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Raymond Bernard

Factor Analytical Theory

Raymond Cattell-History
Born 1905 in England
World War I led to interest in social issues
Initial training in physics and chemistry
Worked with Spearman--mathematical

Exposed to factor analysis in the U.S.
A key figure in the trait and factor movement
during and after World War II

Factor analysis is a mathematical procedure for reducing a

large number of scores to a few more general variables or

fa a

Correlations of the original, specific scores with the factors are

called factor loadings. Traits generated through factor analysis

may be either unipolar (scaled from zero to some large amount)
or bipolar (having two opposing poles, such as introversion and

For factors to have psychological meaning, the analyst must

rotate the axes on which the scores are plotted. Eysenck used an
orthogonal rotation whereas Cattell favored an oblique rotation.
The oblique rotation procedure ordinarily results in more traits
than the orthogonal method. ctor analysis (a statistical technique used to identify underlying dimensions)
given a list of items determine which item(s) is related to which item(s)

Methods of investigation
Oblique Rotation
P Technique
3 media of observation

Oblique Rotation

Orthogonally rotated axes are at right angles

with each other, which means that

intercorrelation between some factors is zero
i.e. they are independent of one another.
The oblique method assumes some positive
or negative correlation and refers to an angle
of less than or more than 90 degree.
Oblique method produce a larger no. of traits
This is the reason why Cattell extracted more
traits as compared to Eysenck.

P Technique

Cattell's P technique is a correlational procedure that uses

measures collected from one person on many different
occasions and is his attempt to measure individual or unique,
rather than common, traits.
Cattell also used the dR (differential R) technique, which

correlates the scores of a large number of people on many

variables obtained at two different occasions. By combining
these two techniques, Cattell has measured both states
(temporary conditions within an individual) and traits
(relatively permanent dispositions of an individual).

nalysis (a statistical technique used to identify underlying

given a list of items determine which item(s) is related to which item(s)

Cattell used
different sources of data

that enter the correlation matrix:

(1) L data, or a person's life record that comes
from observations made by
(2) Q data, which are based on questionnaires;
(3) T data, or information obtained from
objective tests.

Personality Traits
Personality traits include both common traits (shared by many people) and

unique traits (peculiar to one individual). Personality traits can also be classified
into temperament, motivational (dynamic)
A. Temperament Traits: Temperament traits are concerned with how a person
Of the 35 primary / first-order traits Cattell has identified, all but one
(intelligence) is basically a temperament trait.
Of the 23 normal traits i.e. those found in normal population, 16 were obtained

through Q media and compose Cattell's famous 16 PF scale. Rest 12 measure the
pathological dimension.
The additional seven factors that make up the 23 normal traits were originally

identified only through L data.

Cattell believed that pathological people have the same 23 normal traits as

other people, but, in addition, they exhibit one or more of 12 abnormal traits.
Also, a person's pathology may simply be due to a normal trait that is carried
toan extreme.

-B. Second-Order Traits

The 35 primary source traits tend to cluster

together, forming eight clearly identifiable
second-order traits. The two strongest of the
second-order traits might be called
extraversion/introversion and anxiety.

Dynamic Traits
In addition to temperament traits, Cattell recognized motivational or
dynamic traits, which include attitudes, ergs, and sems.
A. Attitudes
An attitude refers to a specific course of action, or desire to act, in response
to a given situation. Motivation is usually quite complex, so that a network of
motives, or dynamic lattice, is ordinarily involved with an attitude. In addition
a complex set of subgoals, underlies motivation i.e. some goals are susidiary
to others meaning they must be attained in order to reach next goal.
B. Ergs
Ergs are innate drives or motives, such as sex, hunger, loneliness, pity, fear,
curiosity, pride, sensuousness, anger, and greed that humans share with
other primates.
C. Sems
Another name for sentiments.
Sems are learned or acquired dynamic traits that can satisfy several ergs at
the same time. The self-sentiment is the most important sem in that it
integrates the other sems.Identified 27 sems revolving around atitudes
towards family, work, spouse, home, religion, etc.
D. The Dynamic Lattice
The dynamic lattice is a complex network of attitudes, ergs, and sems
underlying a person's motivational structure.

Assumptions of Factor
An inductive method
Exploratory vs confirmatory factor analysis
Founded on quantitative observations
A data reduction approach
Simplify original data
Identify relationships (factors)
Limited by the extent of original data and the

number of individual cases included

A common bias in FA studies


Raymond Cattell also began his work by

identifying certain obvious personality traits,
such as integrity, friendliness, and tidiness
(1950, 1965, 1973, 1982). He called these
dimensions of personality surface traits.
Cattell then obtained extensive data about
surface traits from a large number of people
(nomothetic approach).
Statistical analysis of these data revealed that
certain surface traits seemed to occur in
clusters or groups. Cattell theorized that these
clusters indicated a single underlying trait.
Cattell derived a list of 16 primary or source
traits that he considered to be at the center or
core of personality. He listed each of these traits
as a pair of polar opposites (16PF).

Dimension A
Dimension B

16 key factors of
personality, each with
two dimensions.
These dimensions are
assessed using the
16PF for adults, the
HSPQ for teens, the
CPQ ESPQ for late
and early elementary.
Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004
















Tough Minded

Tender Minded







Self Assured




Group Dependent






Genetic Basis of Traits

Cattell and his colleagues provided estimates

of heritability of the various source traits.

Cattell has found relatively high heritability
values for both fluid intelligence (the ability to
adapt to new material) and crystallized
intelligence (which depends on prior learning),
suggesting that intelligence is due more to
heredity than to environment.

Compared to Cattell, Eysenck
(1) was more likely to theorize before
collecting and factor analyzing data;
(2) extracted fewer factors; and
(3) used a wider variety of approaches to
gather data.

Born in Berlin in 1916,
But as a teenager, he moved to England to escape

Nazi tyranny and made London his home for more

than 60 years.
Eysenck was trained in the psychometrically oriented
psychology department of the University of London,
from which he received a bachelor's degree in 1938
and a Ph.D. in 1940.
Eysenck was perhaps the most prolific writer of any
psychologist in the world, and his books and articles
often caused world-wide controversy. He died in
September of 1997.

Measuring Personality
Eysenck believed that genetic factors were far more

important than environmental ones in shaping

personality and that personal traits could be measured
by standardized personality inventories.
A. Criteria for Identifying Factors
Eysenck insisted that personality factors must (1) be
based on strong psychometric evidence, (2) must
possess heritability and fit an acceptable genetic
model, (3) make sense theoretically, and (4) possess
social relevance.
B. Hierarchy of Measures
Eysenck recognized a four-level hierarchy of behavior
organization: (1) specific acts or cognitions; (2) habitual
acts or cognitions; (3) traits, or personal dispositions;
and (4) types or superfactors.

Major Personality Factors

Eysenck's theory revolves around only three
general bipolar types:
neuroticism/stability, and
psychoticism/superego function.
All three have a strong genetic component.

Dimensions of Personality
Extraverts are characterized by sociability, impulsiveness,

jocularity, liveliness, optimism, and quick-wittedness, whereas

introverts are quiet, passive, unsociable, careful, reserved,

thoughtful, pessimistic, peaceful, sober, and controlled. Eysenck,

however, believes that the principal differences between
extraverts and introverts is one of cortical arousal level.
Neurotic traits include anxiety, hysteria, and obsessive

compulsive disorders. Both normal and abnormal individuals

may score high on the neuroticism scaleof the Eysenck's various
personality inventories.
People who score high on the psychoticism scale are egocentric,

cold, nonconforming, aggressive, impulsive, hostile, suspicious,

and antisocial. Men tend to score higher than women
on psychoticism.

Eysenck and his colleagues developed four
personality inventories to measure
superfactors, or types. The two most
frequently used by current researchers are
the Eysenck Personality Inventory (which
measures only E and N) and
the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (which
also measures P).

Eysencks Two
Emotionally Stable


Introvert | Phlegmatic (calm): Melancholic
|passive, careful, controlled quiet, submissive, anxious,
Extravert | Sanguine (optimistic) Choleric
|sociable, outgoing,
|lively, carefree
excitable, aggressive

Biological Bases of
Eysenck believed that P, E, and N all have a powerful
biological component,
Cortical arousal
Shifts in arousal
He cited as evidence the existence of these three
types in a wide variety of nations and languages.
Eysenck's later work investigated personality factors
across 35 European, Asian, African, and American
cultures and found that personality factors are quite
universal, thus supporting the biological nature of

Personality and Behavior

Eysenck argued that different combinations of
P, E and N relate to a large number of
behaviors and processes, such as academic
performance, creativity, and antisocial

Critique of Trait and Factor Theories

Cattell and Eysenck's theories rate high on
on their ability to generate research, and
on their usefulness in organizing data
Concept of Humanity
Cattell and Eysenck believe that human personality is
largely the product of genetics and not the environment.
Thus, both are rated very high on biological influences
and very low on social factors.
In addition, both rate about average on conscious versus
unconscious influences and high on the uniqueness of
individuals. The concepts of free choice, optimism
versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology do not
apply to Cattell and Eysenck.

Following Cattell, trait data collected in

more comprehensive, and multivariate

Further factor analysis

Cattells data replicated with new, diverse
samples, multiple cultures, different
languages, children, and over time
lay-person trait terms included
More observations and nonverbal

Findings showed 5 factors!