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# Resistivity Logs

Resistivity
There are two main techniques for measuring resistivity:
Laterolog : Current is injected into the formation
Induction : Current loops are induced in the formation

DLT
ARI
HALS
HRLA
CHFR
RAB (Geovision)
MSFL
MCFL

DIT
AIT
CDR
ARC (Vision)

Physics
Logging Tool
Rxo

Rm

onse
p
s
e
R
olog
r
e
t
La
Rt

Rm

Rxo

Rt

s
spon
e
R
ction
u
d
n
I

0.2

2.0
1.0

20
10

## CLASSIFICATION OF RESISTIVITY TOOLS

Ranges of Application of
Induction Log and Lateralog

LATERALOG

Resistivity : Laterolog
Current is forced through
the mud into the
formation

Lateralog Tool

## LLD: deep measurement,

current returns to surface.
LLS: shallow measurement,
current returns to the tool
itself.

## Resistivity : Laterolog Shallow (LLS)

A2

280 Hz
Current
Source

Bucking Current

Monitoring
Loop

A1

M2
M1

Measure Current
A0

35 Hz Current

Resistivity :
Laterolog Deep (LLD)

Bucking Current
35 Hz
Aux Mon.
Loop
Bucking Current

LCM Module
Fish

A2

A1*
A1

M2
Monitorin
g
Loop
Measure Current

M1
A0

## Resistivity : Laterolog (LLD/LLS)

LLD = 35 Hz LLS = 280 Hz
35 Hz

## LLS Depth of Investigation

Approximately - 2 feet
LLD Depth of Investigation
Approximately - 10 feet
In thick beds, with no
invasion.
(what does this mean?)

280 Hz

## RLL = Vm Rm + Vmc Rmc + Vxo Rxo + (1-Vm-Vmc-Vxo) Rt

Resistivity : Laterolog

Ra = VRm(Rm) + VRmc(Rmc) + Vrxo(Rxo) + VRt(Rt)
Rmc

RXO
Rt
Rm

## If Rmf < Rw then Rxo < LLS < LLD < Rt

If Rmf > Rw then Rxo > LLS > LLD > Rt
Using Rxo, LLS & LLD, Rt and Di can be computed

Resistivity :
Laterolog
invasion effects

## Typical Lateralog Presentation

Lateralogs
Environmental corrections

Groningen Effect

## Caused by highly resistive beds

overlying the formation that is
being measured.
This forces the deep current
into the mud column.
This is caused by the voltage
reference (cable-torpedo)
becoming non-zero.
More pronounced at low
resistivity

## Laterolog tools have another problem in conductive beds

due to the frequency of the measurement. In long
combination tools, the LLD reads too high.
The effect has been commonly seen in low resistivity
formations.
The correction depends on the hole size, Dh, and the mud
resistivity, Rm.
This correction has to be applied before any other borehole
corrections.
A new chart is needed for each tool combination.

TLC Effect

## In TLC operations Laterologs need a special stiff bridle

usually made of three sections of tool housing giving a
length of 30 feet compared to the normal 80 foot bridle.
The total current returns to the pipe which acts as the
return electrode.
The relative error is proportional to Ra (the apparent
resistivity).
This can be up to 200% at low Rt/Rm contrasts and low
Rm.

## Why Laterologs are difficult to interpret

Voltage reference effects in
previous examples
Groningen
TLC
Long tool string

Borehole effects
Invasion
Shoulder bed effects

## Ra = Vm*Rm + Vxo*Rxo + Vt*Rt

Resistivities measured in series

## Deep measurement reads too high

and results in erroneous invasion
profile.

## All resistivities read lower than Rt

and separation is reduced.

Shoulder-Bed
effects
BS = 8.5 in
h = 15 ft
ri = 15 in
Rt = 50 Ohmm
Rs = 5 Ohmm
Rxo = 15 Ohmm
Rm = 1.5 Ohmm
HLLD = 30 Ohmm
Sw overestimated by 29%

Borehole correction

## Shoulder Effect LLS

Response to Invasion

Response to Invasion

## Dual Laterolog Measurement

Strengths:
Salt muds / high formation resistivities
Focusing / vertical resolution
Limitations:
Shallow invasion
Groningen effect

Latrologs
HRLA (High Resolution Array
Laterolog)
Platform Express

HRL

FMI

## HRLA Solutions Hardware

Multiple depth of investigation
Clear indication of invasion
Improved vertical resolution
No need for deep mode or bridle
No Groningen or drillpipeconveyed logging effects and
reduced shoulder-bed effect

Mode 1

Mode 2 Mode
3

Mode 4

Mode 5

Real-time wellsite product gives clear answers for quick
decisions:
- Eliminates voltage reference effects
- Less shoulder-bed effect
- Self consistent depth matched measurements

No Groningen Effect

HRLA
resistivities
clearly show
zone is not

Curve
separation
suggests
invasion but is
due to
Groningen
effect

## Thin-Bed and Invasion Profiling

Curve separation
shows invasion

High vertical
resolution

HRLA tool

Curve separation
results from Groningen
effect

Groningen effect
in indicator curve

DLL tool

Hardware Features

## No surface current return

No Groningen and/or TLC effect
Reduced shoulder effect

Electronics
Cartridge

No bridle

## More efficient operation

Improved safety & reliability
No stiff bridle for TLC operations

Sonde

Improved reliability

## Built to PEx shock standards

Integrated knuckle allows operation
through severe doglegs
Integrated Knuckle-Joint
equipment

Lower Electrode

Improved combinability

Through-wired
No special power requirement
Dual telemetry: CAN and FTB
Combinations: PEx, ARI, HALS, AIT, FMI,
DSI, CMR,

INDUCTION LOG

## AIT (Array Induction Tools)

Resistivity : Induction

## Dual Induction Log Tool

Resistivity : Induction

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing
By combining deep low
resolution measurements with
shallow high vertical
resolution measurements we
can get deep measurements
with high vertical resolution.

## Depth of Investigation & Vertical Resolution

Resistivity : Induction
1/Ra = 1/(VRm(Rm)) + 1/(VRmc(Rmc)) + 1/(Vrxo(Rxo)) + 1/(VRt(Rt))

Rmc

RXO
Rt
Rm

Resistivity : Induction

## If Rmf < Rw, AT10 < 20 < 30 < 60 < 90

If Rmf > Rw, AT10 > 20 > 30 > 60 > 90
From the 5 curves Rt can be computed

Resistivity : Induction
Focusing

Resistivity : Induction
Hole size and shape (saline mud)
Uncertainty in hole size or mud
resistivity can cause large errors on
the shallow curves but much
smaller errors on the deeper
measurements
Ohmm

Ohmm

Ohmm

Out of
sequence

Resistivity : Induction
Hole size and shape (OBM)
Uncertainty in hole size or mud
resistivity can cause large
effects on the shallow curves
but much smaller effects on the
deeper measurements

Ohmm

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion (Saline invasion)
Ohmm

## Very deep invasion

can affect even the
deepest
measurements,
non-cylindrical
invasion may affect
the Rt computation

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion (OBM)

## Very deep invasion

can affect even the
deepest
measurements,
non-cylindrical
invasion may affect
the Rt computation

Ohmm

Ohmm

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Deviated wells
Relative dip angle
Deep/Shallow Res

## high rel dip

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion annulus in water based mud
Swi
Soi
Swf
Sof
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=2

## R2=10 R3=30 R4=20

Out of
sequence

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion & Wetability changes in OBM/Oil
Swi
Soi
Swf
Sof
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=100 R2=10 R3=30 R4=20

Out of
sequence

Ohmm

Resistivity : Induction
Invasion & Wetability changes in OBM/Gas
Swi
Sgi
Swf
Sgf
mud
filtrate
mud
cake
R1=100

R2=30

Free Water
invasion profile

Ohmm

## Induction Invasion Correction

Inductions vs Laterologs

## Array Induction vs. Array

Laterolog Physics
Logging Tool
Rxo

Rm

es po
R
g
o
rol
Late
Rt

Rm

Rxo

Rt

es po
R
n
o
cti
Indu

nse

nse

## Ra = VRm(Rm) + VRmc(Rmc) + Vrxo(Rxo) + VRt(Rt)

1/Ra = 1/(VRm(Rm)) + 1/(VRmc(Rmc)) + 1/(Vrxo(Rxo)) + 1/(VRt(Rt))
If we can assume different values for all these unknowns, such
that all the estimated Ras match all the measured Ras we
could compute Rt.
Problem is there are a lot of other things that affect Ra (shoulder
bed effects, laminations, deviation, anisotropy, groningen effect,
etc.)

## HRLA vs AIT Response

AIT Array Response versus Radius of Invasion

10

10

Rt

Rxo

Rt
A90

RLA5
RLA4
RLA3
RLA2

RLA1
Rxo

0.1
0

10

12

14

16

18

20

HRLA Response

## Apparent Resistivity (Ohm.m.)

Rt

A60

Rxo

A30
A20
A10

Rt

Rxo

0.1
0

10

12

14

16

18

AIT Response

20

Comparison to AITCase 1

BS = 8
Rt = 200
Rxo = 30
Rm = 0.1
S/O = 1.5

Comparison to AITCase 2

BS = 8
Rt = 5
Rxo = 30
Rm = 0.1
S/O = 1.5

Resistivity :
Shoulder bed
effects, invasion,
contrast

Lateralogs
CHFR (Cased Hole Formation Resistivity)

CHFR
Casing acts like a
large electrode.
Current returns to
surface similarly to a
Laterolog tool.

CHFR tool
string

Rt=K * V / I

Vo

Rt = K * V / I
I = (V1-V2)/Rc

V1
V2

Vo

Rt = K * V / I
I = (V1-V2)/Rc

V1
V2

Vo

Rt = K * V / I

## Several cycles are made to

improve signal to noise ratio.

V1
V2

Minas 4A-54
Drilled 1982

ELECTRODE_IDENTIFIER
Casing quality flag
Zinj, injection impedance
Porosity
Rt_OH
GR
SP
CALI

CAS_LCST
CAS_UCST
CAS_DIFFV

RTCH
Sw1/Sw2
=SQRT(RtCH/RTOH)