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Manajemen Rantai Pasok

Pada Sektor Privat

(Supply Chain Management)


Oleh : Dr. Hery Suliantoro, ST, MT

Buku Teks
1. Chopra, S., and Meindl, P. (2001). Supply chain
management: Strategy, planning, and operations.
New Jersey - Prentice-Hall.
2. Heizer, J (2008). Operation Management, 9th ed,
Perason Education, Inc
3. Pujawan, I N. (2005). Supply chain management.
Guna Widya.
4. Widjaja, Amin (2011). Dasar-dasar Integrated
Supply Chain Management, Harvarindo

Pendahuluan
Evolusi tantangan yang dihadapi perusahaan
manufaktur
1. 1970 Manufacturing, Mass production
2. 1980 Quality SQC, TQM
3. 1990 SCM dan e-SCM
Sekarang, batas persaingan yang baru adalah
memanfaatkan kesempatan melalui koordinasi,
kooperasi dan kolaborasi.

Sebuah produk melewati proses yang


panjang sebelum sampai ke tangan
konsumen :

Supply Chain

semua bagian yang terkait baik secara langsung


maupun tidak langsung dalam memenuhi keinginan
konsumen (Chopra dan Meindl, 2004).

Jaringan perusahaan-perusahaan yang secara bersamasama bekerja untuk menciptakan dan menghantarkan
suatu produk ke tangan pemakai akhir (Pujawan, 2010)

Supply Chain

Supply Chain Illustration


10-7

Supply chain
Ada 3 macam hal yang harus dikelola dalam
supply chain yaitu :
Pertama, aliran barang dari hulu ke hilir.
contohnya bahan baku yang dikirim dari supplier
ke pabrik, setelah produksi selesai dikirim ke
distributor, pengecer, kemudian ke pemakai akhir.
Kedua, aliran uang dan sejenisnya yang mengalir
dari hilir ke hulu dan
Ketiga adalah aliran informasi yang bisa terjadi
dari hulu ke hilir atau sebaliknya.

Supply chain
Dalam kondisi nyata tidak sesederhana
sebagaimana diatas, contoh sebuah produk
sederhana yaitu biskuit kaleng.
Pihak yang terlibat dalam supply chain biskuit
kaleng tersebut adalah :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

penghasil gandum
penghasil tebu
penghasil garam
penghasil aluminium
pabrik tepung terigu
pabrik gula

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

distributor garam
pabrik kaleng
pabrik biskuit
distributor biskuit
supermarket
perusahaan transportasi dan
pergudangan.

Supply chain
Skema hubungan yang bisa dibentuk adalah sebagai
berikut :
1

11
10

11

6
9

11
10

11

DALAM KENYATAANNYA KITA BERHADAPAN DENGAN


SEBUAH NETWORK (JARINGAN) BUKAN SEBUAH RANTAI
(Chopra & Meindl Meindl, 2001)

Supply chain
Kalau supply chain adalah jaringan fisiknya,
yakni perusahaan-perusahaan yang terlibat
dalam memasok bahan baku, memproduksi
barang maupun mengirimkannya ke
pemakai akhir, SCM adalah metode, alat
atau pendekatan pengelolaannya.

Supply chain
Pendekatan yang ditekankan dalam SCM
adalah terintegrasi dengan semangat
kolaborasi.
Supply chain management tidak hanya
berorientasi pada urusan internal melainkan
juga eksternal perusahaan yang
menyangkut hubungan dengan perusahaanperusahaan partner.

Supply Chain Management


Supply Chain Management adalah koordinasi
yang sistematis dan strategis dari fungsi bisnis
tradisional dalam suatu perusahaan dan lintas
bisnis dalam supply chain untuk keperluan
meningkatkan kinerja jangka panjang dari
perusahaan dan supply chain secara
keseluruhan.
Manajemen terhadap aliran antar dan diantara
tahapan supply chain untuk memaksimalkan
profitabilitas keseluruhan supply chain.

Supply Chain Management


Perusahaan yang berada dalam supply chain
pada intinya ingin memuaskan konsumen
dengan bekerja sama membuat produk yang
murah, mengirimkan tepat waktu dan dengan
kualitas yang bagus.

ELEMENTS OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT


DEMAND MANAGEMENET ( Planning,
specifying, analysis, research)
ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT (Management,
compliance, bid documents, criteria for
evaluation and adj.)
LOGISTICS (Stock/ inventory management,
warehousing, transport, supplier payment,
vendor, performance
DISPOSAL ( Obsolescence planning,
disposal strategy)
17

Lingkup SCM

Proses Inti Supply Chain

Supply Chain Processes

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

SCM
dalam kaitan dengan Fungsi
Perusahaan Manufaktur
Bagian

Lingkup kegiatan antara lain

Pengembangan
Produk

Melakukan riset pasar, merancang produk baru, melibatkan


supplier dalam perancangan produk baru

Pengadaan

Memilih supplier mengevaluasi kinerja supplier, melakukan


pembelian bahan baku dan komponen, memonitor supply
risk, membina dan memelihara hubungan dengan supplier

Perencanaan dan Demand planning, peramalan permintaan, perencanaan


Pengendalian
kapasitas, perencanaan produksi dan persediaan
Produksi

Eksekusi produksi, pengendalian kualitas

Distribusi

Perencanaan jaringan distribusi, penjadwalan pengiriman,


mencari dan memelihara hubungan dengan perusahaan
jasa pengiriman, memonitor service level di tiap pusat
distribusi

Pengembangan Produk
Sangat penting terutama bagi industri inovatif
seperti industri garmen, komputer, elektronik,
packaging, dsb. Hal ini dikarenakan product
life cycle-nya pendek.
Menghasilkan sebuah rancangan produk bisa
memakan waktu dan biaya yang sangat
besar, padahal disisi lain perusahaan dituntut
untuk bisa menghasilkan rancangan dalam
waktu cepat dan biaya yang murah.

Pengembangan Produk

Pengembangan Produk
Dalam merancang perusahaan harus
mempertimbangkan beberapa hal :
Pertama, aspirasi atau keinginan pelanggan,
oleh karena itu dibutuhkan riset pasar yang
memadai.
Kedua, produk yang dirancang harus
mencerminkan ketersediaan dan sifat-sifat
bahan baku. Dalam praktek SCM modern,
melibatkan supplier adalah kunci dalam proses
perancangan produk baru.

Flows in a Supply Chain


(Chopra)

Figure 1-2

The Objective of a Supply


Chain
Maximize overall value created
Supply Chain Surplus
= Customer Value Supply Chain Cost

The Objective of a Supply


Chain

Supply chain value: difference


between what the final product is
worth to the customer and the effort
the supply chain expends in filling
the customers request
Value is correlated to supply chain
profitability (difference between
revenue generated from the
customer and the overall cost
across the supply chain)
1-27

The Objective of a Supply


Chain

Example: Dell receives $2000 from a


customer for a computer (revenue)
Supply chain incurs costs (information,
storage, transportation, components,
assembly, etc.)
Difference between $2000 and the sum
of all of these costs is the supply chain
profit
Supply chain profitability is total profit
to be shared across all stages of the
supply chain
Supply chain success should be
measured by total supply chain1-28

The Objective of a Supply


Chain

Sources of supply chain revenue:


the customer
Sources of supply chain cost: flows
of information, products, or funds
between stages of the supply chain
Supply chain management is
the management of flows
between and among supply
chain stages to maximize total
supply chain profitability
1-29

Decision Phases of a Supply


Chain
Supply chain strategy or design
Supply chain planning
Supply chain operation

1-30

Supply Chain Strategy or


Design
Decisions about the structure of the supply

chain and what processes each stage will


perform
Strategic supply chain decisions

Locations and capacities of facilities


Products to be made or stored at various locations
Modes of transportation
Information systems

Supply chain design must support strategic


objectives
Supply chain design decisions are long-term
and expensive to reverse must take into
account market uncertainty
1-31

Supply Chain Planning


Definition of a set of policies that
govern short-term operations
Fixed by the supply configuration
from previous phase
Starts with a forecast of demand in
the coming year

1-32

Supply Chain Planning


Planning decisions:
Which markets will be supplied from
which locations
Planned buildup of inventories
Subcontracting, backup locations
Inventory policies
Timing and size of market promotions

Must consider in planning decisions


demand uncertainty, exchange rates,
competition over the time horizon
1-33

Supply Chain Operation


Time horizon is weekly or daily
Decisions regarding individual customer
orders
Supply chain configuration is fixed and
operating policies are determined
Goal is to implement the operating policies
as effectively as possible
Allocate orders to inventory or production,
set order due dates, generate pick lists at a
warehouse, allocate an order to a particular
shipment, set delivery schedules, place
replenishment orders
Much less uncertainty (short time1-34horizon)

Process View of a Supply


Chain

Cycle view: processes in a supply


chain are divided into a series of
cycles, each performed at the
interfaces between two successive
supply chain stages
Push/pull view: processes in a supply
chain are divided into two categories
depending on whether they are
executed in response to a customer
order (pull) or in anticipation of a
customer order (push)
1-35

Cycle View
of Supply
Chain
Processes

Figure 1-3

Cycle View of a Supply


Chain

Each cycle occurs at the interface between


two successive stages
Customer order cycle (customer-retailer)
Replenishment cycle (retailer-distributor)
Manufacturing cycle (distributormanufacturer)
Procurement cycle (manufacturer-supplier)
Cycle view clearly defines processes involved
and the owners of each process. Specifies the
roles and responsibilities of each member and
the desired outcome of each process.
1-37

Push/Pull View of Supply


Chains
Procurement,
Manufacturing and
Replenishment cycles

PUSH PROCESSES

Customer Order
Cycle

PULL PROCESSES

Customer
Order Arrives
1-38

Push/Pull View of
Supply Chain Processes

Supply chain processes fall into one of


two categories depending on the timing
of their execution relative to customer
demand
Pull: execution is initiated in response to
a customer order (reactive)
Push: execution is initiated in
anticipation of customer orders
(speculative)
Push/pull boundary separates push
processes from pull processes
1-39

Push/Pull View of
Supply Chain Processes
Useful in considering strategic decisions
relating to supply chain design more
global view of how supply chain processes
relate to customer orders
Can combine the push/pull and cycle views
L.L. Bean (Figure 1.6)
Dell (Figure 1.7)

The relative proportion of push and pull


processes can have an impact on supply
chain performance
1-40

Supply Chain Macro Processes


in a Firm
Supply chain processes discussed
in the two views can be classified
into (Figure 1.8):
Customer Relationship Management
(CRM)
Internal Supply Chain Management
(ISCM)
Supplier Relationship Management
(SRM)

Integration among the above three


macro processes is critical for
1-41

Supply Chain Macro


Processes

Figure 1-8

Supply Chain Macro


Processes

Supply-Chain Strategies
Negotiate with many suppliers; play one
supplier against another
Develop long-term partnering arrangements
with a few suppliers who will work with you to
satisfy the end customer
Vertically integrate; buy the actual supplier
Keiretsu - have your suppliers become part of a
company coalition
Create a virtual company that uses suppliers on
an as-needed basis.
2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, N.J. 07458

11-44

Many Suppliers Strategy

Many sources per item


Adversarial relationship
Short-term
Little openness
Negotiated, sporadic
POs
High prices
Infrequent, large lots
Delivery to receiving
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Operations
Management, 6E (Heizer &
dock
Render)
11-45

1995 Corel Corp.

2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle


River, N.J. 07458

Few Suppliers Strategy

1 or few sources per item


Partnership (JIT)
Long-term, stable
On-site audits & visits
Exclusive contracts
Low prices (large orders)
Frequent, small lots
Delivery to point of use

1995
Corel
Corp.

Purchasers Ties Themselves to


Suppliers
Tactic
1. Reduce total
number of suppliers
Certify suppliers
Ask for JIT delivery
from key suppliers
Involve key suppliers
in new product design
Develop software
linkages to suppliers

Results
Average 20% reduction in 5
years
Almost 40% of all companies
surveyed were themselves
currently certified
About 60% ask for this
About 54% do this
Almost 80% claim to do this
About 50% claim this; about
15% more than have EDI
links to suppliers

11-47

Vertical Integration
Strategy
Ability to produce
goods previously
purchased
Setup operations
Buy supplier

Make-buy issue
Major financial
commitment
Hard to do all things
well

Raw Material
(Suppliers)
Backward
Integration
Current
Transformation
Forward
Integration
Finished Goods
(Customers)

Forms of Vertical
Integration
Iron Ore

Silicon

Steel

Automobiles

Farming

Raw Material
(Suppliers)

Flour Milling

Backward
Integration

Integrated
Circuits

Current
Transformation

Distribution
Circuit Boards
System
Dealers

Computers
Watches
Calculators

Forward
Integration
Baked Goods

2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper


Saddle River, N.J. 07458

Finished Goods
(Customers)

Keiretsu Network Strategy


Japanese word for affiliated chain
System of mutual alliances and
cross-ownership
Company stock is held by allied firms

Lowers need for short-term profits

Links manufacturers, suppliers,


distributors, & lenders
Partnerships extend across entire supply
chain

11-50

Virtual Company Strategy


Network of independent companies
Linked by technology
PCs, faxes, Internet etc.

Each contributes core competencies


Typically provide services
Payroll, editing, designing

May be long or short-term


Usually, only until opportunity is met
1995 Corel Corp.

Achieving Strategic Fit


Introduction
How is strategic fit achieved?
Other issues affecting strategic fit

2-52

Achieving Strategic Fit


Strategic fit:
Consistency between customer priorities of
competitive strategy and supply chain capabilities
specified by the supply chain strategy
Competitive and supply chain strategies have the
same goals

A company may fail because of a lack of


strategic fit or because its processes and
resources do not provide the capabilities to
execute the desired strategy
Example of strategic fit -- Dell
2-53

How is Strategic Fit


Achieved?
Step 1: Understanding the customer
and supply chain uncertainty
Step 2: Understanding the supply
chain
Step 3: Achieving strategic fit

2-54

Step 1: Understanding the Customer


and Supply Chain Uncertainty
Identify the needs of the customer
segment being served
Quantity of product needed in each lot
Response time customers will tolerate
Variety of products needed
Service level required
Price of the product
Desired rate of innovation in the product
2-55

Step 1: Understanding the Customer


and Supply Chain Uncertainty
Overall attribute of customer
demand
Demand uncertainty: uncertainty of
customer demand for a product
Implied demand uncertainty:
resulting uncertainty for the supply
chain given the portion of the
demand the supply chain must
handle and attributes the customer
desires
2-56

Step 1: Understanding the


Customer and Supply Chain
Uncertainty
Implied demand uncertainty also
related to customer needs and
product attributes
First step to strategic fit is to
understand customers by mapping
their demand on the implied
uncertainty spectrum

2-57

Responsiveness Spectrum
(Figure 2.4)
Highly
efficient

Somewhat
efficient

Somewhat
responsive

Highly
responsive

Supply
Supply chain
chain responsiveness
responsiveness

Example:

Noodles

Example:

Underwear

Efficient supply chains

2-58

Example:

Example:

Automobiles

Custom-made
PCs

Responsive supply chains

The implied demand uncertainty


spectrum
Certain
(predictable)
supply and demand
Low
Low

Examples:
Tomato soup
Noodles
Long lead time steel
Purely practical products

Functional products

Highly uncertain
(unpredictable)
supply and demand
Implied
Implied demand
demand uncertainty
uncertainty

High
High

Examples:
Trendy purses
High fashion
Mobile phones
Entirely new products

Innovative products

Implied demand uncertainty is often


correlated with other characteristics
of demand
Functional products
(low implied demand
uncertainty)

Innovative products
(high implied demand
uncertainty)

Low (5-20%)

High (20-60%)

Long (more than 2 years)

Short (3 month to 1 year)

Avg. forecast error

10%

40%-100%

Avg. stock out rate

1%-2%

10%-40%

0%

10%-25%

Attribute

Product margin

Product life cycle

Avg. forced season-end


markdown

Source: Fisher (1997)

Achieving Strategic Fit


Understanding the Customer
Lot size
Response time
Service level
Product variety
Price
Innovation

2-61

Implied
Demand
Uncertainty

Impact of Customer Needs on


Implied Demand Uncertainty (Table
2.1)
Customer Need

Causes implied demand


uncertainty to increase because

Range of quantity increases

Wider range of quantity implies


greater variance in demand

Lead time decreases

Less time to react to orders

Variety of products required


increases

Demand per product becomes more


disaggregated

Number of channels increases

Total customer demand is now


disaggregated over more channels

Rate of innovation increases

New products tend to have more


uncertain demand

Required service level increases

Firm now has to handle unusual


surges in demand

2-62

Step 2: Understanding the Supply


Chain
How does the firm best meet demand?
Dimension describing the supply chain is
supply chain responsiveness
Supply chain responsiveness -- ability to
respond to wide ranges of quantities
demanded
meet short lead times
handle a large variety of products
build highly innovative products
meet a very high service level
2-63

Step 2: Understanding the Supply


Chain
There is a cost to achieving responsiveness
Supply chain efficiency: cost of making and
delivering the product to the customer
Increasing responsiveness results in higher costs
that lower efficiency
Figure 2.3: cost-responsiveness efficient frontier
Figure 2.4: supply chain responsiveness spectrum
Second step to achieving strategic fit is to map
the supply chain on the responsiveness spectrum

2-64

Understanding the Supply Chain: CostResponsiveness Efficient Frontier


Responsiveness
High

Low

2-65

High

Low

Cost

Step 3: Achieving Strategic


Fit
Step is to ensure that what the
supply chain does well is consistent
with target customers needs
Fig. 2.5: Uncertainty/Responsiveness
map
Fig. 2.6: Zone of strategic fit

2-66

Achieving Strategic Fit Shown on the


Uncertainty/Responsiveness Map (Fig.
2.5)
Responsive
supply chain

of it
e
F
n
Zo egic
t
ra
t
S

Responsiveness
spectrum

Efficient
supply chain
Certain
demand
2-67

Implied
uncertainty
spectrum

Uncertain
demand

Step 3: Achieving Strategic


Fit
All functions in the value chain must
support the competitive strategy to achieve
strategic fit
Two extremes: Efficient supply chains
(Barilla) and responsive supply chains (Dell)
Two key points
there is no right supply chain strategy
independent of competitive strategy
there is a right supply chain strategy for a given
competitive strategy
2-68

Comparison of Efficient and


Responsive Supply Chains (Table
2.4)
Efficient

Responsive

Primary goal

Lowest cost

Quick response

Product design strategy

Min product cost

Modularity to allow
postponement

Pricing strategy

Lower margins

Higher margins

Mfg strategy

High utilization

Capacity flexibility

Inventory strategy

Minimize inventory

Buffer inventory

Lead time strategy

Reduce but not at expense


of greater cost

Aggressively reduce even if


costs are significant

Supplier selection strategy

Cost and low quality

Speed, flexibility, quality

Transportation strategy

Greater reliance on low cost


modes

Greater reliance on
responsive (fast) modes

2-69

Other Issues Affecting


Strategic Fit
Multiple products and customer
segments
Product life cycle
Competitive changes over time

2-70

Multiple Products and


Customer Segments
Firms sell different products to different
customer segments (with different implied
demand uncertainty)
The supply chain has to be able to balance
efficiency and responsiveness given its
portfolio of products and customer segments
Two approaches:
Different supply chains
Tailor supply chain to best meet the needs of each
products demand
2-71

Product Life Cycle


The demand characteristics of a product and
the needs of a customer segment change as
a product goes through its life cycle
Supply chain strategy must evolve
throughout the life cycle
Early: uncertain demand, high margins (time
is important), product availability is most
important, cost is secondary
Late: predictable demand, lower margins,
price is important
2-72

Product Life Cycle


Examples: pharmaceutical firms,
Intel
As the product goes through the life
cycle, the supply chain changes from
one emphasizing responsiveness to
one emphasizing efficiency

2-73

Competitive Changes Over


Time
Competitive pressures can change
over time
More competitors may result in an
increased emphasis on variety at a
reasonable price
The Internet makes it easier to offer
a wide variety of products
The supply chain must change to
meet these changing competitive
conditions
2-74

Expanding Strategic Scope


Scope of strategic fit
The functions and stages within a supply chain that
devise an integrated strategy with a shared
objective
One extreme: each function at each stage develops
its own strategy
Other extreme: all functions in all stages devise a
strategy jointly

Five categories:

2-75

Intracompany intraoperation scope


Intracompany intrafunctional scope
Intracompany interfunctional scope
Intercompany interfunctional scope
Flexible interfunctional scope

Different Scopes of Strategic Fit


Across a Supply Chain
Suppliers Manufacturer Distributor

Retailer

Customer

Competitive
Strategy
Product
Development
Strategy
Supply Chain
Strategy
Marketing
Strategy

2-76

Intercompany
Interfunctional

Intracompany
Interfunctional
at Distributor

Intracompany
Intrafunctional
at Distributor
Intracompany
Intraoperation
at Distributor

Summary of Learning
Objectives
Why is achieving strategic fit critical
to a companys overall success?
How does a company achieve
strategic fit between its supply chain
strategy and its competitive
strategy?
What is the importance of expanding
the scope of strategic fit across the
supply chain?
2-77

Struktur Jaringan Supply Chain


(SC) -1

A. Identifikasi Anggota SC
Anggota SC meliputi semua perusahaan dan
organisasi yang berhubungan dengan perusahaan
focal baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung
melalui supplier atau pelanggannya dari point of
origin hingga point of consumption.
1.Anggota Primer (primary members)
Semua perusahaan/unit strategik yang benarbenar menjalankan aktifitas operasional dan
manajerial dalam proses bisnis yang dirancang.
2. Anggota Sekunder (secondary members)
Semua perusahaan yang menyediakan
1995 Corel Corp.
sumber daya, pengetahuan, utilitas/aset bagi
anggota primer di SC.

Struktur Jaringan Supply Chain


(SC) -2

B. Dimensi Struktural Jaringan

1.Struktur Horisontal
Meliputi sejumlah tiers yang ada pada SC
(jaringan bisa panjang/pendek
2. Struktur Vertikal
Meliputi sejumlah supplier/pelanggan yang
mewakili tiap tingkat tier
3. Posisi Horisontal Perusahaan
Perusahaan dapat diposisikan berada atau
dekat dengan sumber supply/pelanggan akhir
atau di suatu tempat antara poin-poin akhir dari
SC
1995 Corel Corp.

Struktur Jaringan Supply Chain


(SC) -3

C. Jenis Jaringan Proses Bisnis


1. Managed Process Links
Perusahaan focal merasa penting untuk bersatu dan
berkolaborasi dengan anggota lain dari SC
2. Monitored Process Links
Perusahaan focal tidak begitu aktif terlibat, hanya
secara berkala meninjau dan mengaudit anggota lain
di SC
3. Not-Managed Process Links
Perusahaan focal tidak begitu aktif terlibat, dan
meninjau/mengaudit secara berkala, tapi
mempercayakan anggota lain yang mengatur
4. Non Member Process Links
Non anggota tidak termasuk dalam struktur
jaringan
1995 Corel
Corp.
SC perusahaan focal namun dapat mempunyai
pengaruh pada perusahaan focal dan anggota lain SC

Struktur Jaringan Supply Chain

10-81

Proses Bisnis Supply Chain (SC)


-1

1. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Mengidentifikasi dan menjalin hubungan dengan
pelanggan kritis, mengembangkan komunikasi dan
prediksi yang baik atas demand pelanggan
2. Customer Service Management (CSM)
Pelayanan pada pelanggan berupa informasi
pengiriman, ketersediaan produk yang berkaitan
bagian produksi dan distribusi
3. Demand Management
Menyeimbangkan kebutuhan pelanggan dengan
kemampuan supply perusahaan, menentukan apa
yang akan dibeli pelanggan dan kapan
4. Customer Order Fulfillment
Proses penyelesaian pesanan secara efektif
melalui
1995 Corel
Corp.
integrai rencana kerja antara produksi, distribusi dan
transportasi

Proses Bisnis Supply Chain (SC)


-2

5. Manufacturing Flow Management


Produk yang dihasilkan berdasarkan kebutuhan
pelanggan sehingga memerlukan kemampuan
produksi yang fleksibel dengan perubahan pasar
dan variasi kebutuhan massal.
6. Procurement
Membina hubungan jangka panjang dengan
sekelompok supplier, melibatkan supplier sejak
tahap desain. Dapat menggunakan fasilitias EDI
7. Pengembangan Produk dan Komersialisasi
Mengembangkan produk dan melakukan
pengenalan (launching) dalam waktu singkat dan
tepat untuk memperkuat daya saing.
1995 Corel Corp.
8. Retur
Penggantian produk, perlengkapan/peralatan dan
komponen

Peran informasi dalam SCM


Informasi penting karena menyediakan fakta yang
digunakan oleh manajer supply chain untuk membuat
keputusan memberikan manajer visibility

Pengembangan IT dalam SCM


Information Technology :
Berupa perangkat hardware & software yang
digunakan baik untuk meningkatkan kesadaran
informasi (awareness of the information) dan
untuk menganalisis informasi untuk membuat
keputusan yang tepat mengenai supply chain.

Pengembangan IT dalam SCM


Goal dari IT
1. Mengumpulkan informasi dari tiap-tiap produk dari
mulai pembuatan sampai pengiriman atau pembelian
dan menyediakan gambaran yang lengkap untuk
semua pihak dalam rantai pasok.
2. Mengakses semua data dalam sistem dari singlepoint-of-contact
3. Menganalisa, perencanaan aktifitas dan membuat
trade offs berdasarkan pada informasi dari seluruh
rantai pasok

Peranan Internet
Internet memungkinkan kolaborasi, koordinasi, dan
integrasi dalam praktek di lapangan.
1. Berbagi informasi serta melakukan transaksi dengan
lebih cepat, murah dan akurat.
2. Informasi penjualan di supermarket atau ritel akan
mudah bisa dibagi dengan pihak-pihak yang berada
di sebelah hulu supply chain dengan menggunakan
Internet.
Aplikasi internet dalam konteks SCM :
Electronic procurement (e-procurement)
Electronic fulfilment (e-fulfilment)

E-business dan Supply Chain


Menghemat biaya dan mengurangi
harga
Mengurangi atau menghilangkan
peran intermediasi
Memperpendek respon rantai pasok
dan waktu transaksi
Meningkatkan keberadaaan dan
jangkauan perusahaan
Memperbanyak pilihan dan informasi
bagi pelanggan

E-business dan Supply Chain (cont.)


Meningkatkan pelayanan sebagai hasil
dari kemampuan akses yang cepat
terhadap pelayanan
Mengumpulkan dan menganalisis data
dan pilihan dalam jumlah yang besar
dari
Menciptakan perusahaan virtual
Meningkatkan peranan usaha kecil
Meningkatkan akses global ke pasar,
pemasok dan saluran distribusi
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-89

Supply chain dalam lingkungan ebisnis


http://www.worldscibooks.com/business/6273.html

90

E-Procurement
Aplikasi internet untuk mendukung proses
pengadaan untuk:
Proses pengadaan bahan baku dan komponen
Item-item yang masuk dalam kelompok MRO
(maintenance, repair, and operations) seperti
suku cadang, peralatan tulis kantor, dan
sebagainya.
Dapat digunakan untuk mendukung:
Hubungan jangka pendek: e-Auction
Hubungan jangka panjang (kemitraan)

E-Fulfillment
Lebih pada bagian hilir supply chain
Beberapa kegiatan yang termasuk dalam proses fulfilment
adalah:
Menerima order dari pelanggan melalui telepon, fax,
e-mail, atau webbased ordering.
Mengelola transaksi termasuk proses pembayaran.
Manajemen gudang
Manajemen transportasi (keputusan mode dan rute
transportasi termasuk di dalamnya)
Komunikasi dengan pelanggan untuk memberikan
informasi status pesanan, dukungan teknis, dan
sebagainya

Measuring Supply Chain


Performance
Key performance indicators
inventory turnover
cost of annual sales per inventory unit

inventory days of supply


total value of all items being held in inventory

fill rate
fraction of orders filled by a distribution center
within a specific time period

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-93

Key Performance
Indicators
Inventory turns =

Cost of goods sold


Average aggregate value of inventory

Average aggregate value of inventory =


(average inventory for item i) X (unit value item i)
=

Days of supply =

Average aggregate value of inventory


(Costs of goods sold)/(365 days)

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-94

Key Performance Indicators:


Example
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cost of goods sold: $425 million


Production materials and parts: $4,629,000
Work-in-process: $17,465,000
Finished goods: $12,322,000
Total average aggregate value of inventory (2+3+4): $34,416,000

Inventory turns =

Days of supply =

$425, 000, 000


$34,416,000

= 12.3

$34,416,000
= 29.6
($425,000,000)/(365)

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-95

Other Measures of Supply Chain


Performance

Process Control
used to monitor and control any
process in supply chain

Supply Chain Operations


Reference (SCOR)
establish targets to achieve best
in class performance

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-96

SCOR Model Processes


Plan
Develop a course of
action that best
meets sourcing,
production and
delivery
requirements

Source
Procure goods
and services to
meet planned
or actual
demand

Make
Transform
product to a
finished state to
meet planned
or actual
demand

Deliver
Provide products
to meet demand,
including order
management,
transportation
and distribution
Return
Return
products,
post-delivery
customer
support

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-97

SCOR: Customer Facing


Performance Performance Definition
Attribute
Metric
Supply Chain
Delivery
Reliability

Delivery
performance

Percentage of orders delivered on time


and in full to the customer

Fill rate

Percentage of orders shipped within24


hours of order receipt

Perfect order
fulfillment

Percentage of orders delivered on time


and in full, perfectly matched with order
with no errors

Supply Chain
Order fulfillment Number of days from order receipt to
Responsivenes lead time
customer delivery
s
Supply Chain
Flexibility

Supply chain
response time

Number of days for supply chain to


respond to an unplanned significant
change in demand without a cost penalty

Production
flexibility

Number of days to achieve an unplanned


20% change in orders without a cost
penalty

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-98

SCOR: Internal Facing


Performance Performance Definition
Attribute
Metric
Supply Chain
Cost

Supply Chain
Asset
Management
Efficiency

Supply chain
management cost

Direct and indirect cost to plan, source and deliver


products and services

Cost of goods
sold

Direct cost of material and labor to produce a


product or service

Value-added
productivity

Direct material cost subtracted from revenue and


divided by the number of employees, similar to
sales per employee

Warranty/returns
processing cost

Direct and indirect costs associated with returns


including defective, planned maintenance and
excess inventory

Cash-to-cash
cycle time

Number of days that cash is tied up as working


capital

Inventory days of
supply

Number of days that cash is tied up as inventory

Asset turns

Revenue divided by total assets including working


capital and fixed assets

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10-99

Pemilihan Vendor
Faktor-faktor pertimbangan
pemilihan
1. Kesesuaian strategis
2. Kemampuan penjual
3. Pengiriman
4. Kinerja berkualitas

Langkah Pemilihan
Vendor
-1
1. Evaluasi Vendor
Menentukan kriteria dan bobot evaluasi
berdasarkan strategi rantai pasok yang
ingin dicapai :
Keahlian rekayasa
Kemampuan proses produksi
Kemampuan distribusi
Sistem mutu
Fasilitas/lokasi
Kekuatan keuangan dan pengelolaan
Kemampuan sistem informasi
Integritas

Langkah Pemilihan Vendor -2


2. Pengembangan Vendor
Cara perusahaan memadukan pemasok ke
dalam sistem . Pihak pembeli memastikan
vendor tersebut menghargai persyaratan
kualitas, perubahan teknis, jadual dan
pengiriman, sistem pembayaran dan
kebijakan pengadaan.
Pengembangan vendor dapat dilakukan
melalui :
Pelatihan
Bantuan teknis dan produksi
Prosedur perpindahan informasi

Langkah Pemilihan Vendor -3


3. Negosiasi

Negosiasi dilakukan terhadap kualitas,


pengiriman, pembayaran dan biaya.
Strategi negosiasi melalui :
Model harga berdasarkan kualitas
(cost based price model); pemasok
membuka catatan keuangan, harga
kontrak didasarkan atas waktu, bahan
bahku atau biaya tetap
Model harga berdasarkan pasar
(market based price model); harga didasarkan pada
harga yang diumumkan, lelang atau indeks
Penawaran yang kompetitif
(competitive bidding); pemasok tidak

Manajemen Rantai Pasok


Pada Sektor Publik

Definisi :
The supply chain is the combination of all
parties (e.g. external suppliers, partner
organisations, internal corporate services
units) both inside and outside the
organisation, involved in delivering the
inputs, outputs or outcomes that will meet a
specified public sector requirement.

Purchasing Portfolio Models

Changing role of purchasing


Shorter product life cycle
Increase change in technology
Improved infrastructure and falling distribution
costs
Improved data communication
Lowering of trading barriers
EU (European Union)
WTO (World Trade Organisation)

Lindi 2007

Kraljic portfolio
1. Explanation of the model
2. How to use the model to find the
appropriate purchasing strategy

Lindi 2007

Kraljic-portfolio

Lindi 2007

Appropriate strategy
Search for other options
Accept present situation (dependency), reduce risks

Bottleneck

Strategic

High

Supply risk

Build on existing relationship

Accept bad relationship

Search for new supplier

5
Routine

Low

Leverage

Volume of purchasing
Low

Reduce administration
Bundle purchases
Lindi 2007

High

Make full use of own market position


Develop supplier into a full partner

MSU model of Monczka


MSU stands for Michigan State University
Robert Monczka constructed the model on results of a
benchmark research in the USA
Step-by step approach to improve purchasing
processes
8 strategic processes
6 enabling processes
For each proces there are elaborate checklists to
analyse the current situation

Lindi 2007

8 strategic processes

Lindi 2007

Example MSU Self


Assessment

Lindi 2007

Conclusion
MSU model of Monczka

Lindi 2007

A more elaborate model,


which stimulates thought
and creativity
It takes valuable time
Processes 2 and 3 from the
MSU model cover the same
playing field as Kraljic
A good tool to improve the
whole purchasing function

Kraljics portfolio

Easy to use for a one time


purchase
A strong communication
tool, to explain to nonpurchasers
Model could tempt users to
jump to conclusions
A good tool for defining a
more simple purchasing
strategy