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PROBIOTICS

Ali Raza

Contents

IntestinalMicroflora
FormationGutMicroflora(Microbiota)
HistoryOfProbiotics
Probioticsdefinition
Probiotics:AnedgeoverAntibiotics
Probioticstrainscurrentlyused
Keypropertiesofprobiotics
Establishedeffectsofprobiotics
MechanismforthebenefitofProbiotics

AdvantagesofProbiotics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Antibioticassociateddiarrhea
ProbioticsandCancer
HepaticDiseases
HelicobacterpyloriInfections
Treathighcholesterol
UseofprobioticsbeyondGIT(Allergy)

EffectsofProbioticsinLivestocks
Prebiotics
Synbiotics
HealthbenefitsofSynbiotics
MarketOfProbiotics

Intestinal Microflora:
Location & Prevalence
Rare in the esophagus
Uncommon in the stomach
primarily gram (+)
102 - 103

105 in the duodenum & jejunum primarily


aerobes
105 -107Ileum
109 1012 in the colon
primarily anerobes
1000x more anerobes than aerobes

Morethantotalcellsinthehumanbody
Atleast17families
Atleast50genera
400500speciesinanysingleperson
8090%unculturable

Formation Gut Flora


(Microbiota)

Genetic factors
Age
Gender
Mothers microbiology
Mode of delivery
Feeding practices

Breast-fed
Bifidobacterium
Bottle-fed - Lactobacillus

Medications
Diet

History Of Probiotics
In 76 BC the Roman historian Plinius recommended
the administration of fermented milk products for
treatinggastroenteritis.
RussianscientistEliMetchnikoffinearly20thcentury
suggested that it would be possible to modify the
gutfloraandtoreplaceharmfulmicrobesbyuseful
microbes
ThetermProbioticswasfirstintroducedin1965by
Lilly and Stillwell, when it was described as
growth promoting factors produced by
microorganisms.

Parkerwasthefirsttousethetermprobioticin
thesensethatitisusedtodayorganismsand
substanceswhichcontributetointestinal
microbialbalance.
In1989,FullerattemptedtoimproveParkers
definitionofprobioticwiththefollowing
distinction:Alivemicrobialfeedsupplement
whichbeneficiallyaffectsthehostanimalby
improvingitsintestinalmicrobialbalance.

Probiotics
Live microorganisms which when
administered in adequate amounts
confer a health benefit on the host as
defined by WHO.

Probiotics :
An edge over Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Emergence of antibiotic resistance microorganisms.
Unpleasant side effects
Probiotics
Non-invasive
Preventive
Free from undesirable side effects

Probioticstrainscurrently
used
Lactobacillus species
1)L. acidophilus
2)L. plantarum
3)L. casei subspecies rhamnosus
4)L. brevis
5)L. delbreuckii subspecies bulgaricus

Bifidobacteriumspecies
6)B. adolescentis
7)B. bifidum
8)B. longum
9)B. infantis
10)B. breve

Contd.

Others
a.Streptococcussalivarius
b.Lactococcuslactis
c.Lactococcuslactisssp.cremoris
d.Enterococcusfaecium
e.Leuconostocmesenteroides
f.Propionibacteriumfreudenreichii
g.Pediococcusacidilactici
h.Saccharomycesboulardii

Keypropertiesofprobiotic
1. Nonpathogenic,nontoxicandnonallergic.
2. CapableofsurvivingandmetabolizinginupperG.I.
tracte.g.ResistanttolowpH,organicacids,bilejuice,
salivaandgastricacid
3. Humaninorigin,geneticallystableandcapableof
remainingviableforlongperiodsinfieldcondition.
4. Abletomodulateimmuneresponseandprovide
resistancetodiseasethroughimprovedimmunityorby
theproductionofantimicrobialsubstanceintheguts.
Contd.

5.Goodadhesion/colonizationtohumanintestinal
tractandinfluenceongutmucosalpermeability.
6.Antagonisticagainstcarcinogenic/pathogenic
organism.
7.Clinicallyprovenhealthbenefit,e.g.gastrointestinal
disorders,diarrhoea,clostridiumdifficlecolitis,
antibioticsassociateddiarrhoea,acuteinfantile
gastroenteritis.
8.Technologicpropertiesforcommercialviabilitysuch
asstabilityofdesiredcharacteristicsduring
processing,storageandtransportation.

Establishedeffectsof
probiotics
Aidinlactosedigestion
Resistancetoentericpathogens
Anticoloncancereffect
Antihypertensiveeffect
Smallbowelbacterialovergrowth
Immunesystemmodulation
Bloodlipids,Heartdisease
Urogenitalinfections
Hepaticencephalopathy

Mechanismforthebenefitof
Probiotics:
Adherenceandcolonizationofthegut
Suppressionofgrowthorepithelialbinding/invasionby
pathogenicbacteriaandproductionofantimicrobial
substances
Improvementofintestinalbarrierfunction
Controlledtransferofdietaryantigens(Ironetc.)
Stimulationofmucosalandsystemichostimmunity

Advantages of Probiotics
ProducelacticacidlowersthepHofintestinesand
inhibitingbacterialvillainssuchasClostridium,
Salmonella,Shigella,E.coli,etc.
Decreasestheproductionofavarietyoftoxicor
carcinogenicmetabolites.
Aidabsorptionofminerals,especiallycalcium,dueto
increasedintestinalacidity.

ProductionofDgalactosidaseenzymesthatbreak
downlactose.

Contd.

Produceawiderangeofantimicrobialsubstances
hydrogenperoxide
organicacids
Bacteriocin
acidophilin

Producevitamins(especiallyVitaminBandvitaminK)

Actasbarrierstopreventharmfulbacteriafrom
colonizingtheintestines

Effectsofprobioticson
pathogenicbacteria
Probioticsreducelevelsofbacterialendotoxin
concentrations,byinhibitingtranslocationofbacteria
acrosstheGIlumenintothebloodstream.
Decreaseintranslocationofbacteriamayoccurasa
resultoftheabilityofprobioticstotightenthemucosal
barrier.
Probioticsdisallowcolonizationbydiseaseprovoking
bacteriathroughcompetitionfornutrients,immune
systemupregulation,productionofantitoxins,andup
regulationofintestinalmucingenes.
contd

ProbioticslowercolonluminalpHandfoster
growthofnonpathogeniccommensalbacteriaby
SCFA(ShortChainFattyAcid)production.One
SCFA,aceticacid,hasantimicrobialactivity
againstmolds,yeasts,andbacteria.
Probioticsexertprotectiveeffectsthrough
productionofhydrogenperoxideandbenzoicacid,
whichinhibitmanypathogenic,acidsensitive
bacteria.

Antibioticassociateddiarrhea
Disease

Antibiotic treatment

Diarrhoa

Disturbance of
intestinal microbiota

Clostridium overgrowth
produces toxin

Antibioticassociateddiarrhea
Disease

Antibiotic treatment
Probiotics
Disturbance of
intestinal microbiota

Microbiota
in balance

Clostridium overgrowth
produces toxin

Probiotics and Cancer


Enzymes(Glycosidase,Bglucuronidase,azoreductase,
andnitroreductase)oftheintestinalfloraconvertthe
precarcinogenstoactivecarcinogens
Probioticsreduce
Faecalconcentrationsofenzymes
Reduceabsorptionofharmfulmutagensthatmay
contributetocoloncarcinogenesis.
ActivityofL.acidophilusandL.caseisupplementation
inhumanshelpedtodecreaselevelsoftheseenzymes

Severalmechanismshavebeenproposedastohow
LACTICACIDBACTERIAmayinhibitcoloncancer
1. Enhancingthehostsimmuneresponse
2. Alteringthemetabolicactivityoftheintestinal
microflora
3. Bindinganddegradingcarcinogens
4. Producingantimutageniccompounds
5. Alteringthephysiochemicalconditionsinthecolon

HepaticDiseases
MechanismsbywhichprobioticsmaytreatHepatic
Encephalopathy
1. Decreasedportalbloodammoniabyreducedbacterial
ureaseactivity
2. DecreasedpHduetolessammoniaabsorption
3. Reduceintestinalpermeabilityandimprovedgut
epithelium
4. Decreasedinflammationandoxidativestressdueto
reducedammoniatoxins
5. Reduceduptakeofothertoxins

HelicobacterpyloriInfections
Chronicgastritis,Pepticulcers,Gastricadenocarcinoma,
andanumberofnongastrointestinaldisorders.
BifidobacteriaandB.subtilismayinhibitthegrowthor
attachmentofH.pylori.
PossiblemechanismsbywhichL.salivariuseradicatesH.
pyloriincludetheabilityoftheformertobindtogastric
epithelialcells,toproduceahighquantityoflacticacid,
andtoproliferaterapidly.

Treathighcholesterol
Helpingtotreathighcholesterol.
Helpingtolowerbloodpressureduetothe
ACEinhibitorlikepeptidesproducedduring
fermentationofmilk.

Helpingtotreathigh
cholesterol
Lactic acid bacilli

Increases production of
Short chain Fatty Acid
Inhibits cholesterol syn
by liver
Decreases blood chlesterol

Increases bile
.
Bile syn. Increases
More cholesterol is used up
Decreases plasma cholesterol

Use of probiotics beyond GIT

Allergy
Tomodifythestructureofantigens
Reducetheirimmunogenicity
Reduceintestinalpermeability
Generationofproinflammatorycytokinesthat
areelevatedinpatientswithavarietyof
allergicdisorders

EffectsofProbioticsin
Livestocks
resistancetoinfectiousdisease
improvementofdigestion
increasedgrowthrate
betterabsorptionofnutrients
provisionofessentialnutrients
improvementofmilkquality
reductionofbadordorinfeces

Probiotics:prescribing
Lactobacillusbeststudiedtodate
Combinationproductsnotwellstudied,
butmayworkaswell
10billionorganisms/day
Keepinfridge
Giveincoolfood/drink
2%riskbloating/gas

ProbioticProducts

Prebiotics
ThetermprebioticwasintroducedbyGibson
andRoberfroidwhoexchangedproforpre,
whichmeansbefore.
Anondigestiblefoodingredient
Beneficialeffects

ConceptofProbioticsandPrebiotics:

Prebioticsexamples

Inulin
Garlic
Onions
Chicoryroot
Asparagus
Wheat
Rye
Barley
breastmilk,
tomatoes,
bananas,honey

Prebiotics
Biochemistry
Inulin:longchain(260sugars)
fructooligosaccharides(FOS)
xylooligosaccharides(XOS)
Polydextrose
galactooligosaccharides(GOS)

Itisnotclearwhichtypeofprebioticismosteffective.

Prebiotics

Synbiotics
Synbiotic=Probiotic+Prebiotic
Theconceptofsynbioticshasbeenproposedto

characterizehealthenhancingfoodsand
supplementsusedasfunctionalfoodingredientsin
humans
Potentialsynergybetweenpro&prebiotics
ImprovesurvivalinupperGIT
Moreefficientimplantation
StimulatingeffectofProbiotics

HealthbenefitsofSynbiotics
Improvedsurvivaloflivebacteriainfoodproducts,
prolongedshelflife
Increasednumberofingestedbacteriareachingthecolon
inaviableform
Stimulationinthecolonofthegrowthandimplantationof
bothexogenousandendogenousbacteria
Activationofmetabolismofbeneficialbacteria,
antagonistictowardpathogenicbacteria

Productionofantimicrobialsubstances
(bacteriocins,hydrogenperoxide,organic
acidsetc)
Immunostimulation
Antiinflammatory,Antimutagenic,Anti
carcinogenic,andproductionofbioactive
compounds(enzymes,vaccines,peptidesetc)

Market Of
Probiotics
Increased from $14.9 billion in 2007 to an
estimated$15.9billionbytheendof2008.It
should reach $19.6 billion by 2013, a
compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
4.3%.
Japanaccountedforthelargestshareoftotal
sales in 2007 with 39.5%, driven primarily
by the countrys large and welldeveloped
probioticfoodssegment.

Summary

IntestinalMicroflora,Formation
History
Probioticsdefinitionandstrainscurrentlyused
Keypropertiesofprobiotics
Establishedeffectsofprobiotics&Mechanism
AdvantagesofProbiotics
EffectsofProbioticsinLivestocks
Prebiotics,Synbiotics,HealthbenefitsofSynbiotics
MarketOfProbiotics

Thanx 4 Listening!

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