Anda di halaman 1dari 40

Advanced construction

and materials
Unit II
Class -5
B.Arch VII sem Section A & B

Folded plates
Folded structures are three-dimensional
structures - spatial structures and they
belong to the structural systems.
The term folded structure defines a folded form
of construction, including structures derived from
elements which form a folded structure by
their mutual relationship in space.
There are different ways of constructing folded
structure in terms of their forms and the
application of different materials they are
made of.

History of folded plates


Design and construction of
folded structures occurs at the
beginning of the twentieth
century, and is associated with
the development of reinforced
concrete .
The basic idea of creating this
type of construction is striving
to achieve more constructive
height and greater rigidity
and reduce the net weight of
the structural element.

History of folded plates


Engineer Eudene Freyssinet performed
the first roof with the folded structure
in 1923 as an aircraft hangar at Orly
Airport in Paris.
In technological terms this folded
construction is made of prefabricated
elements, with pre-stressed structure,
which is a remarkable engineering
undertaking of the time .
Based on the application of this prestressed structure Eudene Freyssinet
has been called "the father of prestressed concrete.

About folded structures


Folded structures - the most costeffective constructions, they use
less material because of their high
stiffness in the plane of maximum
bending in the direction of the range.
Folded structures differ in:
geometric form, the form of a
base over which they are performed,
the manner of performance,
methods of forming stiffness,
function and position in the
building, and the material they

Types of folded
structures
Based on geometric shape
folded structures can be
divided into :
folded plate surfaces,
folded plate frames,
spatial folded plate
structures.

Types of folded structures


The shape of folded structures
affects the transmission of load
and direction of relying of
folded structures.
Based on these parameters we can
do the division in :
linear folded plate structure,
radial folded plate structure,
spatial folded plate
structure.

Folded Plate Roofs


With a number of folds folded plate roofs can be
looked as slab. These roofs are also called as,
prismatic shells, hipped plates and faltwerke.
In these structures bending is also reduced and lot of
load gets transferred as membrane is in compression.
On the other hand folded plates are not as efficient as
shells.
Given figure shows typical folded plate roofs.

Folded plates principle


Construction of thin, flat elements of concrete,
steel ,timber etc which are connected rigidly
at angles with each other forming a cross
section which is capable of carrying a load
over a large span.
Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates
rigidly connected together along their
edges in such a way so as to make the
structural system capable of carrying loads
without the need for additional supporting

Folded plates principle

Folded plates principle..


The design of folded plate roof
structures is much simpler because
the elements are all essentially
beams.

Folded plate-north light is usually achieved


for this roof

BASIC ELEMENTS
They consist of :
1) the inclined plates,
2) edge plates which must be used to stiffen the wide plates,
3) stiffeners to carry the loads to the supports and to hold the
plates in line, and
4) columns to support the structure in the air.

The structure above may have a simple span, as shown, or multiple


spans of varying length, or the folded plate may cantilever from the
supports without a stiffener at the end.

Folded structures made of


reinforced concrete
Concrete is the most commonly applied material for creases. A large
number of authors define folded construction as the construction
made only from reinforced concrete.
The reason for this statement is the fact that most of the folded
structures are made of this material.
Most commonly applied form of the crease is a "V" shape whose
static height depends on the range and load.
If the dimensions of folded plates are not limited. We can get a great
variety of types.

Shell structures- Introduction

The family of shells

Types of shells

Long span domes

What are vaults

Shell arches

Dome shells

Curved roof Applications

Sandwich shell materials

construction

Typical materials for shells

Beams and shells

Future work

Short Shell structures

A primary difference between a shell


structure and a plate structure is that,
in the unstressed state, the shell
structure has curvature as
opposed to plates structures
which are flat.

An architectural problem of the short


shell structure is the proper design
of the end walls.
On a long span structure there will be
large blank areas that require careful
architectural treatment to make
the structure pleasing.

Types of shells:
1.Barrel vaults
2.Short shells
Barrel vaults:
Length of the barrel is longer in comparison to
the width.
Short shells:
A cylindrical shell having a large radius in
comparison to the length

TYPE OF SHORT SHELLS:


PURE ARCH AND SHELL
CANTILEVER ABUTMENT
MASSIVE ABUTMENT
RIGID FRAME

The
principle
parts of a short shell structure are:
The
abutment.
The arch structure.
The shell spanning between arches.

An edge beam may be provided at the springing level of the


shell for additional support.
This edge beam can be omitted in small structures if the
shell is thickened.

The short shell carries loads in two ways:


1. As an arch carrying load to the lower elements.
2. As a curved beam to the arches.
The thickness of the shell can be quite thin due to these
properties.

The short shell serves only a minor role.


The emphasis is on the arch shape.
Many structures built with short shells, such a large

hangars and auditoriums, could have been built with little


more dead load by using a ribbed slab or other
lightweight concrete framing system rather than the
shell.
The architecture of short shells is based on the

exploitation of the shape of the arch rather than


on the shell itself.
Variation of thickness along the section

Shells and folded plates

F
E
W
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

F
E
W
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

F
E
W
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

Geometrical Stairs.
The most complicated and most
expensive stairways are those that are
curved, commonly known as
the geometrical stairway.
The geometrical stairway is a winding
stairway, but it is so designed that the
tread at the line of travel of all steps
is the same width.
These staircases may be circular or
elliptical and often are designed with
landings to insure ease in ascending
them.
A geometric staircase is generally the
focal point of a house, with it's
sweeping curves and flowing lines it
becomes a piece of art to enhance
any building.