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LIPIDA

LIPIDS DEFINISI
Lipids are insoluble in water, but
soluble in fat or organic solvents
(ether, chloroform, benzene,
acetone).
Lipid adalah senyawa organik
yang terbentuk dari alkohol dan
asam lemak yang dihubungkan
H
O
2
O
O
oleh ikatan ester.
R CH2 OH

Fatty alcohol

HO C

Fatty acid Esterase (lipase)

R CH2 O C

ester (lipid)

LIPIDS DEFINISI
Lipids are widely distributed in
nature both in plants and in
animals.

PERAN PENTING LIPIDS


1. dapat disimpan untuk jumlah yang tidak
terbatas dibandingkan dengan
karbohidrat .
2. memiliki nilai energi tinggi (25% dari
kebutuhan tubuh) dan mereka
memberikan lebih banyak energi per
gram dari karbohidrat dan protein,
tetapi karbohidrat adalah sumber energi
lebih disukai.
3. asam lemak esensial (PUFA Omega-3 dan
Omega-6) yang tidak dapat disintesis
oleh tubuh.
4. Supply the body with fat-soluble
vitamins (A, D, E and K).

PERAN PENTING LIPIDS


7. Lipid disimpan "depot lemak" disimpan dalam
semua sel manusia bertindak sebagai:
a) A store of energy.
b) A pad for the internal organs to protect
them from outside shocks.
c) A subcutaneous thermal insulator against
loss of body heat.
8. Lipoproteins, which are complex of lipids and
proteins, are important cellular constituents
that present both in the cellular and
subcellular membranes.
9. Cholesterol enters in membrane structure and
is used for synthesis of adrenal cortical
hormones, vitamin D3 and bile acids.
10. Lipids provide bases for dealing with diseases
such as obesity, atherosclerosis, lipid-storage
diseases, essential fatty acid deficiency,

Classification of Lipids
Lipid adalah senyawa organik yang
terbentuk dari alkohol dan asam
lemak yang dihubungkan oleh ikatan
ester.

1. Simple lipids (Fats &


Waxes)
2. Compound or conjugated
lipids
3. Derived Lipids
4. Lipid-associating

Simple Lipids
: adalah ester asam lemak
dengan berbagai jenis
alkohol.

Simpel Lipid
1.FATS: ester asam lemak
dan gliserol.
2.WAX: ester dari alkohol
rantai panjang (16-30
karbon) dan Asam Lemak
rantai panjang (16-30
karbon)

1. FATS
Fats adalah ester asam lemak dan
gliserol.
Suatu asam lemak adalah asam
organik dengan rantai hidrokarbon
berakhir di karboksil (COOH)
kelompok.
Kebanyakan asam lemak memiliki
bahkan jumlah atom karbon berkisar
antara 14 sampai 22 (paling sering 16
atau 18).
Ekor hidrokarbon panjang yang
hidrofobik (tidak mengikat air).

O
CH2OHHO C
R
O

CH2 O C R

CHOH HO C
R
O

CH O C R +

CH2OHHO C
R
glycerol fatty acids

CH2 O C R

Ester
bond

3H2O

triacyl glycerol

R = long hydrocarbon chain

Fatty Acids

The Length of the Carbon


Chain
Short-chain Fatty Acid
(less than 6 carbons)
Medium-chain Fatty Acid
(6-10 carbons)
Long-chain Fatty Acid
(12 or more carbons)

Fatty Acids classify


Saturated Fatty Acids
possess only single bonds in their
hydrocarbon chain.

Unsaturated Fatty Acids


have one or more double bond in the
hydrocarbon chain.

The Length of the Carbon Chain


long-chain, medium-chain, shortchain

The Degree of Unsaturation


saturated, unsaturated,
monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

The Location of Double Bonds


omega-3 fatty acid, omega-6 fatty
acid

Saturated Fatty Acid


Saturated Fatty Acid
All single bonds between
carbons

Monounsaturated Fatty
Acid
(MUFA)

One carbon-carbon double bond

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid


(PUFA)

More than one carbon-carbon double bond

Location of Double Bonds


PUFA are identified by position of the
double bond nearest the methyl end
(CH3) of the carbon chain; this is
described as a omega number;
If PUFA has first double bond 3
carbons away from the methyl
end=omega 3 FA
6 carbons from methyl end=omega 6
FA

Degree of Unsaturation
Firmness
saturated vs. unsaturated

Stability
oxidation, antioxidants

Hydrogenation
advantages, disadvantages

Trans-Fatty Acids
from hydrogenation

Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)

Omega-3:
Eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)FISH
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
flaxseed--most, canola (rapeseed), soybean,
walnut, wheat germ
body can make some EPA and DHA from ALA

Omega-6
corn, safflower, cottonseed, sesame,
sunflower
Linoleic acid

Omega-3

Omega-6

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Associated with:
anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic,
antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic,
vasodilatory properties

Inflammatory conditions
Ulcerative colitis, Crohns
Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes
* Mental function
Renal disease
* Growth and
development

Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency

Classical symptoms include:


growth retardation, reproductive failure,
skin lesions, kidney and liver disorders,
subtle neurological and visual problems

People with chronic intestinal diseases


Depression--omega-3
?inadequate intake alters brain activity or
depression alters fatty acid metabolism?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


lower levels of omega-3--more behavioral
problems

Eicosanoids:

made from EFA

--derivatives of 20-carbon fatty acids;


--affect cells where they are made;
--have different effects in different cells
--cause muscles to contract and muscles to relax;
--help

regulate blood pressure, blood clot


formation, blood lipids, and immune response;
--participate in immune response to injury and
infection, producing fever, inflammation, and
pain;
--include:prostaglandins, thromboxanes,
leukotrienes

Triglycerides
Animal sources
Contain saturated fatty acids
Solid at room temperature
Fats

Plant sources
Contain unsaturated fatty acids
Liquid at room temperature
Oils

Triglycerides
Act as energy store
Release twice as much energy per
gram as proteins or carbohydrates
Insoluble, stored as droplets in
cytoplasm
Stored in adipose tissue of mammals
Also protect and insulate and provide
buoyancy

2. Wax
ESTERS dari alkohol rantai panjang (16-30
CARBONS) dan fatty acids rantai panjang (1630 CARBONS) ACIDS (MIXTURES)
EXAMPLES:
BEESWAX, CERYL MYRISTATE (ANIMAL)
CARNAUBA WAX, MYRICYL CEROTATE (PLANT)
SPERMACETI WAX, CETYL PALMITATE (ANIMAL)

Compound
Lipids
Tersusun lebih dari dua
komponen (glicerol, fatty
acids)

2-Compound Lipids

Definition:

They are lipids that contain additional


substances, e.g., sulfur, phosphorus,
amino group, carbohydrate, or proteins
beside fatty acid and alcohol.
Compound or conjugated lipids are
classified into the following types
according to the nature of the
additional group:
1. Phospholipids
2. Glycolipids.
3. sphingolipid
4. Lipoproteins
5. Sulfolipids and amino lipids.

Phospholipid
Hydrophilic head - polar group
Hydrophobic tail - 2 fatty acid
chains
Molecule with hydrophilic and
hydrophobic portions - Amphipathic
Simplest has phosphate group only
Most have alcohols esterified to
phosphate group

Cell membranes are phospholipid bilayers

Phospholipids
Structure
Glycerol + 2 fatty acids +
phosphate group

Functions
Component of cell membranes
Lipid transport as part of
lipoproteins
Emulsifiers
Phosphatidylcholine

Food sources
Egg yolks, liver, soybeans,

Glycolypid

functions

Menyusun dinding sel


Penyedia energi
Marker cel
Memperpanjang dari lapisan ganda
fosfolipid ke lingkungan berair di luar sel.
Bertindak sebagai pengenalan bahan kimia
tertentu
Membantu menjaga stabilitas membran sel
Penyusun jaringan

Sphingolipids
H

H3C (CH2)12 C = C C C
CH2OH
H OH NH
sphingosine
2

to
phosphate

to 1 fatty
acid
Sphingolipids have sphingosine backbone
instead of glycerol

Sphingomyelin

Fatty acid chain bonded to sphingosine


molecule via an amide bond not ester
bond

they regulate important processes, including


the stress response, cell proliferation,
apoptosis, angiogenesis, genetic diseases,
and resistance to chemotherapy
Senyawa ini memainkan peran penting
dalam transmisi sinyal dan pengakuan sel.
Sphingolipidoses, atau gangguan
metabolisme sphingolipid, memiliki dampak
tertentu pada jaringan saraf.

Derived Lipids

Steroids

Four rings of carbon atoms


Designated A, B, C, D
Synthesised from cholesterol
Cholesterol precursor for steroid
hormones

Top: Conversion of cholesterol (1) into pregnenolone (3) to progesterone


(6).
Bottom: Progesterone is important foraldosterone(mineralocorticoid)

Cholester
ol
A
HO

B
O

Progestero
ne

HO

HO O
OH

O
O
HO

HO O

Corticosterone

Cortiso
l

Progester
Progesterone is a C-21
one
steroid hormoneinvolved in thefemale
menstrual cycle,pregnancy(supports
gestation) andembryogenesisof
humans and other species.
Progesterone belongs to a class of
hormones calledprogestogens, and is
the major naturally occurring human
progestogen.

Plasma Membrane
Made up of lipid bilayer and proteins
Lipid bilayer - double layer of lipid
hydrophilic heads to outside
hydrophobic tails to inside

Proteins
integral - within bilayer
peripheral - on surface of bilayer

Fluid structure - Fluid Mosaic


Model

Cortisol
Kortisol adalah hormon steroid, lebih khusus
glukokortikoid, diproduksi oleh zona fasciculata dari
korteks adrenal.
dirilis dalam respon terhadap stres dan tingkat
rendah glukokortikoid darah.
Fungsi utamanya adalah untuk meningkatkan gula
darah melalui glukoneogenesis, menekan sistem
kekebalan tubuh, dan membantu dalam lemak,
protein dan metabolisme karbohidrat
Mengurangi pembentukan tulang.
Berbagai bentuk sintetik kortisol digunakan untuk
mengobati berbagai penyakit

Fatty acid tail


(hydrophobic
)

Peripheral
proteins
glycolipi
d
Lipid
bilayer

Polar head cholester


(hydrophili ol
c)

Integral
proteins

Function of Plasma
Membrane
Lipid Bilayer
Barrier to entry and exit of charged or
polar substances (glucose)
Freely permeable to water, O2 and CO2
Glycolipids act as cell markers

Protein
Act as transporters and channels for
polar molecules
Receptors for binding of molecules
Cell Markers

CLASIFICATION