Anda di halaman 1dari 23

# APPLICATIONS OF

SONIC LOG

Presented by
10410007
5th Year Integrated M.tech Geological Technology

Well Log

## A well log is a continuous record of some

property of the formation penetrated by
borehole with respect to the borehole depth

## There are many logs and corresponding

logging tools for different objectives

Sonic Log

## The sonic log measures interval transit time (t) of a

compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of
formation.

## The units are micro seconds/ft, which is the inverse of

velocity.

Principles of measurements

## The tool measures the time it takes for a pulse of sound

(i.e., and elastic wave) to travel from a transmitter to a
receiver, which are both mounted on the tool. The
transmitted pulse is very short and of high amplitude vice
versa.
Transmitter

Working Tools

1.Early Tool
3.Borehole Compensated Sonic(BHC) Tool

Early
Tool
1. Early tools had one Tx and one Rx.
2. The body of the tool was made from
rubber (low velocity and high
attenuation material) to stop wave
travelling preferentially down the
tool to the Rx.
There was main problems with this
tool.
The measured travel time was always
too long.
t=A+B+C

Tx

Rx

## Fig 1.2 Early Sonic Tools

These tools were designed to overcome
the problems in the early tools.
They use two receivers a few feet
apart, and measure the difference in
times of arrival of elastic waves at each
Receiver from a given pulse from the
Transmitter

Tx

B
C

## This time is called the sonic interval

transit time (t)
TRx1= A+B+C
TRx2= A+B+D+E
t=(A+B+D+E)-(A+B+C)
t=D ( If tool is axial in borehole C=E)

Rx1

Rx2

Arrangement
Tx Tx

## If the tool is tilted in the hole, or the

hole size changes (Fig 3)
Then CE
The two Rx system fails to work.
RxRx
Rx Rx

C
D

## Fig 1.4 Dual receiver sonic tools in incorrect configuration

Borehole
Compensated Tool
Automatically compensates for
borehole effects and sonde tilt
It has two transmitters and four
receiver sets, but with one set
inverted
Each of the transmitters is pulsed
alternately, and t values are
measured from alternate pairs of
These two values of t are then
averaged to compensate for tool
misalignment

Tx

Rx
Rx

Rx
Rx

Tx

## Fig1.5 Borehole compensated sonic tools

Applications

Porosity Determination

## Secondary and Fracture Porosity

Stratigraphic Correlation

Compaction

Overpressure

Synthetic Siesmogram

Identification of Lithology

Porosity
Determination

## The sonic log is commonly used to calculate the porosity of

formations, however the values from the FDC and CNL logs
are superior.

1.

2.

## As a robust method in boreholes of variable size (since the

sonic log is relatively insensitive to caving and wash-outs
etc.).

3.

4.

Average Equation

porosity

## sonic = sonic derived porosity in clean formation

t = interval transit time of formation
tma = interval transit time of the matrix
(sandstone=55.5,limestone=47.6,dolomite=43.5,anhy
drite=50)
tp = interval transit time of the pore fluid in the well
Fig 1.6 The wave path through porous fluid saturated rocks
bore
(fresh mud = 189; salt mud = 185)

Average Equation
Wyllie
For

Uniformly

Correction:

## Observed transit times are greater in uncompacted

sands; thus apply empirical correction factor, Cp

c=

/Cp

Cp=c*

C=shale
Fluid

Correct
OIL:

## compaction coefficient (ranges from 0.8 < c < 1.3)

by

corr= c*0.9

GAS:

corr= c*0.7

Secondary and
Fracture Porosity

## The sonic log is sensitive only to the primary

intergranular porosity

## The sonic pulse will follow the fastest path to the

receiver and this will avoid fractures

## Comparing sonic porosity to a global porosity (density

log, neutron log)should indicate zone of fracture.

2 = (N , D ) - S

Stratigraphic
Correlation
The sonic log is sensitive to small
changes in grain size, texture,
mineralogy, carbonate content, quartz
content as well as porosity
This makes it a very useful log for using
for correlation and facies analysis

## Fig 1.7 Subtle textural and structural variations in deep sea

turbidite sands shown on the sonic log (after Rider).

Compaction
As a sediment becomes compacted,
the velocity of elastic waves through it
increases
If one plots the interval transit time on
a logarithmic scale against depth on a
linear scale, a straight line relationship
emerges
Compaction trends are constructed for
single lithologies, comparing the same
stratigraphic interval at different
depths
Compaction is generally accompanied
by diagenetic changes which do not
alter after uplift

Overpressure

## An increase in pore pressures is shown

on the sonic log by a drop in sonic
velocity or an increase in sonic travel
time
Break in the compaction trend with depth to higher
transit times with no change in lithology

## Indicates the top of an

overpressured zone.
Fig 1.9 An overpressured zone
distinguished from sonic log data.

Synthetic
Seismograms

## Represents the seismic trace that

should be observed with the
seismic method at the well
location

sonic
velocity

acoustic reflection
impedenc coefficient
e

reflection
coeffiecient
with
transmission
losses

synthetic
seismogram

## Improve the picking of seismic

horizons
Improve the accuracy and
resolution of formations of interest

## Fig 1.10 The construction of a synthetic seismogram.

Identification of
Lithologies
The velocity or interval travel time is
rarely diagnostic of a particular rock
type
The sonic log data is diagnostic for
coals, which have very low velocities,
and evaporites, which have a constant,
well recognized velocity and transit
time
Sonic log best work with other logs
(neutron
or density)
for lithological
SONIC-NEUTRON
CROSSPLOTS
identification
Developed for clean, liquid-saturated formations
Boreholes filled with water or water-base muds

SONIC-NEUTRON
PLOTS

Fracture South
Gas - NW

Time verag
aField observation
e

100

## t, Sonic transit time (s/ft)

Shale - NE region

110

Field

90
80
Syivite

70

Trona
Tr

60
50
40

10

20

30

40
(lspu)

Example

## Two types of data is taken

Gamma ray > 80
Gamma ray < 30

Shale
Sandstone

Refrences

York: Elselvier science publishers B.V.: 261-262

## Rider, M. (2002) The geological interpretation of well logs.

2nd ed. Scotland: Rider French consulting Ltd.: 26-32.

## Neuendorf, et al. (2005) Glossary of Geology. 5th ed.

Virginia: American geological institute: 90, 379, 742.