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A good theory is a STEP:

P Parsimonious
E- Existing knowledge is inc.
T Testable; generates hypotheses
S Supported by new research

Operational definitions POPS (OPPS?)


Operationalisera definiera och ange stt att
mta/observera/studera variabeln

Observation: deltagare ger elchock


bakgrund och inblick i deltagaren saknas, men bra fr
verblick (statistik t.ex. Archival measures)

Self-reports
olika faktorer, rlighet, social desirability bias,
kamratskattning

Psychological tests

intelligence tests kan inte se in i mnniskan


(hormonniva kvinnor, stereotype threat)

Physiological measures
Heart rate (stress pga situationen eller stress = lgn)

Ethics in research on
humans
Informed
consent
Informerat
samtycke

Debriefing
Necessary when
deception was
used
input from
participant can
be helpful

Potential risks

Privacy

Changed
behaviour
(Bobo doll)
Harm
Ice water

Skerstll
anonymitet
Akronym
kod

Ethical considerations in
research on animals
consent?

Welfare?

needles
s
suffering
?

Humane
treatmen
t?

potential
importan
ce of the
research
?

Methods of research

Stratified random
sampling: strata are
defined: subgroups of
ethnic, religious or
gender identity

Who are the


participants? Skewed
according to academic
background,
voluntary/forced
participation

Descriptive research
Naturalistic
observation

Case studies

Advantage:

Disadvantage:

Advantage:

Disadvantage

In-depth

Cannot
generalise

Rich description
of natural
behaviour

No clear
conclusions
about causal
relationships

Generates new
theories

Not
representative

Developmental
studies (children,
Piaget)

Interpretative
bias

Evolutionary
studies
(chimpanzees,
Goodall)

Influence
(habituation)

Descriptive research

Survey
research

Advantage
Representative genom slumpmssigt urval
Findings portray the population as a whole
Efficient
Large amounts of data

Disadvantage
Cause-and-effect unclear (orsak-verkan oklar)
Social desirability bias
Interviewer bias
Inaccurate perceptions of own behaviour

Variables are only measured, not manipulated inget orsakssamband


mjligt

Correlational
research
One variable
(x) peoples
relationship
status

Second
variable (y)
self-reported
happiness

Statistical
determination
of relation X &
Y

X causes Y, Y causes X; both influence each other


(bidirectionality)
Spurious not genuine relationship btw. X & Y
Third-variable problem: Z!
The correlation coefficient: +1.00 to -1.00 (0 = no
correlation)

Experiments
Independent variable: (oberoende)
The one we manipulate: noise, time,
praise

Dependent variable: (beroende)


The one we research: number of
remembered words

Experimental group Control group

Qualitative research
Qualitative research: exploratory
Quantitative research: conclusive
(orsak-verkan)
Discourse analysis - diskursanalys

Validity of research
Internal validity klara sammanhang
mellan orsak och verkan
External validity kan det omsttas i
verkligheten?
Experimenter expectancy effect
Replication
Demand characteristics
Confounding variables strande
variabler

Descriptive statistics
Correlation coefficient (+1.00 to -1.00)
Measures of central tendency
Mode (most frequent; typvrde)
Median (halfway point, even numbers the
halfway point between the two middle ones)
Mean (arithmetic average)

Measures of variability (spridningsmatt)


Range (highest-lowest; variationsvidd)
Standard deviation (value-mea;
standardavvikelse)

Using statistics
Inferential statistics
(sannolikhetsberkning)
Statistical significance unlikely that
the finding occurred by chance
Meta-analysis