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APPLICATIONS OF

SONIC LOG

Presented by
Badal Dutt Mathur
10410007
5th Year Integrated M.tech Geological Technology

Well Log

A well log is a continuous record of some


property of the formation penetrated by
borehole with respect to the borehole depth

There are many logs and corresponding


logging tools for different objectives

Fig 1.1 Well Log

Sonic Log

The sonic log measures interval transit time (t) of a


compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of
formation.

The units are micro seconds/ft, which is the inverse of


velocity.

Principles of measurements

The tool measures the time it takes for a pulse of sound


(i.e., and elastic wave) to travel from a transmitter to a
receiver, which are both mounted on the tool. The
transmitted pulse is very short and of high amplitude vice
versa.
Receiver
Transmitter

Working Tools

1.Early Tool
2.Dual Receiver Tool
3.Borehole Compensated Sonic(BHC) Tool

Early
Tool
1. Early tools had one Tx and one Rx.
2. The body of the tool was made from
rubber (low velocity and high
attenuation material) to stop wave
travelling preferentially down the
tool to the Rx.
There was main problems with this
tool.
The measured travel time was always
too long.
t=A+B+C

Tx

Rx

Fig 1.2 Early Sonic Tools

Dual Receiver Tool


These tools were designed to overcome
the problems in the early tools.
They use two receivers a few feet
apart, and measure the difference in
times of arrival of elastic waves at each
Receiver from a given pulse from the
Transmitter

Tx

B
C

This time is called the sonic interval


transit time (t)
TRx1= A+B+C
TRx2= A+B+D+E
t=(A+B+D+E)-(A+B+C)
t=D ( If tool is axial in borehole C=E)

Rx1

Rx2

Fig 1.3 Dual receiver sonic tools in correct configuration

Problem with Dual


Arrangement
Tx Tx

If the tool is tilted in the hole, or the


hole size changes (Fig 3)
Then CE
The two Rx system fails to work.
RxRx
Rx Rx

C
D

Fig 1.4 Dual receiver sonic tools in incorrect configuration

Borehole
Compensated Tool
Automatically compensates for
borehole effects and sonde tilt
It has two transmitters and four
receivers, arranged in two dual
receiver sets, but with one set
inverted
Each of the transmitters is pulsed
alternately, and t values are
measured from alternate pairs of
receivers (Fig.1.5)
These two values of t are then
averaged to compensate for tool
misalignment

Tx

Rx
Rx

Rx
Rx

Tx

Fig1.5 Borehole compensated sonic tools

Applications

Porosity Determination

Secondary and Fracture Porosity

Stratigraphic Correlation

Compaction

Overpressure

Synthetic Siesmogram

Identification of Lithology

Porosity
Determination

The sonic log is commonly used to calculate the porosity of


formations, however the values from the FDC and CNL logs
are superior.

It is useful in the following ways:

1.

As a quality check on the FDC and CNL log determinations.

2.

As a robust method in boreholes of variable size (since the


sonic log is relatively insensitive to caving and wash-outs
etc.).

3.

To calculate secondary porosity in carbonates.

4.

To calculate fracture porosity.

The Wyllie Time


Average Equation

The velocity of elastic waves through a given lithology is a function of


porosity

sonic = sonic derived porosity in clean formation


t = interval transit time of formation
tma = interval transit time of the matrix
(sandstone=55.5,limestone=47.6,dolomite=43.5,anhy
drite=50)
tp = interval transit time of the pore fluid in the well
Fig 1.6 The wave path through porous fluid saturated rocks
bore
(fresh mud = 189; salt mud = 185)

The Wyllie Time


Average Equation
Wyllie
For

Time Average Equation is valid only for

clean and consolidated sandstones

Uniformly

distributed small pores

Correction:

Observed transit times are greater in uncompacted


sands; thus apply empirical correction factor, Cp

c=

/Cp

Cp=c*

tsh/100 (tsh= Interval transit time for the adjacent shale)

C=shale
Fluid

Effect in high porosity formations with high HC saturation.

Correct
OIL:

compaction coefficient (ranges from 0.8 < c < 1.3)

by

corr= c*0.9

GAS:

corr= c*0.7

Secondary and
Fracture Porosity

The sonic log is sensitive only to the primary


intergranular porosity

The sonic pulse will follow the fastest path to the


receiver and this will avoid fractures

Comparing sonic porosity to a global porosity (density


log, neutron log)should indicate zone of fracture.

2 = (N , D ) - S

Stratigraphic
Correlation
The sonic log is sensitive to small
changes in grain size, texture,
mineralogy, carbonate content, quartz
content as well as porosity
This makes it a very useful log for using
for correlation and facies analysis

Fig 1.7 Subtle textural and structural variations in deep sea


turbidite sands shown on the sonic log (after Rider).

Compaction
As a sediment becomes compacted,
the velocity of elastic waves through it
increases
If one plots the interval transit time on
a logarithmic scale against depth on a
linear scale, a straight line relationship
emerges
Compaction trends are constructed for
single lithologies, comparing the same
stratigraphic interval at different
depths
Compaction is generally accompanied
by diagenetic changes which do not
alter after uplift

Fig 1.8 Uplift and erosion from compaction trends.

Overpressure

An increase in pore pressures is shown


on the sonic log by a drop in sonic
velocity or an increase in sonic travel
time
Break in the compaction trend with depth to higher
transit times with no change in lithology

Indicates the top of an


overpressured zone.
Fig 1.9 An overpressured zone
distinguished from sonic log data.

Synthetic
Seismograms

Represents the seismic trace that


should be observed with the
seismic method at the well
location

sonic
velocity

acoustic reflection
impedenc coefficient
e

reflection
coeffiecient
with
transmission
losses

synthetic
seismogram

Improve the picking of seismic


horizons
Improve the accuracy and
resolution of formations of interest

Fig 1.10 The construction of a synthetic seismogram.

Identification of
Lithologies
The velocity or interval travel time is
rarely diagnostic of a particular rock
type
The sonic log data is diagnostic for
coals, which have very low velocities,
and evaporites, which have a constant,
well recognized velocity and transit
time
Sonic log best work with other logs
(neutron
or density)
for lithological
SONIC-NEUTRON
CROSSPLOTS
identification
Developed for clean, liquid-saturated formations
Boreholes filled with water or water-base muds

SONIC-NEUTRON
PLOTS

Fracture South
Gas - NW

Time verag
aField observation
e

100

t, Sonic transit time (s/ft)

Shale - NE region

110

Field

90
80
Syivite

70

Trona
Tr

60
50
40

10

20

30

40
(lspu)

Example

Two types of data is taken


Gamma ray > 80
Gamma ray < 30

Shale
Sandstone

Refrences

Serra, O. (1988) Fundamentals of well-log interpretation. 3rd ed. New


York: Elselvier science publishers B.V.: 261-262

Rider, M. (2002) The geological interpretation of well logs.


2nd ed. Scotland: Rider French consulting Ltd.: 26-32.

Neuendorf, et al. (2005) Glossary of Geology. 5th ed.


Virginia: American geological institute: 90, 379, 742.

Schlumberger (1989) Log interpretation


principles/applications. Schlumberger,Houston, TX

THANK YOU