
Level
distance
(BIL) kVp
(mm)

Minimum
clearance
to ground
(mm)

Section
clearance
(mm)

132

450 / 550 /
650

1125

4600

3500 / 4000

110

450 / 550

3075

4600

3500 / 4000

66

325

1812.5

4600

3500

33

145 / 170

560/900

3650

2750 / 3000

11

60 / 75

300

3200

2600 / 2600

Thank You