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King Saud University

College of Engineering
Chemical Engineering Dept.

Chemical Engineering
Laboratory

ChE 403

Meshal Khaled Al-Saeed


423105653

Dr. Malik Al-Ahmad

Introduction
The cooling tower is one of the most important
device in chemical industries for example when
the hot water come from heat exchanger we use
the cooling tower to cool it.
The purpose of cooling tower is to cool relatively
warm water by contacting with unsaturated air.
The evaporation of water mainly provides
cooling.
In a typical water cooling water tower, warm
water flows countercurrent to an air stream.
Typically, the warm water enters the top of
packed tower and cascades down through the
packing, leaving at the bottom.

Air enters at the bottom of the tower and flows


upward through the descending water. The tower
packing often consists of slats of plastic or of
packed bed. The water is distributed by troughs
and overflows to cascade over slat gratings or
packing that provides large interfacial areas of
contact between the water and air in the form of
droplets and films of water. The flow of air upward
through the tower can be induced by the buoyancy
of the warm air in the tower (natural draft) or by
the action of a fan.
The water cannot be cooled below the wet bulb
temperature. The driving force for the evaporation
of the water is approximately the vapor pressure of
the water less the vapor pressure it would have at
the wet bulb temperature.

Theory
Overall Mass Balance:
In Put = Out Put
L2 + G1 = L1 + G2 (1)
Water Mass Balance:
L2 - L1 = G2 * H2 - G1 * H1 (2)
L2 - L1 = G * (H2 - H1) (3)
Energy Balance:
Q = G * (HG2 - HG1) (4)
G1 = * air (5)
G2 = G1 * H2 (6)
HG = Cs * (T - To) + o * H (7)
Cs = Cp

Liquid

+ Cp

Vapor

* H (8)

To determine the number of transfer unit

(NTU):

H G2

d HG
NTU
H Gi H G
H G1
Z

To calculate height
G
of transfer unit (HTU):

HTU

K G a.M B .P

d Z Z (HTU) (NTU)
0

To calculate the meanH


driving
force:
G2 H G1

H LM

2
Simpsonsxrule:

H G2
ln
H G1

h
x f(x)dx 3 [f(x o ) 4f(x1 ) f(x 2 )]
o

Where:
L2: Flow rate of water in [kg/s.m 2].
L1: Flow rate of water out [kg/s.m 2].
G1: Air in [kg/s.m2].
G2: Air out [kg/s.m2].
: Volumetric flow rate of air.
H: Humidity of air [kg water/kg air].
HG: Enthalpy of the air [J/kg air].
KGa: Mass transfer coefficient of air [kg
mol/s.m3.Pa].
NTU: Number of transfer unit [dimensionless].
HTU: Height of transfer unit [m].

Schematic Apparatus

Figure 1: Photo of cooling tower.

Figure 2: Schematic apparatus for cooling tower.

Results
Table1: Temperature at Q = 1.0 kW
Time
(min
)

Air in
T1
T2
(C)
(C)

Air out
T3
T4
(C)
(C)

Water
T5
T6
(C)
(C)

5
10

21
21

19
19

22
20

22
21

31
29

23
22

15
20

21
21

19
19

20
20

21
21

29
29

21
21

Flow rate of water = 40 g/sec


Initial pressure = 31 mm H2O
Final pressure = 38 mm H2O
Pressure drop = 7 mm H2O
Volume of evaporation water at 20 min = 1027 ml

Table2: Temperature at Q = 1.5 kW


Time
(min
)

Air in
T1
T2
(C)
(C)

Air out
T3
T4
(C)
(C)

Water
T5
T6
(C)
(C)

0
5

22
21

19
19

22
23

22
24

31
32

21
22

10
15

21
21

19
19

24
24

24
25

32
32

21
22

20

21

19

24

25

33

22

Flow rate of water = 40 g/sec


Initial pressure = 31 mm H2O
Final pressure = 38 mm H2O
Pressure drop = 7 mm H2O
Volume of evaporation water at 20 min = 1025 ml

Where:
T1: Dry bulb temperature in.
T2: Wet bulb temperature in.
T3: Dry bulb temperature out.
T4: Wet bulb temperature out.
T5: Water temperature input.
T6: Water temperature output.

Conclusion
From conclusion point view:
Cooling tower is used to cool relatively hot water.
As the humidity of the inlet air decreased, the

performance of the cooling tower will be better.


This leads to the better mass transfer between
water and gas phase.
As the temperature of the inlet air decreased, the
performance of the cooling tower will be better.
As the temperature increased overall mass
transfer coefficient KGa increased.
If the air flow rate is increased, the height of the
cooling tower decrease.

Recommendations
It is better to open the windows or
doors in the lap to refresh the air and
to make a good deference in the
driving force.

Summary
The main objective of this experiment is to perform
mass and energy balances over a cooling tower and to
determine the mean driving force, the number of
transfer units and the overall mass transfer
coefficient.
In this experiment can be calculated:
The outlets water for a typical cooling tower and
compare it with the measured value.
The rate of heat transfer.
The mean driving force.
Also can be get HGi from the Temperature Enthalpy
diagram and the operating line then get the number of
transfer unit (NTU) by determine the area under the
curve then find the overall mass transfer coefficient.

Results:
At Q = 1.0 kW
L1 = 0.04 kg/s
Q = 0.524 kW
NTU = 0.285
HTU = 1.68 m
HG Lm = 49.23 kJ/kg dry air
KGa = 2.9 e-6 kg mol/s.m2
At Q = 1.5 kW
L1 = 0.0401 kg/s
Q = 1.25 kW
NTU = 0.0879
HTU = 5.523 m
HG Lm = 60.39 kJ/kg
KGa = 9.73 e-7 kg mol/s.m2

References
1. Chirstie J. Geankoplis, "Transfer Process
and Unit Operation", 3rd edition.
2. Dep. of Chemical Eng Chemical
Engineering Laboratory II Manual.
3. Perrys, "Chemical Engineers Handbook",
5th edition.
4. From web side:
http://www.armfield.co.uk/