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Asphaltic Concrete Mix Design

Seksyen Loji Dan Kuari


JKR Woksyop Persekutuan
KL

Construction Of Road in the 60s by JKR

Is this JKR Works After 100 Years

STILL Little PROBLEMS IN ROAD


RESURFACING !

Road Structure

Wearing Course
BinderCourse`
Roadbase

Sub-base
Subgrade

Cracking

Cracking
Why cracking in asphalt surfacing
undesirable?
1. It allows surface water to penetrate into the
lower pavement layers, causing localised
weakening of the pavement structure.
2. It reduces the dynamic modulus of the
surfacing, making it less able to distribute
imposed traffic loads.

Possible Causes of Cracking


1. Excess fines in mixture.
2. Insufficient bitumen.
3. Insufficient compaction.
4. Improperly proportioned mixture.
5. Voids content too high.
6. Rolling when mixture too cold.
7. Overheating the bitumen.
8. Wet mixing time too long.
9. Improper joint preparation & construction.
10. Over Rolling - vibratory roller.
11. Too high amplitude - vibratory roller.

Rutting

Rutting
Why rutting in asphalt surfacing undesirable?
1. It creates an irregular road profile, thus
poor riding quality, dangerous to traffics.
2. It increases roughness, thus increases
vehicle operating costs.
3. It allows surface water to accumulate, thus
increases risk of skidding and aquaplaning,
and water infiltration into pavement
structure.

Possible Causes of Rutting


1. Excess bitumen.
2. Excess fines in mixture.
3. Improperly proportioned mixture.
4. Excessive tack coat.
5. Excessive segregation.

Skidding

Skidding
Does asphaltic concrete road surfacing
lack the necessary macrotexture for
skidding resistance at high speeds ?

Possible Causes of Smooth


Surface Texture
1. Excess fines in mixture.
2. Excess bitumen.
3. Over rolling.
4. Rolling when mixture too hot.
5. Excessive segregation.
6. Abrasion of aggregates by traffic.

The solution ?

Porous Asphalt

Stone Mastic Asphalt

Component Of Asphalt
Aggregate
Filler
Bitumen

Aggregate - The Major Component Of Premix


Production.

Basalt

Granite

Coarse Aggregate Testing


1 Test Per Stockpile Per 2,500 Tons Of Asphaltic
Concrete Produced;
* Aggregate Crushing Value.
* Sodium Sulphate Soundness.
* Flakiness Index.
* Water Absorption.
* Polished Stone Value (Wearing Course Only).

Limestones in wearing course?

Fine Aggregate Testing


1 test per stockpile per 2,500 tons of asphaltic
concrete produced;
* Sodium Sulphate Soundness.
* Water Absorption.

Sand or quarry dust?

Fine aggregate: Natural sand, mining sand or


quarry fines.

Cement or limestone?
Mineral filler: Rock dust, limestone dust, hydrated
lime or hydraulic cement.
Anti-stripping agent: Ordinary Portland cement.

Material passing 75 um to bitumen ratio by weight


0.6 - 1.2.
Mineral Filler / Anti Stripping Agent

80-100 or 60-70 ?

Bitumen grade: Penetration grade 80-100 (MS 124).

Bitumen Testing
* Penetration.
* Softening point.
* Solubility in Trichloroethylene.
* Ductility.
* Flash point.
* Retained penetration after thin film oven.
* Loss on heating.
Test frequency: Not stated in JKR Guidelines or
JKR/SPJ. Recommends one set of test per every
bitumen delivery to the plant.

BITUMEN QUALITY
PENETRATION TEST
100 gramme
needle

5 seconds

bitumen
at
25
degrees
Celsius

penetration
value
in 0.1 mm

Mix Design

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.8 - Gradation Limits For Asphaltic


Concrete
B.S. Sieve Size, mm
20
14
10
5
3.35
1.18
0.425
0.150
0.075

% Passing By Weight
100-100
80-95
68-90
52-72
45-62
30-45
17-30
7-16
4-10

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.9 - Design Bitumen Contents

Class of Mix

Normal Range of Design


Bitumen Content by
Weight of Mix

ACW 20 - WC

5.0 - 7.0 %

ACB 20 - BC

4.5 - 6.0 %

ACB 28 - BC

4.0 - 6.0 %

Clause 4.2.4.3 Asphaltic Concrete Mix


Design
1. Prepare specimens for standard stability and
flow tests as per AASHTO T 245 using 75
blows/face.
2. Determine bulk specific gravity of specimens as
per AASHTO T 166.
3. Determine stability and flow values as per
AASHTO T 245.
4. Voids analysis; VMA, VFB, VIM.

Mix Design Method


MS 535
Specification for asphaltic concrete for road
pavement and airfield runway by the Marshall test
method.
Asphalt Institute MS-2
Mix design methods for asphalt concrete.

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.10 - Test Parameters For


Asphaltic Concrete
Parameter

WC

BC

Stability S

> 500 kg

> 450 kg

Flow F

> 2.0 mm

> 2.0 mm

Stiffness S/F

>250 kg/mm >225 kg/mm

Air voids in mix

3.0 - 5.0 % 3.0 - 7.0 %

VFB

75 - 85 %

65 - 80 %

Mix Design Requirements


1. Grading of combined aggregates + filler Table 4.8 JKR/SPJ.
2. Bitumen content - Table 4.9 JKR/SPJ.
3. Marshall method of mix design - Clause
4.2.4.3 JKR/SPJ.
4. Test parameters of Marshall specimens Table 4.10 JKR/SPJ.
5. Establish design aggregate grading and
bitumen content with tolerances in Table 4.11
JKR/SPJ.

Table 4.11 - Tolerances For Asphaltic


Concrete Mixes
Parameter
Bitumen content.
Fractions of combined
aggregate passing 5.0
mm and larger sieves.
Fractions of combined
aggregate passing 3.35
mm and 1.18 mm sieves.
Fractions of combined
aggregate passing 425
m and 150 m sieves.
Fraction of combined
aggregate passing 75

Permissible Variation
% by weight of total mix
+/- 0.2 %

+/- 5.0 %

+/- 4.0 %

+/- 3.0 %

Trial Lay
A minimum of 10 tons of each mix shall be placed
in trial areas to demonstrate to the satisfaction of
S.O. that the mixing, laying and compacting
equipment conforms to the requirements of the
specification, and that the proposed mixes are
satisfactory.
1. Rollers.
2. Paver.
3. Trial site.
4. Tests on premix sample :
Binder content & aggregate grading.
Theoretical maximum specific gravity.
Prepare Marshall specimens.
Specific gravity, volumetric properties,
Marshall stability and flow of Marshall

Trial Lay - Continue


5. Record temperatures of premix on lorry, at
plant and site.
6. Record laying temperatures.
7. Record laying thickness.
8. Check texture of paved surface.
9. Record rolling temperatures.
10. Record rolling pattern.
11. Check texture and condition of compacted
surface.
12. Record compacted thickness and density from
core samples.
13. Check consistency in production.
14. Check at least one longitudinal joint.

Temperature Of Bitumen < 177 C (350 F)

Each aggregate shall be stored in a separate


stockpile. Stockpiles of sand and other fine
aggregates shall be kept dry using waterproof
covers or other means.

Aggregate Stockpile

Aggregate Grading Test


Batch plant - 1 test per hot bin per day of
production.
Drum mix plant - 1 test per cold bin per day of
production.

Temperature < 163 C (325 F)

Sampling of premix

Sampling of Premix
Sample quantity:
> 20 mm (eg. ACB28) - minimum 24 kg.
< 20 mm (eg. ACW20) - minimum 16 kg.
Sampling from lorry:
> 20 mm - take 4 increments.
< 20 mm - take 3 increments.
One increment approx. 7 kg (use size 2 squaremouth shovel).
Scoop 100 mm below surface.

Testing of Premix
1 test per 200 tons of asphaltic concrete produced;
* Bitumen content & grading.
* Maximum specific gravity.
* Preparation of Marshall specimens.
* Bulk specific gravity of Marshall specimens.
* Volumetric properties (VMA, VFB, VIM).
* Marshall stability & flow.

Density and Thickness Requirement


1. Required compacted density;
Wearing Course : 98 - 100% Marshall density
Binder Course : 95 - 100% Marshall density
2. The average thickness over any 100 metre
length shall be not less than the required
thickness. The minimum thickness at any point
shall be not less than the required thickness
minus 5 mm.

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