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Klas : Osteichthyes/ teleostei/

teleostomi
Subklas : Sarcoptrerygii /Paleopterygii
Jumlah Ordo 2 : Coelacanthiformes &
Dipteriformes
Subklas:Actinopterygii / Neopterygii
Jumlah Ordo : 17

Sub klas Sarcopterygii


Ciri-ciri
Mempunyai P&V yg menonjol (lobate) dan
berdaging
Sisik dengan endoskeletal yg kuat
Ordo : Coelacanthiformes
Bertulang rawan, sisik cycloid,
bentuk ekor diphycercal, tanpa sub
operculum

Coelacanthiformes

Sarcopterygii
Actinistia
Latimeria
2dorsalfins
fleshyfins
intracranialjoint
morphologyconstantthroughout
evolutionaryhistory
Unbranchedlepidotrichia

Ordo Dipteriformes
Memp gelemb renang yg berhub dg
usus berfungsi sbg paru-paru.
D,C,A bersatu ; V & P Lobate
(menonjol)
Gigi palatin tanpa premaxilla &maxilla
Makanan Invertebrata & tb-an air
Kebanyakan telah jadi fosil

Dipnoi

earliestlungfishescosmoidscales
modernformsembedded
scales/continuousdorsal,analandcaudal
fins;spiralvalveintestine
toothplates
lackmarginaltoothbearing
jawbone
circulatorysystem

Ceratodontidae
(Australian Lung Fishes)
Tdpt sejak periode Triassic & banyak
yg sudah punah
Conth species : Neoceratodus forsteri
Ciri-ciri : sisik cycloid, sirip tebal spt
daun, distribusi Queensland, selama
musim panas bernafas dg paru-paru.

Neoceratodus forsteri

Lepidosirenidae
south American /African lung fishes
Tubuh angulliform, sisik kecil V &P
spt cambuk. Saat musim kering
membuat sarang dari lendir & lumpur
(kepompong/cocoon)
Contoh Protopterus sp (Afrika tengah)
Lepidosiren sp (Amerika Selatan)

African lung fishes


Protopterus annectans

Cara mengambil udara

Subklas:Actinopterygii / Neopterygii
Rangka dari tulang sejati, C homocercal
Vertebrae dg cekungan di depan dsbt
amphicoelous.
sisik cycloid, ctenoid sedikit yg ganoid.
Lubang hidung tidak berhubungan dg
rongga mulut
V & P tidak menonjol
tdpt sejak periode permian sd sekarang

Ordo Polypteryformes (Bichirs)


Tubuh bulat panjang, P menonjol &
bersisik, tanpa D diganti dg 8 finlet. C
diphycercal. Pernafasan tambahan
dg gelembung gas. Polypterus weeksi

Polypteriformes
Originallyplacedwithlobe

finnedHighlyspecialized
survivorsofprimitive
actinopterygians
Dorsalfinspinepattern
Retainsthickscales
Diphycercaltail
Highlyvascularizedventral
lungsobligateairbreathers

Actinopterygii:rayfinnedfishes

Primitiveactin.singledorsalfin
Teleostsant.spiny;post.softrays
Ganoidscales

Toothedmarginaljawbones
Tootheddermalbonesinbuccalcavity
Dermalcheekbonesformsolidplate
Lateralmovementsofcheekandpalatoquadrate
limited
Heterocercalcaudalfin

Ordo Acipenceriformes
Sturgeon & Spoon bill

Mulut di bagian ventral, bersisik atau tidak


Hidung di ujung kepala & runcing
C heterocercal
Memp. Gelemb renang & operculum
Fam : Acipenseridae, Hidung spt sekop
tdpt 4 helai sungut di depan mulut, badan
fusiform, mulut spt succer, usus spiral
Acipenser oxyrhynchus

Sturgeon

a. Acipenser fluvescens
b. Acipenser medirostris

Chondrostei
Acipenseriformes

Livingpaddlefishesandsturgeons
Highlymodifiedjaws
Heterocercaltailcartilaginous
Sturgeonssuctionfeeders;bony
scutes
Paddlefishesfilterfeeder;reduced
scales

Spoon bill : Polyodon spathula


terpedo, sisik ganoid di ekor, gigi kecil, hidung spt
dayung

Ordo : Amiiformes
Hanya ada 1 sp hdp di Great Lake Florida
Rahang pendek, sisik cycloid, D panjang
Gel.renang dg ductus pneumaticus
Contoh Bowfin (Amia calva)

spot = jantan

Amiidae

Dorsallung
Newjawopeningmechanismvia
interopercularboneMaxillaisfree
fromcheekabletosuctionfeed
moreefficiently

Lepisosteidae

Elongatejawswithtoothed
infraorbitals
Ganoidscales
Ambushpredators
Dorsalbilobedlung

Neopterygii

greatermobilityofbothfinsand
cranialelements

Teleostei
Homocercaltail
Reducedscales
Increasedemphasisonsuctionfeeding
Majorgroups
Osteoglossomorpha
Elopomorpha
Clupeomorpha
Ostariophysi
Euteleosteidifficulttocharacterize
withvalidsynapomorphies

Osteoglossomorpha

218species
Tonguebite
Basihyalparasphenoidbite
2palatalbonesarealsotoothed

Arapaima

Mormyrid

Knifefish

Tonguebite

Elopomorpha
650species
Mostlytrueeels
Bonefish,tenpounders,tarpon

Leptocephaluslarvae

Clupeomorpha
Anchovies,bream
&herrings
290species
Planktonfeeders
Bream

Anchovies
Clupeasp.

Clupeomorphsynapomorphies
1.Connectionbetweenswimbladderandinnerear

2.Uniqueforaminainskull

3.Keeledbelly

Ostariophysi
75%offreshwaterspeciesofworld
6,000species
Gonorhynchiformes,Cypriniformes,
Characiformes,Siluriformes

Ostariophysansynapomorphies
Alarmsubstancecells
Specializedanteriorvertebrae
allowforincreasedhearing
ability

Otophysi:Weberianapparatus

Euteleostei
25Orders,275families,and17,000species
Poorlydefinedtraitsjointhemtogether
Nuptialbreedingtubercles
Adiposefin
Membranouscomponenttofirsturoneural

Retainedinprimitiveeuteleosteansandlost
inmorederivedspecies

Protacanthopterygii
Salmonandtrout

Onchorhynchus

Salmosalar

Esociformes
Pickerelsandpikes
Toothlessmaxillaformingpartofgape
Finplacementcorrelatedwith
predatoryhabits

Neoteleostei
retractordorsalis(RD)
orretractorarcus
branchialiumoriginates
fromanteriorvertebrae
andinserton
pharyngobranchials

ScopelomorphaLanternfishes
Pelagicmarine
fishes
220species
Dailyvertical
migrations500m
Photophores
2componentsofthe
RDincreasing
emphasison3rd
pharyngobranchial

Lampridomorpha
ribbonfishesandoarfishes

Paracanthopterygii

Greatly
flattenedskull
roof

Percopsiformestroutperches,pirate
perches,cavefishes
Gadiformescods,hakes,eelpouts
Pelvicfinsanteriortopectorals
Mentalbarbels
Prolificeggproducers
Batrachoidiformestoadfishes
Gobiesociformesclingfishes;
modifiedpelvicfins
Lophiformesgoosefishes,
anglerfishes,frogfishes,batfishes

Lophiiformes
anglerfishes

iliciumandesca:
modifieddorsalspines

Somelocalparacanthopterygians
Merlucciasproductus

Theragrachalcogramma

Gadusmacrocephalus

Lycodespalearis

paracanthopterygians

Lycodespacificus
Porichthysnotatus

Percomorpha
Morethan12,000species
Phylogenylargelyunresolved
Synapomorphiesrelatedtofeeding
Pharyngealjawsforcrushing
Highlyprotrusiblejaws

Atherinomorpha

Guppies,mosquitofish,
flyingfish,halfbeaks

Gasterosteiformes

Sticklebacks,seahorses,
trumpetfishes
Bonyabdominalplates

Scorpaeniformes

Myoxocephaluspolyacanthocephalus

Suborbitalstay
Stronglyspinousfins
Manyspinesonthehead
Leptocottusarmatus
Sebastes

Scorpaeniformes

Enophrys bison

Cyclopteruslumpus

Perciformes
Lepidogobiuslepidus

Trichodontrichodon

Cymatogasteraggregata

Pleuronectiformes

Tetraodontiformes
Bizzarofish
Cowfish,pufferfish,porcupinefish,
molasManyusedorsalandanalfinsfor
locomotion

Ikan Mola-mola

Trendsinfishevolution

Maxillamovesoutofgape
Premaxillabecomessoletoothedelement
Movementofbothpectoralandpelvicfins

Reductioninscalesandincreased
flexibility
Swimbladderincreased
hydrostaticfunction
Increasingcranialkinesis

Ordo Clupeiformes / Malacopterygii / Isospondyli


The hering like fishes
Sub ordo clupeoidei Bandeng lelaki Elops saurus
Famili Elopidae

Famili Notopteridae
Badan pipih memanjang, tanpa sungut, badan &
kepala bersisik kecil. D tunggal dan terpisah dari C.
contoh ikan Belida Notopterus chilata

Fam Albulidae (Bone fishes)


D didepan V, A jauh atau dekat dubur contoh
Albula vulpes (Bandeng cerurut)

Osteoglossidae
Celah mulut lebar &miring D<A; P
memanjang di bag bawah badan
bersungut Sclerophages formosus

Fam. Clupeidae (Herring, Sardines)


Tanpa jari-jari sirip keras.D pendek di tengah.
Tanpa V jika ada tidak sempurna
Contoh ikan layang.terubuk, alosa dll

Famili Engraulidae (teri)