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Dr. S.

PONMALAR
Assistant Professor
Department of ECE
Thiagarajar College of Engineering
Madurai 625015

CONTENTS
Introduction

First Generation Optical Network


SONET
Second Generation Optical Network
Wavelength Routing Network
WRA Problem
Next

Generation Optical Networks

Optical

Packet Switching Network


Elastic Optical Network

Optical Networks
An optical network is a communications network in
which transmission links are made up optical
fibers, and its architecture is designed to exploit
the optical fiber advantages.

NEED FOR OPTICAL


NETWORKING

The demand for more bandwidth

The complexity/inflexibility/cost of hybrid electronic/optical


systems

The "electronic bit-rate bottleneck"

Demand for more bandwidth

1 EB = 10006bytes = 1018bytes

Demand for more bandwidth

1 EB = 10006bytes = 1018bytes

CONVENTIONAL ELECTRONIC & OPTICAL


NETWORKING

In most existing networks optical technology is used only to transport


signals across links and most processing is carried out electrically.
Demands many expensive Optical to Electronic to Optical (OEO)
conversions
Not bit rate transparent
Classic example is an SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ring

Drop Traffic
Out
Add
Traffic in

ADM based
SDH Ring

Fibre Links

BOTTLENECK PROBLEM
O-E-O conversion
Electronic processing at the nodes

DRIVERS AND IMPACT FOR OPTICAL


NETWORKING

Video and more Video.


Internet streaming

Shifting to the Cloud

Service Providers become


All Play providers

Dynamic Traffic
Networks

Slow Revenue
Growth

Enterprise and personal IT are moving to


the cloud computing

IP Video
Traffic
Other IP
Traffic

90%

2013 - IP at 5x 2008 levels with 90% Video

Exponential Traffic
Growth

Technology challenges
Improve service
Need more optical
provisioning, time and
channel capacity :
resource utilization :
100G/400G/1T
SDT/ROADM/SDN

Business challenges
Reduce cost
/bit/switch/transport

OPTICAL NETWORK EVOLUTION

History and roadmap

2015-

2012
2011
2008

40G
80 Channels

2006

10G
40 Channels

2.5G
CWDM, DWDM

SDH / Sonet
Networks
Increase capacity
Point-to-point
CWDM/DWDM
Up to 40 channels
2.5/10G channels

SDH / Sonet / EoS


services support
Ring topology
East/west protection
Reconfigurable
OADM
WDM over OTN
10G channels

IP over WDM
Mesh topology
ASON GMPLS-based
ODU basednetworks
10G/40G channels,
ready for 100G
coherent
Plug and play

400G/1T
40G/100G
Coherent

100G Coherent
networks support
DCFless networks
Colorless /
directionless /
contentionless
WSON GMPLSbased

Superchanne
lBandwidth

on
Demand
N:M ROADM
configuration
Gridless ROADM
400G/1T
transceivers
Fully automated
network

Continued demand for bandwidth from all applications

10

Optical Network Architecture

Optical Network Architecture


Metropolitan network
consists of a metro access network and a metro
interoffice network
The access network extends from a central office to
individual businesses or homes
Its reach is typically a few kilometers
Traffic is collected from customer premises and
hubbed into the central office

The interoffice network connects groups of central


offices within a city or region
spans a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers
between offices

Optical Network Architecture


Long-haul network
The long-haul network interconnects different cities or
regions and spans hundreds to thousands of kilometers
between nodes
Unlike access networks, the traffic distribution in the
metro interoffice and long-haul networks is based on a
meshed topology

CATEGORIZING OPTICAL NETWORKS

Core/
LongHaul
Metro/
Regional
Access/
LocalLoop

DWDM:
CWDM:
TDM:
SCM:
SMF:
MMF:
LWPF:
DCF:
EML:
DFB:
FP:
APD:
PIN:

Who Uses
it?

Span
(km)

Bit Rate

Phone
Company,
Govt(s)

~103

~1011

Phone
Company,
Big Business

~102

Small
Business,
Consumer

~10

(bps)
(100s of
Gbps)
~1010
(10s of
Gbps)
~109
(56kbps
- 1Gbps)

Multiplexing

Fiber

Laser

Receiver

DWDM/
TDM

SMF/
DCF

EML/
DFB

APD

DWDM/
CWDM/T
DM

SMF/
LWPF

DFB

APD/ PIN

TDM/
SCM/

SMF/
MMF

DFB/ FP

PIN

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (<1nm spacing)


Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (20nm spacing)
Time Division Multiplexing (e.g. car traffic)
Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (e.g. Radio/TV channels)
Single-Mode Fiber (core~9m)
Multi-Mode Fiber (core~50m)
Low-Water-Peak Fiber
Dispersion Compensating Fiber
Externally modulated (DFB) laser
Distributed Feedback Laser
Fabry-Perot Laser
Avalanche Photodiode
p-i-n Photodiode

If this faucet represents


some of the largest
bandwidth today, including
T1, DSL and Cable

Then Fiber Optic Broadband is like


Niagara Falls

FIRST GENERATION OPTICAL


NETWORK
In the first generation, optics was used for

transmission and to provide capacity


All the switching and other intelligent network
functions were handled by electronics
e.g SONET, SDH, FDDI, fiber channel

SYNCHRONOUS OPTICAL
NETWORK
High

speed inter-city, intra-city, WAN type network with


well defined standards and bit rates up 6.4 Tb/s
These

systems where based on Optical TDM (10Gb/s and

40Gb/s)
Existing

infrastructure of SONET and SDH is based


pleiosynchronous digital hierarchy (PDH)

FEATURES OF SONET

High-speed optical transport network


Multiplexing in electrical level using TDM
All the clocks in the network are perfectly
synchronized
Easy to extract low stream data
Bit rates are integral multiples of basic bit rate

Efficient protection and restoration


Multi-vendor networks
Transmission bandwidth management

SONET offers cost-effective transport both in the


access area and core of the network

Simple network using SONET equipment

SONET layers
The SONET standard includes four functional layers:
the photonic(/optical), the section, the line, and the
path layer. They correspond to both the physical and
the data link layers.

SONET frames
Each synchronous transfer signal STS-N is composed of 8000
frames. Each frame is a two-dimensional matrix of bytes with 9
rows by 90 N columns.

Section overhead: connects


adjacent pieces of
equipment
Line overhead: connects two
SONET devices

User data information plus 9 bytes


of path overhead

Path overhead: complete endto end connection,


performance monitoring by
the end of equipment, status,
signal labeling, tracing
function and a user channel

Transport overhead bytes that carry network management information

STS-1 frames in transmission

STS1, like other STS signals, sends 8000 frames per second.
EachSTS1frameismadeof9by(190)bytes.Eachbyteis
madeof8bits.Thedatarateis

Data rate for STS-3 signals


STS3,likeotherSTSsignals,sends8000framespersecond.
EachSTS3frameismadeof9by(390)bytes.Eachbyte
ismadeof8bits.Thedatarateis

BIT RATE STANDARD - SONET

The basic building block of SONET is called STS-1


(Synchronous Transport Signal) with 51.84 Mbps data rate.

Higher-rate SONET signals are obtained by byteinterleaving N STS-1 frames, which are scrambled &
converted to an Optical Carrier Level N (OC-N) signal.

SONET basic bit rate STS-1 51.84 Mb/s


STS -3 155.52 Mb/s (51.84 3)
STS-12 622.08 Mb/s (51.84 12 )
STS-N 51.84 N Mb/s
N = 1, 3, 12, 24, 48 and 192 ( ANSI T1.105 standard)

SONET/SDH
DS1
1.544 Mb/s
E1
2.048 Mb/s
DS1C
3.152 Mb/s
DS2
6.312 Mb/s

The mapping of lower-speed PDH


streams into VTs in SONET
(SPE + path overhead)

VT1.5 SPE

VT2 SPE
VT3 SPE

VT1.5

VT2
VT3

4
3
2
1

VT6 SPE

VT6

VT group

7
byte
interleaved

DS3
44.736 Mb/s
ATM
48.384 Mb/s

STS-1 SPE

STS-1

STS-N

E4
139.264 Mb/s
ATM
149.760 Mb/s

STS-3c SPE

STS-3c

N/3

Locked payload: not possible to demultiplex


into
26
lower-speed streams

VIRTUAL TRIBUTARIES (VT)


User payload is mapped in SPE in a hierarchical and
organized manner
Several sizes of blocks of columns are known as Virtual
Tributaries.

Number of VTs may fit in a SPE


VTs are mapped in larger containers known as groups.
4 VT1.5

3 VT2

2 VT3

Group
VT defines a maximum bit rate for a clients payload, as an example,
a VT1.5 contains 27 bytes transmitted in 125 s, resulting to bit rate up
to 1.728 Mb/s.

Problem 1:
Find the number of voice channels that could be multiplexed to STS
192 SONET signal.
Ans :
DS0 64 kb/s
1 voice channel
DS1 1.544 kb/s 24 voice channel
VT1.5
24 Voice channel
4
VT group
VT group carry 4 24 = 96VC
7
SPE STS-1 STS-1 SPE carry 7 96 = 672 VC
196
STS-192

STS-192

carry 192 672= 129024 VC

Problem 2:
64 ATM streams at 48.384 Mb/s and 32 ATM streams at 149.760 Mb/s
are mapped into STS-192 SONET stream. The rest of the SONET
stream is mapped with DS1 streams carrying voice channels. How
many voice channels are transmitted by the DS1 stream.
Ans:
64 ATM streams at 48.384 Mb/s occupy 64 STS-1 stream
32 ATM streams at 149.760 Mb/s occupy 32 STS-3 stream
or
32*3 = 96 STS-1
Total STS-1 stream = 64+96 = 160 STS-1
160 STS-1 are occupied by ATM streams ( mapped into STS-192
SONET stream)
Free space = 192 160 = 32 STS-1 streams
Each STS-1 stream can carry 4*7=28 DS1 signal
Each DS1 signal carries 24 voice channels.
So, Total voice channel transmitted by the DS1 signal
28*24*32 = 21504 voice channels

SONET multiplexing
Problem 2:
DS1
VT 1.5 SPE
1.544 mb/s

VT 1-5
4
VT group

ATM
48.384 Mb/s
ATM
149.760
Mb/s

STS-1SPE

STS-1
STS-N

STS-3 SPE

STS-1

SONET/SDH NETWORKING
TM

Backbone ring

ADM

Point to point

BLSR/2
Or
ADM
ADM
DCS
BLSR/4
OC-12/OC-48
Central office

ADM
ADM
ADM

UPSR

Central
office

UPSR

DCS

OC-3/OC-12

ADM

OC-3/OC-12

ADM

ADM

ADM

ADM

BLSR/2
Or
ADM
ADM
BLSR/4
OC-12/OC-48

ADM

ADM

Backbone ring

ADM

ADM

Linear add/drop

Access ring

TM

Access ring

ADM

UPSR

ADM

OC-3/OC-12

ADM

Access ring

UPSR- unidirectional path-switched


rings
BLSR-bidirectional line-switched ring
TM Terminal Multiplexer
DCS - digital crossconnect

NETWORK SURVIVABILITY
Objetives:
To provide a resilient network against failures. It becomes
an essential requirement during the design of high speed
optical networks
To offer a reliable service when large volume of traffic is
transmitted even in the presence of failures and
anomalous operation.
Frequently faults:
Fiber cuts (human errors)
Failure of active components (transmitters, receivers,
amplifiers, controllers)
Disruption of service (software)
Catastrophic events (flooding, fire)
Aging of components

PROTECTION SCHEMES
Dedicated

protection - each working connection


is assigned its own dedicated bandwidth in the
network over which it can be rerouted in case of a
failure.
In Shared protection, we make use of the fact
that not all working connections in the network
fail
By careful design, multiple working connections
can share protection their bandwidth. This helps
reduce the amount of bandwidth needed in the
network for protection.

PROTECTION SCHEMES

Nonrevertive protection scheme:


the traffic remains on the protect path until it is
manually switched back onto the original working
path, usually by a user through the network
management system.
Revertive protection scheme
once the working path is repaired, the traffic is
automatically switched back from the protect path
onto the working path.

PROTECTION SCHEMES

unidirectional protection switching:


each direction of traffic is handled independent of the
other.
in the event of a single fiber cut, only one direction of
traffic is switched over to the protection fiber, and the
other direction remains on the original working fiber.
bidirectional protection switching:
both directions are switched over to the protection
fibers.
the switching becomes bidirectional by default
because both directions of traffic are lost when a fiber
is cut

Protection Schemes
In the event of failure the traffic is routed by
path

switching: the connection is rerouted


end to end from its source to its destination
along an alternate path.
span switching: the connection is rerouted on
a spare link between the nodes adjacent to the
failure.
ring switching: the connection is rerouted on
a ring between the nodes adjacent to the
failure.

Protection Schemes

PROTECTION IN SONET/SDH
Protection in Point-to-Point Links:

1 + 1 protection:
traffic is transmitted simultaneously on both working and
protection from the source to the destination.
If that fiber is cut, the destination simply switches over to
the other fiber and continues to receive data.
very fast and requires no signaling protocol between the two
ends.

1:1 Protection:

traffic is transmitted over only one fiber at a time,


through the working fiber.
If that fiber is cut, the source and destination both
switch over to the other protection fiber.
APS protocol is required for signaling between the
source and destination. This is added overhead which
slows down the process.

PROTECTION IN SELF-HEALING RINGS


SONET

rings are called self-healing because


they incorporate protection mechanisms that
automatically detect failures and reroute traffic
away from failed links and nodes onto other
routes rapidly.
The rings are implemented using SONET/SDH
add/drop multiplexers
ADMs selectively drop and add traffic from/to
the ring as well as protect the traffic against
failures.

Types of ring architectures

A unidirectional ring carries working traffic in only one


direction of the ring.
two-fiber unidirectional path-switched rings
(UPSR)
A bidirectional ring carries working traffic in both
directions.
four-fiber bidirectional line-switched rings
(BLSR/4),
two-fiber bidirectional line-switched rings
(BLSR/2).

A unidirectional path switched ring (UPSR)


(Two fiber UPSR)
1
path 1

path 4
4

path 2

path 3
3

One of the fibers is considered the working fiber and the other the protection fiber.
Traffic is transmitted simultaneously on the working fiber in the clockwise direction
and on the protection fiber in the counterclockwise direction.
Protection is done at the path layer.

Bidirectional line switched ring (BLSR)


(Two-fiber or four-fiber BLSR)

SECOND GENERATION OPTICAL


NETWORKS

SECOND GENERATION OPTICAL


NETWORKS
Unlike

first-generation networks, second generation

networks performs switching and routing in optical


domain.
The

emergence of second generation networks

considers the introduction of a new level in a


layered network model: the optical layer
Second-generation

optical networks have routing,

switching and intelligence in the optical layer.

Second Generation Optical Networks


WDM Wavelength Routing Network

WDM WAVELENGTH ROUTING


NETWORK
key network elements
optical line terminals

multiplexes multiple wavelengths into a single fiber and


demultiplexes a set of wavelengths on a single fiber into separate
fibers.
OLTs are used at the ends of a point-to-point WDM link.

optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs)

takes in signals at multiple wavelengths and selectively drops


some of these wavelengths and let others pass through.
It also selectively adds wavelengths to the composite outbound
signal.
An OADM has two line ports where the composite WDM signals
are present, and a number of local ports where individual
wavelengths are dropped and added .

WDM WAVELENGTH ROUTING


NETWORK ( CONTN.)

optical crossconnects(OXCs)
An

OXC essentially performs a similar function as OADM


but at much larger sizes.
OXCs have a large number of ports (ranging from a few
tens to thousands) and are able to switch wavelengths
from one input port to another.

Both OADMs and OXCs may incorporate wavelength


conversion capabilities.

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing


The state of the art is to use 80 wavelengths on one fiber, but
systems using from 36 to 40 wavelengths are more common
With each wavelength capable of carrying 10 Gb/s, the increase
in capacity of DWDM is impressive, though costly

ROUTING AND
WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT

Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem is


defined as follows:
Given a network topology and a set of end-to-end
lightpath requests, determine a route and
wavelength(s) for the requests, using the minimum
possible number of wavelengths.

ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT


(RWA)

To establish a lightpath, need to determine:


A route
Corresponding wavelengths on the route

RWA problem can be divided into two subproblems:


Lightpath Routing (LR)
Wavelength Assignment (WA)

Static vs. dynamic lightpath establishment

STATIC LIGHTPATH ESTABLISHMENT


(SLE)
Suitable for static traffic
Traffic matrix and network topology are known in
advance
Objective is to minimize the network capacity
needed for the traffic when setting up the
network
Compute a route and assign wavelengths for each
connection in an off-line manner

DYNAMIC LIGHTPATH
ESTABLISHMENT (DLE)
Suitable for dynamic traffic
Traffic matrix is not known in advance while network
topology is known
Objective is to maximize the network capacity at any
time when a connection request arrives at the
network

ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH


ASSIGNMENT
Lightpath Routing (LR) problem

The LR problem is to find routes for a collection of


lightpaths
The

objective of the LR problem is to minimize the


maximum, over all fiber links, of the number of lightpaths
using a fiber link.
An alternative objective of the LR problem is to minimize
some network cost such as bandwidth, ports, switching, or
regenerator cost.

ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH


ASSIGNMENT
Wavelength Assignment (WA) Problem:
The WA problem is, given a collection of lightpaths and
their routes, to assign wavelengths to the lightpaths.
The objective is to minimize, over all fiber links, the
maximum wavelength used on a fiber link.

ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT

To solve the LR problem, route the lightpaths one at a


time in some order.
Routes

can be computed by using shortest path routing


algorithms on the network topology.
The network topology has weights assigned to each link, so
that the shortest path is the least-weight path.
The link weights are chosen so that the resulting lightpath
routes meet the objective of the LR problem.

ROUTING AND WAVELENGTH


ASSIGNMENT

For the WA problem, the assignments must obey the


following constraints:

1. Two lightpaths must not be assigned the same


wavelength on a given link.
2. If no wavelength conversion is available through a
switch, then a lightpath must be assigned the same
wavelength on the links through the switch.
3. If no wavelength conversion is available in the network,
then a lightpath must be assigned the same wavelength all
along its route.

ROUTING
Fixed routing: predefine a route for each
lightpath connection
Example:

ROUTING
Alternative routing: predefine several routes for
each lightpath connection and choose one of them
Exhaust routing: use all the possible paths

ROUTING

Adaptive Routing
Route is chosen dynamically, depending on the
network state

WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT
For the network with wavelength conversion
capability, wavelength assignment is trivial
For the network with wavelength continuity
constraint, use heuristics approach

WAVELENGTH ASSIGNMENT UNDER


WAVELENGTH CONTINUITY CONSTRAINT
First-Fit (FF)
Least-Used (LU)
Most-Used (MU)
Max_Sum (MS)
Relative Capacity Loss (RCL)

FIRST-FIT
All the wavelength are indexed with consecutive
integer numbers
The available wavelength with the lowest index is
assigned

LEAST-USED AND MOST-USED

Least-Used

Record the usage of


each wavelength
Pick up a wavelength,
which is least used
before, from the
available wavelength
pool

Most-Used

Record the usage of


each wavelength
Pick up a wavelength,
which is most used
before, from the
available wavelength
pool

MAX-SUM AND RCL


MAX_SUM Chooses the wavelength, such that the
decision will minimize the capacity loss or
maximize the possibility of future connections.
RCL will choose the wavelength which minimize
the relative capacity loss.

RWA ALGORITHM

Random-1.
For

a lightpath request between two nodes, choose at


random one of the available wavelengths on a fixed shortest
path between the two nodes.

Random-2.
Fix

two shortest paths between every pair of nodes. For a


lightpath request between two nodes, choose at random one
of the available wavelengths on the first shortest path
between the two nodes. If no such wavelength is available,
choose a random one of the available wavelengths on the
second shortest path.

GRAPH COLORING FOR WAVELENGTH


ASSIGNMENT
Construct a graph G(V, E), so that each lightpath in
the system is represented by a node in graph G.
There is an undirected edge between two nodes in
graph G if the corresponding lightpaths pass through a
common physical fiber link.
Color the nodes of the graph G such that no two
adjacent nodes have the same color.

PROBLEM: ASSIGN WAVELENGTHS


USING GRAPH COLORING TECHNIQUE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

C-B-A
E-C-B-A
B-F
D-C-B
B-F-E
A-F-E
F-E-C
E-D

SOLUTION:
GRAPH COLORING AUXILIARY GRAPH
C-B-A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

C-B-A
E-C-B-A
B-F
D-C-B
B-F-E
A-F-E
F-E-C
E-D

E-D
F-E-C

E-C-B-A

7
A-F-E

6
5
B-F-E

4
D-C-B

B-F

Elastic Optical Networks


fixed grid to flexi grid

ELASTIC OPTICAL NETWORKS


MOTIVATION
Emerging applications with a range of transport requirement
Future applications with unknown requirements
Flexible and efficient optical networks to support existing, emerging and
future applications

Courtesy: High performance network lab., Bristol

APPLICATIONS WITH DIVERSE


REQUIREMENTS
Media

High-speed data
400G, 1Tb/s

Courtesy: High performance network


lab., Bristol

CURRENT OPTICAL NETWORKS ::


INFLEXIBLE

CURRENT SOLUTION FOR BANDWIDTHINTENSIVE APPLICATIONS


Optical virtual concatenation
connection (super-wavelength)

(OVC) for high capacity end-to-end

Demultiplex the demand to smaller ones such as 100 or 40 Gb/s, which


can still fit in the fixed grid (Inverse multiplexing)
Several wavelengths are grouped and allocated end-to-end according to
the application bandwidth requirements
Grouping occurs at the client layer without really affecting the network
Connection over several wavelengths is not switched as a single entity in
network nodes

DRIVERS FOR DEVELOPING THE EONS


Support for 400 Gb/s, 1Tb/s and other high bit rate demands
Disparate bandwidth needs: properly size the spectrum for each
demand based on its bit rate & the transmission distance
Tighter channel spacing: freeing up spectrum for other demands
Reach vs. spectral efficiency trade-off: bandwidth variable transmitter
can adjust to a modulation format occupying less optical spectrum for
short EOP and still perform error-free due to the reduced impairments
Dynamic networking: the optical layer can now response directly to
variable bandwidth demands from the client layers

ELASTIC OPTICAL NETWORKING


The optical spectrum can be divided up flexibly

Courtesy: Ori Gerstel, IEEE Comm. Mag. 2012

ELASTIC OPTICAL NETWORKING

The transceivers can generate elastic optical paths (EOPs); that is,
paths with variable bit rates.

ELASTIC OPTICAL PATH NETWORK::


EXAMPLE
Path length
Bit rate
Conventional
design
Elastic
optical path
network

1,000 km

Elastic channel
spacing

1,000 km

400 Gb/s

200 Gb/s

100 Gb/s

QPSK

QPSK
200 Gb/s

QPSK

Fixed
format, grid
Adaptive
modulation

1,000 km

250 km

250 km

400 Gb/s

100 Gb/s

16QAM

16QAM

ROUTING AND SPECTRUM ASSIGNMENT


(RSA)
Input: Network topology, traffic matrix, physical layer models
Output: Routes and spectrum allocation RSA

Minimize utilized spectrum and/or number of transponders, and/or

Satisfy physical layer constraints

0 1 2 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 0 2 0
2 1 0 1 0 1

0 2 1 1 1 0

80

DYNAMIC SPECTRUM SHARING


Link Slot utilization
Slotted spectrum
(e.g. 6.25 GHz)
G Guardband slot(s) is
(are)
required between
connections

A connection

is assigned a path and a reference frequency


utilizes slots around reference frequency
expands / contracts its spectrum to follow the traffic variations

A slot is assigned to only one connection at a given time instant

Slots are shared among connections at different time instants

Spectrum Expansion/Contraction (SEC) policy


81

RESEARCH AREAS IN OPTICAL


NETWORK
Next

Generation Passive Optical Networks


(NGPONs)
Next Generation Access Networks (NGANs)
Long-Reach Passive Optical networks for Metropolitan
network consolidation
Optical Wireless networks convergence
Optical network architectures and protocols design for
wireless backhauling
Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and
algorithms for NGPONs
System Level design for centralised Optical Wireless
networks
MAC Protocol designs for optimisation of Optical and
Wireless network convergence

RESEARCH AREAS
Design of control plane architectures targeting
dynamic spectrum allocation in elastic optical networks
Design of low power, low latency, high throughput,
optical interconnect network architectures connecting
racks within data centres and high performance
computers

Research areas in optical communication system

THE FUTURE OF OPTICAL


NETWORKS

optical network evolves to the ultimate goal of


end-to-end wavelength services.

Impact can be measured in two ways


-economic impact
-carriers' ability to offer new services.
will increase network capacity, allowing
network providers to transport more than 40
times the traffic on the same fiber
infrastructure.