Anda di halaman 1dari 24

3-1

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3: Attitudes and


Job Satisfaction

3-2
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:
Contrast the three components of an
attitude.
Summarize the relationship between
attitudes and behavior.
Compare and contrast the major job
attitudes.
Define job satisfaction and show how we
can measure it.
Summarize Copyright
the main
causes of job
2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-3

Contrast the Three


Components of an Attitude

LO 1

Attitudes are evaluative statements


either favorable or unfavorable about
objects, people, or events.
They reflect how we feel about
something.

3-4
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Contrast the Three


Components of an Attitude

LO 1

3-5
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summarize
the
Relationship
LO 2
Between Attitudes and
Behavior

Early research: the attitudes that people hold


determine what they do.
Festinger proposed that cases of attitude
following behavior illustrate the effects of
cognitive dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance is any
incompatibility an individual might perceive
between two or more attitudes or between
behavior and attitudes.
Research has generally concluded that people
seek consistency among their attitudes and
between theirCopyright
attitudes
and their behavior.
2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-6

Summarize
the
Relationship
LO 2
Between Attitudes and
Behavior
Moderating Variables:
Mitigating Variables

Attitude
predict
s

Importance of the attitude


Its correspondence to behavior
Its accessibility
The presence of social pressures
Whether a person has direct
experience with the attitude

The attitude-behavior relationship


Behavio
is likely to be much stronger if an
r
attitude refers to something with
which we have direct personal
3-7
experience.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

LO 3
Compare
and Contrast
the Major Job Attitudes

Job Satisfaction
A positive feeling about the job resulting
from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Job Involvement
Degree of psychological identification with
the job where perceived performance is
important to self-worth.
Psychological Empowerment
Belief in the degree of influence over
ones job, competence, job
meaningfulness, and autonomy.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-8

LO 3
Compare
and Contrast
the Major Job Attitudes

Organizational Commitment
Identifying with a particular organization
and its goals and wishing to maintain
membership in the organization.
Theoretical models propose that
employees who are committed will be
less likely to engage in work withdrawal
even if they are dissatisfied, because
they have a sense of organizational
loyalty.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-9

LO 3
Compare
and Contrast
the Major Job Attitudes

Perceived Organizational Support (POS)


Degree to which employees believe the
organization values their contribution and
cares about their well-being.
Higher when rewards are fair, employees
are involved in decision making, and
supervisors are seen as supportive.
High POS is related to higher OCBs and
performance.
3-10
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

LO 3
Compare
and Contrast
the Major Job Attitudes

Employee Engagement
The degree of involvement with,
satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for
the job.
Engaged employees are passionate
about their work and company.

3-11
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

LO 3
Compare
and Contrast
the Major Job Attitudes

Are these job attitudes really all that distinct?


No, these attitudes are highly related; and
while there is some distinction, there is also
a lot of overlap that may cause confusion.
Recent research identifies employees as being
Enthusiastic stayers
Reluctant stayers
Enthusiastic leavers
Reluctant leavers
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-12

Define
Job
Satisfaction
LO 4
and Show How It Can Be
Measured

3-13
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Define
Job
Satisfaction
LO 4
and Show How It Can Be
Measured

Job Satisfaction
A positive feeling about a job resulting
from an evaluation of its characteristics.
Two approaches for measuring job
satisfaction are popular
The single global rating.
The summation of job facets.
3-14
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Define
Job
Satisfaction
LO 4
and Show How It Can Be
Measured

How satisfied are people in their jobs?


Over the last 30 years, employees in
the U.S. and most developed countries
have generally been satisfied with their
jobs.
With the recent economic downturn, more
workers are less satisfied.
Satisfaction levels differ depending on the
facet involved.
Employees in Western cultures have higher
levels of job satisfaction as compared to
employees in Eastern cultures.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-15

Define
Job
Satisfaction
LO 4
and Show How It Can Be
Measured

3-16
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Define
Job
Satisfaction
LO 4
and Show How It Can Be
Measured

3-17
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summarize the Main


Causes of Job Satisfaction

LO 5

What causes job satisfaction?


Research shows that job satisfaction is
correlated with life satisfaction.
Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.
Personality also plays a role in job satisfaction.
People who have positive core selfevaluations, who believe in their inner
worth and basic competence, are more
satisfied with their jobs than those with
negative core self-evaluations.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-18

Summarize the Main


Causes of Job Satisfaction

LO 5

3-19
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

LO 6
Identify
Four Employee
Responses to Dissatisfaction

3-20
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

LO 6
Identify
Four Employee
Responses to Dissatisfaction
More specific outcomes of job satisfaction include:
Job Satisfaction and Job Performance
Happy workers are more likely to be productive
workers.
Job Satisfaction and OCB
People who are more satisfied with their jobs are more
likely to engage in OCB.
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction
and loyalty.
Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism
There is a consistent negative relationship between
satisfaction and absenteeism, but it is moderate to
weak.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-21

LO 6
Identify
Four Employee
Responses to Dissatisfaction
Job Satisfaction and Turnover
A pattern of lowered job satisfaction is a predictor
of possible intent to leave.
Job Satisfaction and Workplace Deviance
If employees dont like their work environment,
theyll respond somehow.
Managers Often Dont Get It
Many managers are unconcerned about employee
job satisfaction.
Others overestimate how satisfied employees are
with their jobs, so they dont think theres a
problem when there is one.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-22

Implications for Managers


Pay attention to your employees job satisfaction
levels as determinants of their performance,
turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors.
Measure employee job attitudes objectively and
at regular intervals in order to determine how
employees are reacting to their work.
To raise employee satisfaction, evaluate the fit
between the employees work interests and the
intrinsic parts of his/her job to create work that is
challenging and interesting to the individual.
Consider the fact that high pay alone is unlikely
to create a satisfying work environment.
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-23

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3-24
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.