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Olive Oil

as Functional
Food
Dr. Firas S. Al-Azzeh
PhD in Human Nutrition & Food Science
Umm Al-Qura University
Department of Clinical Nutrition

Introduction

Olive oil is thought to not only


contribute nutrients to the diet, but also
to have a positive impact on health.

The uniqueness of olive oil lies in the


fact that it is not produced by solvent
extraction, but rather by a cold-press
mechanical process that preserves both
the chemical nature of the oil and the
natural antioxidants that are produced
in response to environmental stress.

The main producing and


consuming countries
Country

Production

Consumption

Annual per capita


consumption (kg)

Spain

20%

20%

13.62

Italy

15%

30%

12.35

Greece

51%

9%

23.7

Tunisia

8%

2%

11.1

Turkey

10%

12%

15

Syria

4%

3%

Morocco

3%

2%

1.8

Portugal

1%

2%

7.1

United States

0%

8%

0.56

France

0%

4%

1.34

Lebanon

N/A

3%

1.18

Uniqueness of Olive Oil

Cold Pressing of Olive Oil

CODEX STANDARD FOR


OLIVE OILS
CODEX STAN 33-1981
Olive oil is the oil obtained solely from the fruit of
the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), to the exclusion of
oils obtained using solvents or re-esterification
processes and of any mixture with oils of other kinds.

Virgin olive oils are the oils obtained from the fruit of
the olive tree solely by mechanical or other physical
means under conditions, particularly thermal
conditions, that do not lead to alterations in the oil,
and which have not undergone any treatment other
than washing, decanting, centrifuging and filtration.

CODEX STANDARD FOR


OLIVE OILS

Olive-pomace oil is the oil


obtained by treating olive pomace
with solvents or other physical
treatments, to the exclusion of
oils obtained by re-esterification
processes and of any mixture with
oils of other kinds.

Quality factors of olive


oil
1.
2.
3.
4.

Acidity as oleic acid


Organoleptic characteristics (odor
and taste)
Peroxide value
Fatty acids composition

Types of olive oil

Extra virgin olive oil: virgin olive oil with


a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid,
of not more than 0.8 grams per 100
grams.

Virgin olive oil: virgin olive oil with a


free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of
not more than 2.0 grams per 100 grams.

Types of olive oil

Ordinary virgin olive oil: virgin olive oil


with a free acidity, expressed as oleic
acid, of not more than 3.3 grams per 100
grams.

Refined olive oil: olive oil obtained from


virgin olive oils by refining methods which
do not lead to alterations in the initial
glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity,
expressed as oleic acid, of not more than
0.3 grams per 100 grams.

Types of olive oil

Olive oil: oil consisting of a blend of


refined olive oil and virgin olive oils
suitable for human consumption. It has a
free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of
not more than 1 gram per 100.

Olive-pomace oil: oil consisting of a blend


of refined olive-pomace oil and virgin olive
oils. It has a free acidity, expressed as
oleic acid, of not more than 1 gram per
100 grams.

Olive and Olive oil in


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Sunnah


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Olive Oil Composition


The composition of olive oil is primarily
triacylglycerols and about 0.5%-1.0%
nonglyceridic constituents
Olive oil is composed of 55 to 85%
oleic acid (18:1 n-9), about 9% Linoleic
(18:2 n-6), and up to 0-1.5% Linolenic
acid (18:3 n-3)
Tocopherols (5-25 mg/100 g, 95% tocopherol), carotenoids (1-2 mg/100g)

Olive Oil Composition

Olive oil is a source of at least 30


phenolic compounds.

phenolic compounds such as


oleuropein (20-500 mg/l), and
phytosterols (98-185 mg/100g).
Minor components include tyrosol,
hydroxytyrosol, flavonoids, rutin,
leuteolin, and squalene.

Olive Oil Composition

The three phenolic compounds in


highest concentration in olive oil are
the oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol (3,4dihydroxyphenyl ethanol) and tyrosol.

It has been found that a linear


relationship exists between the
phenolic content and oxidative
stability of extra-virgin olive oil.

Olive Oil and Health

Olive oil and Cardiovascular Disease


Epidemiologic studies show that
Mediterranean countries have a low
incidence of coronary heart disease, which
is associated with the Mediterranean diet
and consumption of olive oil.
Olive oil has a cardioprotective effect and
an ability to decrease cardiovascular risk
factors. The therapeutic properties of olive
oil are often attributed to its high levels of
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA).

Cardiovascular Disease
Diets rich in olive oil have been shown to be
more effective in lowering
(a) Total cholesterol and
(b) Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
than conventional dietary treatments not
containing high levels of MUFA.
Olive oil has been shown to decrease the risk
of thrombogenesis by lowering the levels of
the key factors of thrombogenesis (factor
VII). Other factors in olive oil, rather than
MUFA, are responsible for this health benefit.

Cardiovascular Disease

Oxidation of lipoproteins, in
particular LDL, plays a fundamental
role in the pathogenesis of
arteriosclerosis. Studies show that
diets rich in olive oil decrease
human LDL oxidative susceptibility .
The LDL resistance to oxidation was
shown by a reduction in its peroxide,
melanodialdehyde, and conjugated
diene content.

Cardiovascular Disease

Polyphenols isolated from olive oil


include oleuropein and
hydroxytyrosol are potent
scavengers for superoxide radicals
and exert a potent antioxidant
activity in in vitro models of LDL
oxidation. In addition, -tocopherol
has an antioxidant activity that
protects against LDL oxidation.

Olive oil and Hypertension

Olive oil has been shown to have


beneficial effects on blood pressure.
Olive oil reduced both the systolic and
diastolic pressures by approximately
8 mm Hg after 4 weeks of
consumption, and rendered
medication less necessary.

Olive oil and Cancer


Prevention
The evidence to support increased olive oil
consumption as a means to prevent several
varieties of cancer is convincing, but it is
unclear which component of the oil is
responsible for the chemoprotective effect.
New evidence suggests that oleic acid may
not be as important as other components
(What do you understand from this
statement?). Phenolic compounds found in
extra virgin olive oil have a role in the cancer
prevention. Furthermore, hypotheses
regarding squalene as a potent inhibitor of
carcinogenesis have emerged.

Olive oil and Cancer


Prevention

The strong protective associations


reported for olive oil intake may
not be exclusively related to its
fatty acid composition but rather
attributed to its high levels of
antioxidants and other
constituents.

Olive oil and Cancer


Prevention
Breast Cancer: The role of fat in
carcinogenesis is controversial and the
association between breast cancer and
dietary fat has been widely investigated.
Consumption of olive oil has been shown to
reduce the estimated relative risk of breast
cancer in Spanish and Greece.
Diets rich in olive oil have been shown to
have an antitumor effect in rat models .

Olive oil and Cancer


Prevention
Colon Cancer:
Olive oil consumption was negatively
associated with colorectal cancer
incidence.
Possible mechanisms include the
hypothesis that olive oil may influence
secondary bile acid patterns in the colon
that, in turn, influence polyamine
metabolism in colonic enterocytes in a way
that reduce the progression from normal
mucosa to adenoma and carcinoma.

Olive oil and Cancer


Prevention
It was noticed that the antioxidant
phenolic compounds present in olive oil
are potent inhibitors for the free radical
generation by fecal matrix, suggesting
that compounds in olive oil act directly
in the colon to reduce oxidative damage.
It has been proposed that high squalene
content of olive oil plays a role in the
cancer-risk reducing effect of olive oil.

Olive oil and Immune


Response

Research investigating the effects of


olive oil on the immune system is
sparse, and the evidence is
unequivocal, but available data
indicated it may be a potent mediator
of the immune response and modify
inflammatory cytokine production.
Olive oil has repeatedly been shown
to be an immunomodulatory agent.

Antimicrobial properties

Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol both


have antimicrobial effects against
several bacterial strains which were
causal agents of intestinal or respiratory
tract infections in humans, such as

Salmonella typhi
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Staphylococcus aureus
Moraxwlla catarrhalis