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INTERESTERIFIKASI PADA LEMAK

DAN MINYAK UNTUK


MENGHASILKAN PRODUK LEBIH
BERMANFAAT
Prof. Dr. JANSEN SILALAHI, M.App.Sc

Mengapa dan apa tujuan dari modifikasi


lemak dengan interesterifikasi ?

Sebuah lemak dan minyak asli memiliki bahan kimia tertentu,


sifat biokimia fisik karena properti-properti tergantung pada
komposisi asam lemak dan distribusi pada molekul lemak
Karena sifat tertentu , penggunaan lemak asli adalah sesuai
terbatas dan tidak dapat digunakan untuk tujuan / aplikasi
tertentu distribusi pada molekul lemak
Oleh karena itu , ada upaya untuk mengubah lemak menjadi
lebih baik lebih luas atau penggunaan khusus dan oleh karena
itu sifat tertentu yang diperlukan yang tidak hadir dalam
orang-orang pribumi
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Karakteristik lemak kepentingan dalam


pemanfaatan hasil

Leleh atau titik didih


Stabilitas terhadap oksidasi
jenuh
Kontribusi kalori dalam diet
perilaku kristalisasi
Atherogenicity
Kecernaan
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Methods of Fat Modification


1.

2.

3.

Blending : pencampuran dua atau lebih dari minyak


yang berbeda untuk mendapatkan minyak dicampur
karakter khusus untuk memenuhi perilaku yang
diperlukan / properti dalam aplikasi
Fraksinasi : untuk memisahkan fraksi dari lemak asli
( campuran dari fraksi titik leleh yang berbeda )
berdasarkan titik leleh ( MP )
Hidrogenasi : untuk meningkatkan MPinteresterifikasi ;
untuk meningkatkan MP dan untuk mengubah sifat
biokimia ( topik yang akan dibahas )
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Diffrerences between Hydrogenation


and Interesterification

Hidrogenasi
Penambahan unsur
hidrogen
Fatty komposisi asam
dari FFA
tak jenuh menjadi asam
lemak jenuh
Peningkatan MP

Interesterification
Pertukaran acyls antara
ester
Tidak ada perubahan
komposisi asam lemak
Meningkatkan atau
menurunkan di MP
Meningkatkan atau
menurunkan
atherogenicity
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GLYCEROL MOLECULE

FAT MOLECULE STRUCTURE

Sn-1 H2C-O-CO-R1
Sn-2 H C-O-CO-R2

R-CO- = acyl group

Sn-3 H2C-O-CO-R3
Triacyglycerol (TAG) or triglyceride (TG)
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Factors affecting chemical, physical


and nutritional properties of fats

Sebuah lemak atau minyak adalah campuran dari


berbagai trigliserida
Lemak komposisi asam dan distribusi mereka dalam
molekul lemak
Dua lemak komposisi asam lemak yang sama tidak
diperlukan memiliki karakteristik yang sama lemak
-saturated = > 60 % asam lemak jenuh lemak
-unsaturated = > 60 % asam lemak tak jenuh
Rasio asam lemak yang ideal dalam diet yang baik :
SFA : MUFA : PUFA = 1 : 1 : 1

Types/groups and fatty acid and


physical properties

Jenuh rantai pendek asam lemak ( SCFA ) : C : 4 - C : 8


Asam lemak rantai sedang ( MCFA ) : C : 10 - C : 12
Rantai panjang asam lemak ( LCFA ) : C : < 14
Jenuh rantai panjang asam lemak ( LCSFA )
Asam lemak tak jenuh : mono dan poli - tak jenuh
Semakin lama rantai titik didih lebih tinggi ( bp ) akan ,
lebih stabil
Semakin tinggi jenuh dengan bp rendah , kurang stabil
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Boiling Point of Fatty Acids

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Trans- and Cis- isomer of mono


unsaturated fatty acids

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(Continued)

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Atherogenicity of fatty acids

Trans fatty acids are of the most atherogenic


among fatty acids; raising LDL and lowering HDL
blood level
Myristic acid (C:14:0) and palmitic acid (C:16:0)
are of the most atherogenic among long chain
saturated fatty acids; raising LDL blood level, no
effect on HDL
PUFA: Omega-3 lowers the LDL and TG level
SCFAs (C:4-C:6) and MCFAs (C:8-C:12) are not
atherogenic; quickly transported directly into liver
and metabolized, and hence they do not raise LDL
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Fat metabolism
1.Mouth: lingual lipase: specifically active toward 1,3
position and toward SCFA, and can be absorbed
directly to the liver and quickly metabolized
2. Gastric : gastric lipase: specifically active toward 1,3
position and toward MCFA, would be absorbed
directly to the liver
3. Intestine: pancreatic lipase: specifically act on 1,3
position and toward LCFA,
Final product will be: free fatty acids and 2-MAG
that will be absorbed through lymphatic system, and
LCSFA will increase blood cholesterol level
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Metabolism and Transport of TAGs


TAGs
Liver

MCFAs
(<C:12)

MAGs
(<C:12)

Tissues

Mouth (Lingual Lipase


1,3)
Stomach (Gastric lipase 1,3
LCFAs, MAGs
DAGs, TAGs
Small Intestine (Pancreatic Lipase 1,3)
FFAs of LCFAs, 2-MAGs
Intestinal Epithelial

Heart

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Effect of types and fatty acid position


on absorption pathways

Fatty acids on 1,3 position, will be


hydrolyzed in to free fatty acids;
-SCFA would be quickly absorbed in to liver
-saturated LCFA (C:14-above) would react
with Ca and Mg present in food, to form
insoluble and unabsorbed salts and hence
excreted in feces
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Role of palmitic acid position on


coronary heart disease risk

Palmitic acid on sn-2 position will raise blood lipid


level
Palmitic acid on 1,3 position, will not increase blood
lipid level, since it will be freed in GI and react with
calcium and/or Mg to form insoluble and unabsorbed
salts and then excreted with feces
Exp. Native lard: palmitic, 65% on sn-2 position,
after interesterification, decrease blood lipid level,
due to the change of position of palmitic acid in to
sn-1or/and sn-3 position
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Interesterification
Reaction between ester and ester resulting in
exchange in acyl group
Reaction between TAG ester and TAG ester resulting
in exchange in acyl group position in the TAG
molecule
There are two types of interesterifications:
a)Chemical interesterification (randomization)
b)Enzymatic interesterification to synthesize desired
certain TAG containing fatty acid on planned
location in TAG molecule.

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Chemical Interesterification

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Composition after interesterification

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Enzymatic Interesterification

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Enzymatic Interesterification

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Effects of Interesterification
Fats

BP before
BP before
interesterificat interesterificat
ion
ion

Soya oil

-7

Tallow fat

49,5

47

Cotton seed oil

10

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Palm Oil

39,5

47
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Effect of fats IE on their Atherogenicity


Fats

Palmitic
Position
on sn-2

Palmitic
Position
on sn-2

Atherogenici
ty after IE

Lard

25%

8%

declining

increasing

increasing

10%

Increasing
two fold( 2x)

Tallow
Cotton seed
oil

2%

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Conclusions

1. Chemical, physical and biochemical properties of


fats are governed by its fatty acids composition and
distribution in the fat molecule
2. Fatty acids on sn-1,3 position will be usually
hydrolyzed in to free fatty acids (FFA) in GI
3. FFA of SCFAs and MCFAs will be quickly
transported in to the liver and metabolized; FFA of
LCFA, absorbed through lymphatic system only at
small amount and greater amount will be excreted
with feces
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Conclusions (contd)

Fatty acids on sn-2 position will be effectively absorbed


through lymphatic system resulting in the increasing blood
lipid level
Interesterification of fats will exchange the acyl groups
position among TAG molecules, which in turn resulting in the
change in the fat chemical, physical and biochemical
properties
Further researches are in need on the how interesterification
affecting mixed blended oils as to investigate their effects
those are of interesting aspects especially in the attempts to
produce other more beneficial products in pharmacy.
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Thanks for your attention


Matur Nuon / Bujur Malala / Terima Kasih

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