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ENGR 214

Chapter 12
Kinetics of Particles:
Newtons Second Law

All figures taken from Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics,

Beer and Johnston, 2004
1

Newtons Second Law of Motion

If the resultant force acting on a particle is not
zero, the particle will have an acceleration
proportional to the magnitude of resultant and
in the direction of the resultant.

r
r
F ma

r
r
F ma

We must use a Newtonian frame of reference, i.e., one that is

not accelerating or rotating.
If no force acts on particle, particle will not accelerate, i.e., it will
remain stationary or continue on a straight line at constant
velocity.
2

Linear Momentum of a Particle

r
r
r
dv
F ma m dt
d
r
d r
mv
L
dt
dt

r
r
L mv

Linear momentum

r r&
Sum of forces = rate of change of linear momentum F L
r
If F 0

Principle of conservation of linear momentum

Equations of Motion

F ma

Convenient to resolve into components:

Fx i Fy j Fz k m a x i a y j a z k

Fx ma x Fy ma y Fz ma z
Fx mx Fy my Fz mz
For tangential and normal components:

mat

dv
F t m dt

man

v2
F n m
4

Dynamic Equilibrium
Alternate expression of Newtons law:

r
ma

r
r
F ma 0
inertia vector

If we include inertia vector, the system of

forces acting on particle is equivalent to
zero. The particle is said to be in
dynamic equilibrium.
Inertia vectors are often called inertia
forces as they measure the resistance
that particles offer to changes in
motion.
5

Sample Problem 12.2

SOLUTION:
Draw a free body diagram
Apply Newtons law. Resolve
into rectangular components

An 80-kg block rests on a horizontal plane. Find

the magnitude of the force P required to give the
block an acceleration of 2.5 m/s2 to the right. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and
plane is k = 0.25.
6

Fx ma :

Psin30

P cos30 0.25 N 80 2.5

Pcos30

200
W mg 80 9.81 785 N
F k N 0.25 N

Fy 0 :
N P sin 30 785 0

N P sin 30 785

P 534.7 N
N 1052.4 N
7

The two blocks shown start from rest.

The horizontal plane and the pulley are
frictionless, and the pulley is assumed to
be of negligible mass. Determine the
acceleration of each block and the
tension in the cord.

O

Kinematic relationship: If A moves xA to

the right, B moves down 0.5 xA
x

xB 12 x A

aB 12 a A

F
F

mAa A

T1 100 a A

mB aB

mB g T2 mB aB

T2 2940- 300 aB

mC aC

2940- 300 aB 2T1 0

T2 2T1 0
2940- 300 aB 200a A 0

2940- 300 aB 2 200aB 0

2
aB 4.2 m / s 2 a A 8.4 m / s

T1 840 N

T2 1680 N
9

Block

Wedge

The 12-lb block B starts from rest and slides

on the 30-lb wedge A, which is supported by
a horizontal surface.
Neglecting friction, determine (a) the
acceleration of the wedge, and (b) the
acceleration of the block relative to the
wedge.

10

Draw free body diagrams for block & wedge

N1sin
N1
N1
N cos
1

WBsin

aBn

WB WBcos

aBt

WB sin mB aBt
12 0.5

12
aBt
32.2

aA

aBt 16.1 ft / s 2

N1 cos WA N 2

N1 WB cos mB aBn
But

aBn a A sin

30
0.5 N1
aA
32.2

Same normal acceleration (to maintain contact)

N1 WB cos mB a A sin
a A 5.08 ft / s 2

N1 sin mAa A

N1 10.39

12 0.5
aA
32.2

aBn 2.54 ft / s 2
11

N1sin

N1
aBn
aBt

N1

N1cos

WBsin
WB WBcos
aA

aBx aBt cos aBn sin 12.67 ft / s 2

aBy aBt sin aBn cos 10.25 ft / s 2

r
r
r
r
aB / A 12.67i 10.25 j 5.08i
r
r
17.75i 10.25 j

r
r r
aB / A aB a A
30
20.5
12

The bob of a 2-m pendulum describes an arc of a circle in a

vertical plane. If the tension in the cord is 2.5 times the
weight of the bob for the position shown, find the velocity
and acceleration of the bob in that position.
13

Sample Problem 12.5

Resolve into tangential and normal components:
Ft mat :

mg sin 30 mat
at g sin 30

Fn man :

at 4.9 m s 2

2.5mg mg cos 30 man

an g 2.5 cos 30

an 16.03 m s 2
Solve for velocity in terms of normal acceleration.
mgsin30
mgcos30

v2
an

v an

2 m 16.03 m s 2
v 5.66 m s

14

Sample Problem 12.6

SOLUTION:
The car travels in a horizontal circular
path with a normal component of
acceleration directed toward the center
of the path.The forces acting on the car
are its weight and a normal reaction
Determine the rated speed of a
highway curve of radius = 400 ft
banked through an angle = 18o. The
rated speed of a banked highway curve
is the speed at which a car should
travel if no lateral friction force is to
be exerted at its wheels.

Resolve the equation of motion for

the car into vertical and normal
components.
Solve for the vehicle speed.

15

Sample Problem 12.6

Resolve the equation of motion for
the car into vertical and normal
components.
R cos W 0
Fy 0 :
W
R
cos
SOLUTION:
The car travels in a horizontal circular
path with a normal component of
acceleration directed toward the center
of the path.The forces acting on the
car are its weight and a normal

Fn man : R sin

W
an
g

W
W v2
sin
cos
g
Solve for the vehicle speed.
v 2 g tan

32.2 ft s 2 400 ft tan 18

v 64.7 ft s 44.1 mi h
16

Angular Momentum

r
r
From before, linear momentum: L mv

Now angular momentum is defined as the moment of momentum

r
r
r
H O r mv

r
H O is a vector perpendicular to the plane
r
r

containing r and mv

H O mv r mr 2&

Derivative of angular momentum with respect to time:

r& r
r r
r r
r r
r
H O r& mv r mv& v mv r ma
r
r
r F
r
MO
Sum of moments about O = rate of change of angular momentum
17

Equations of Motion in Radial & Transverse Components

Fr mar
F ma

m r r
m r 2r

18

Central Force
When force acting on particle is directed
toward or away from a fixed point O, the
particle is said to be moving under a
central force.
O = center of force
Since line of action of the central force passes through O:

r
r&
M O HO 0

r
r r
r mv H O constant
19

Sample Problem 12.7

SOLUTION:
equations of motion for the block.
Integrate the radial equation to find an
A block B of mass m can slide freely on
a frictionless arm OA which rotates in a
horizontal plane at a constant rate 0 .

Substitute known information into the

transverse equation to find an
expression for the force on the block.

Knowing that B is released at a distance

r0 from O, express as a function of r
a) the component vr of the velocity of B
along OA, and
b) the magnitude of the horizontal force
exerted on B by the arm OA.
20

Sample Problem 12.7

&
r& r&2
dvr dvr dr
dvr

vr
r v r
dt
dr dt
dr
But vr r&
r&2 vr

equations of motion:

Fr m ar
F

m a

0m &
r& r&2

vr

dvr
dr

r&2 dr vr dvr

&2 dr
v
dv

r r o
0

& 2r&
F m r&
&

ro

2
2
2
vr2 &
r

r
0
0

2
2 12
&
vr 0 r r0
2
2
2 12
&
F 2m 0 r r0
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