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Resistivity Logs

Resistivity
There are two main techniques for measuring resistivity:
Laterolog : Current is injected into the formation
Induction : Current loops are induced in the formation

DLT
ARI
HALS
HRLA
CHFR
RAB (Geovision)
MSFL
MCFL

Basic Resistivity tool types


DIT
AIT
CDR
ARC (Vision)

Array Induction vs. Array Laterolog


Physics
Logging Tool
Invaded ZoneBorehole
Uninvaded Zone
Rxo

Rm

onse
p
s
e
R
olog
r
e
t
La
Rt

Rm

Rxo

Rt

s
spon
e
R
ction
u
d
n
I

Logarithmic Resistivity Scale


0.2

2.0
1.0

20
10

CLASSIFICATION OF RESISTIVITY TOOLS

Ranges of Application of
Induction Log and Lateralog

LATERALOG

Resistivity : Laterolog
Current is forced through
the mud into the
formation

Lateralog Tool

Dual Laterolog Measurement

LLD: deep measurement,


current returns to surface.
LLS: shallow measurement,
current returns to the tool
itself.

Resistivity : Laterolog Shallow (LLS)

A2

280 Hz
Current
Source

Bucking Current

Monitoring
Loop

A1

M2
M1

Measure Current
A0

35 Hz Current

Resistivity :
Laterolog Deep (LLD)

Bucking Current
35 Hz
Aux Mon.
Loop
Bucking Current

LCM Module
Fish

A2

A1*
A1

M2
Monitorin
g
Loop
Measure Current

M1
A0

Resistivity : Laterolog (LLD/LLS)


LLD = 35 Hz LLS = 280 Hz
35 Hz

LLS Depth of Investigation


Approximately - 2 feet
LLD Depth of Investigation
Approximately - 10 feet
In thick beds, with no
invasion.
(what does this mean?)

280 Hz

Depth of Investigation & Vertical Resolotion

Resistivity : Laterolog invasion effects

RLL = Vm Rm + Vmc Rmc + Vxo Rxo + (1-Vm-Vmc-Vxo) Rt

Resistivity : Laterolog

Resistivity : Laterolog invasion effects


Ra = VRm(Rm) + VRmc(Rmc) + Vrxo(Rxo) + VRt(Rt)
Rmc

RXO
Rt
Rm

Resistivity : Laterolog invasion effects

If Rmf < Rw then Rxo < LLS < LLD < Rt


If Rmf > Rw then Rxo > LLS > LLD > Rt
Using Rxo, LLS & LLD, Rt and Di can be computed

Resistivity :
Laterolog
invasion effects

Resistivity : Laterolog depth of investigation

Typical Lateralog Presentation

Lateralogs
Environmental corrections

Groningen Effect

Caused by highly resistive beds


overlying the formation that is
being measured.
This forces the deep current
into the mud column.
This is caused by the voltage
reference (cable-torpedo)
becoming non-zero.
LLd reads too high
More pronounced at low
resistivity

Groningen-affected Dual Laterolog

Groningen corrected Dual Laterolog

Tool String Effect

Laterolog tools have another problem in conductive beds


due to the frequency of the measurement. In long
combination tools, the LLD reads too high.
The effect has been commonly seen in low resistivity
formations.
The correction depends on the hole size, Dh, and the mud
resistivity, Rm.
This correction has to be applied before any other borehole
corrections.
A new chart is needed for each tool combination.

Tool String Corrections

TLC Effect

In TLC operations Laterologs need a special stiff bridle


usually made of three sections of tool housing giving a
length of 30 feet compared to the normal 80 foot bridle.
The total current returns to the pipe which acts as the
return electrode.
The relative error is proportional to Ra (the apparent
resistivity).
This can be up to 200% at low Rt/Rm contrasts and low
Rm.

TLC Effect Correction Chart

Why Laterologs are difficult to interpret


Voltage reference effects in
previous examples
Groningen
TLC
Long tool string

Borehole effects
Invasion
Shoulder bed effects

Borehole & Invasion Effects

Ra = Vm*Rm + Vxo*Rxo + Vt*Rt


Resistivities measured in series

Invasion Enhances Shoulder Effects

Shoulder-Bed Squeeze Effects

Deep measurement reads too high


and results in erroneous invasion
profile.

All resistivities read lower than Rt


and separation is reduced.

Shoulder-Bed
effects
BS = 8.5 in
h = 15 ft
ri = 15 in
Rt = 50 Ohmm
Rs = 5 Ohmm
Rxo = 15 Ohmm
Rm = 1.5 Ohmm
HLLD = 30 Ohmm
Sw overestimated by 29%

Borehole correction

Assumes no Invasion or Shoulder effect

MSFL Borehole Correction Chart

Shoulder Effect LLD

Shoulder Effect LLS

Response to Invasion

Response to Invasion

Solves for Rt and Di given LLD, LLS, Rxo

Dual Laterolog Measurement

Strengths:
Salt muds / high formation resistivities
Focusing / vertical resolution
Limitations:
Shallow invasion
Groningen effect
Thinly layered invaded formation
Dependant on pad Rxo

Latrologs
HRLA (High Resolution Array
Laterolog)
Platform Express

HRL

FMI

HRLA Solutions Hardware


Multiple depth of investigation
Clear indication of invasion
Improved vertical resolution
No need for deep mode or bridle
No Groningen or drillpipeconveyed logging effects and
reduced shoulder-bed effect

Mode 1

Mode 2 Mode
3

Mode 4

Mode 5

HRLA 1D Real-time Answer


Real-time wellsite product gives clear answers for quick
decisions:
- Eliminates voltage reference effects
- Less shoulder-bed effect
- Self consistent depth matched measurements

No Groningen Effect

HRLA
resistivities
clearly show
zone is not
invaded

Curve
separation
suggests
invasion but is
due to
Groningen
effect

Thin-Bed and Invasion Profiling

Curve separation
shows invasion

High vertical
resolution

HRLA tool

Curve separation
results from Groningen
effect

Groningen effect
in indicator curve

DLL tool

Hardware Features

No surface current return


No Groningen and/or TLC effect
Reduced shoulder effect
No additional surface equipment

Electronics
Cartridge

No bridle

More efficient operation


Improved safety & reliability
No stiff bridle for TLC operations

Sonde

Improved reliability

Built to PEx shock standards


Integrated knuckle allows operation
through severe doglegs
No bridle or additional surface
Integrated Knuckle-Joint
equipment

Lower Electrode

Improved combinability

Through-wired
No special power requirement
Dual telemetry: CAN and FTB
Combinations: PEx, ARI, HALS, AIT, FMI,
DSI, CMR,

INDUCTION LOG

AIT (Array Induction Tools)

Resistivity : Induction

Induction Measurement Principle

Dual Induction Log Tool

Resistivity : Induction

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing
By combining deep low
resolution measurements with
shallow high vertical
resolution measurements we
can get deep measurements
with high vertical resolution.

Typical DIL Presentation

Presentation of AIT Resistivity Logs

Depth of Investigation & Vertical Resolution

Resistivity : Induction
1/Ra = 1/(VRm(Rm)) + 1/(VRmc(Rmc)) + 1/(Vrxo(Rxo)) + 1/(VRt(Rt))

Rmc

RXO
Rt
Rm

Resistivity : Induction

If Rmf < Rw, AT10 < 20 < 30 < 60 < 90


If Rmf > Rw, AT10 > 20 > 30 > 60 > 90
From the 5 curves Rt can be computed

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing

Resistivity : Induction
Hole size and shape (saline mud)
Uncertainty in hole size or mud
resistivity can cause large errors on
the shallow curves but much
smaller errors on the deeper
measurements
Ohmm

Ohmm

Ohmm

Out of
sequence

Resistivity : Induction
Hole size and shape (OBM)
Uncertainty in hole size or mud
resistivity can cause large
effects on the shallow curves
but much smaller effects on the
deeper measurements

Ohmm

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion (Saline invasion)
Ohmm

Very deep invasion


can affect even the
deepest
measurements,
non-cylindrical
invasion may affect
the Rt computation

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion (OBM)

Very deep invasion


can affect even the
deepest
measurements,
non-cylindrical
invasion may affect
the Rt computation

Ohmm

Ohmm

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Deviated wells
Relative dip angle
Deep/Shallow Res

low rel dip

high rel dip

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion annulus in water based mud
Swi
Soi
Swf
Sof
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=2

R2=10 R3=30 R4=20

Out of
sequence

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion & Wetability changes in OBM/Oil
Swi
Soi
Swf
Sof
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=100 R2=10 R3=30 R4=20

Out of
sequence

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion & Wetability changes in OBM/Gas
Swi
Sgi
Swf
Sgf
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=100

R2=30

Free Water
invasion profile

Ohmm

SFLU Borehole Correction

Induction Invasion Correction

Inductions vs Laterologs

Array Induction vs. Array


Laterolog Physics
Logging Tool
Invaded ZoneBorehole
Uninvaded Zone
Rxo

Rm

es po
R
g
o
rol
Late
Rt

Rm

Rxo

Rt

es po
R
n
o
cti
Indu

nse

nse

Resistivity : Inversion for Rt

Ra = VRm(Rm) + VRmc(Rmc) + Vrxo(Rxo) + VRt(Rt)


1/Ra = 1/(VRm(Rm)) + 1/(VRmc(Rmc)) + 1/(Vrxo(Rxo)) + 1/(VRt(Rt))
If we can assume different values for all these unknowns, such
that all the estimated Ras match all the measured Ras we
could compute Rt.
Problem is there are a lot of other things that affect Ra (shoulder
bed effects, laminations, deviation, anisotropy, groningen effect,
etc.)

HRLA vs AIT Response


AIT Array Response versus Radius of Invasion

HRLA Array Response versus Radius of Invasion


10

10

Rt

Rxo

Rt
A90

RLA5
RLA4
RLA3
RLA2

RLA1
Rxo

0.1
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

Invasion Radius (in.)

HRLA Response

Apparent Resistivity (Ohm-m.)

Apparent Resistivity (Ohm.m.)

Rt

A60

Rxo

A30
A20
A10

Rt

Rxo

0.1
0

10

12

14

16

18

Invasion Radius (in.)

AIT Response

20

Comparison to AITCase 1

BS = 8
Rt = 200
Rxo = 30
Rm = 0.1
S/O = 1.5

Comparison to AITCase 2

BS = 8
Rt = 5
Rxo = 30
Rm = 0.1
S/O = 1.5

Resistivity :
Shoulder bed
effects, invasion,
contrast

Lateralogs
CHFR (Cased Hole Formation Resistivity)

CHFR
Casing acts like a
large electrode.
Current returns to
surface similarly to a
Laterolog tool.

CHFR tool
string

Rt=K * V / I

Vo

Rt = K * V / I
I = (V1-V2)/Rc

V1
V2

Vo

Rt = K * V / I
I = (V1-V2)/Rc

V1
V2

Vo

Rt = K * V / I

Several cycles are made to


improve signal to noise ratio.

V1
V2

Minas 4A-54
Drilled 1982

ELECTRODE_IDENTIFIER
Casing quality flag
Zinj, injection impedance
Porosity
Rt_OH
GR
SP
CALI

CAS_LCST
CAS_UCST
CAS_DIFFV

RTCH
Sw1/Sw2
=SQRT(RtCH/RTOH)