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Networking

INSTRUCTOR: S.D.BANERJEE

Networking

What is network?
A network is a group of
computers
connected
together in a way that
allows information to be
exchanged between the
computers.
Computers on a network
are called nodes.

What is networking?
Connecting two or more
computers together so
that
they
can
communicate with each
other. Networking relies
on standardized forms of
communications so that
computers
can
understand and decode
the information sent from
another computer.

Why required?
Resource

sharing
World-wide access
Store, Retrieve & Modify any kind of
information
Access to information

Types of Networks
Local

Area Networks (LAN)


Metro-politan Area Networks (MAN)
Wide Area Networks (WAN)

LAN Local Area Network

A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs


are confined to a single building or group of buildings.

WAN - Wide Area Network


The computers are on different sites and are linked by carrier
links. A computer may need to use Modems, Routers and
leased lines to link to the system.

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network

A data network designed for a town or city. In terms of geographic breadth,


MANs are larger than local-area networks (LANs), but smaller than widearea networks (WANs). MANs are usually characterized by very high-speed
connections using fiber optical cable or other digital media.

Centralized network

Based on direct cabling


Costly
Clients do not have
independent
processing capability.

Client / Server network

Clients have independent processing power and


local storage of their own.
These are based on less centralized hardware.
Different servers can be dedicated to different
functions.
Controlled by NOS - NT/2000/2003 server.

Peer to Peer

All the computers in the network are peers, equals, "buddies.


Any or all of them can act as a network resource, providing
files, printers, and even disk storage to the others.
Recommended for small groups of five to ten workstations
located in the same area.
Easy to installation, relatively low cost, and ease of
administration

What are Network Topologies?


Topology refers to the shape of a network, or
the network's layout. How different nodes in a
network are connected to each other and how
they communicate are determined by the
network's topology. Topologies are either
physical or logical.

Bus Topology

All devices are connected to a


central cable, called the bus
or backbone.
Here in general the cable
used is the Co-axial cable.
The First and the Last Node
Need to be Terminated.
Each node is dependent on
each other i.e., any break in
the bus cable brings the
complete network down.

Star Topology

All devices are connected to


a
central
hub.
Nodes
communicate
across
the
network by passing data
through the hub.
In General The UTP Cable is
used
in
this
kind
of
networking.
Each node is independent of
each other i.e., a break in the
network effects one node
only.

Ring Topology

All devices are connected to


one another in the shape of
a closed loop, so that each
device is connected directly
to two other devices, one on
either side of it.
In general Co-axial Cable is
used.
Each node is Dependent on
the other.

Mesh Topology

Devices are connected with


many
redundant
interconnections
between
network nodes. In a true
mesh topology every node
has a connection to every
other node in the network.
If one connection breaks
even then the computer
remains on the network
through
the
alternate
connection.

Hybrid or Tree Topology

A hybrid topology. Groups of


star-configured
networks
are connected to a linear
bus backbone.

Types of Network Cables


Thin

Ethernet Co-axial Cables


Thick Ethernet Co-axial Cables
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Cables
STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) Cables
Fiber Optic Cables

Thin Ethernet Co-axial Cable

Technical Name RG58


Used for 10base2 Networks
It has an Impedance of 50
ohms and hence requires a
termination by a 50 ohms
terminator
Total Length of a Cable
segment 185 meters
Max number of nodes 30
Common implementation in
BUS and RING Topology
Speed of the Network
10Mbps

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Technical Name RG8


Used for 10baseT and
100baseT Networks
They have Different
Categories from 1-6
Total Length of a Cable
segment 100 meters
Common implementation in
Star Topology
CAT3 cable has a speed of
10Mbps
CAT5 Cable has a Speed of
100 Mbps

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)


It is the same as UTP,
However is used in
areas where there is a
lot of electromagnetic
interference. It has a
Shielding over the 4
pairs.

Fiber Optic Cable


Fiber-optic lines are
strands of optically pure
glass as thin as a
human hair that carry
digital information over
long distances. They
transmit light signals
which in turn carry the
information.

Network Devices
Network

Interface Cards (NIC)

Hub
Switches
Routers

Network Interface Card

NIC provides a hardware interface between a computer and a network.


The term NIC most commonly refers to network adapter hardware.
These devices plug into the system bus of the PC and include jacks for
network cables.
The primary consideration with Ethernet NICs is the speed they
support - 10 Mbps traditional, 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet, or both (dualspeed).
.

Hub
A hub is a small, simple,
inexpensive device that
joins multiple computers
together at a low-level
network protocol layer.
One end of an Ethernet
cable (that has an RJ-45
connector attached) into the
hub, while the other end of
the cable runs to the
computer's
network
interface card (NIC).

Switch

A switch is a small device that joins multiple computers together at a low-level


network protocol layer.
Technically, switches operate at layer two (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model.
Switches look nearly identical to hubs, but a switch generally contains more
"intelligence" than a hub.

Router
A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is
connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs
or a LAN and its ISPs network. Routers are located at gateways,
the places where two or more networks connect.

Network Protocol

A "language" of rules and conventions for


communication between devices.
It includes formatting rules that specify how data is
packaged into messages.
It
may
include
conventions
like
message
acknowledgement or data compression to support
reliable and/or high-performance communication.
Examples are -TCP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP.

Network Operating System

Fault-tolerance.
Security.
Manage different levels of access.
The ability to validate any number of users.
Backup capability.
Centralized monitoring and administration.
The ability to manage multiple applications.

Open System Interconnection


An ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
standard for worldwide communications that defines a
networking framework for implementing protocols in
seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the
next, starting at the application layer in one station,
proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the
next station and back up the hierarchy.

Application Layer

Supports application and


end-user processes
Everything at this layer is
application-specific.
This
layer
provides
application services for file
transfers, e-mail, and other
network software services.
Telnet
and
FTP
are
examples.

Presentation Layer

This
layer
provides
independence
from
differences
in
data
representation
(e.g.,
encryption)
by
translating
from
application to network
format, and vice versa.

Session Layer

It deals with session


and
connection
coordination.

Transport Layer

This layer provides


transparent transfer of
data
between
end
systems, or hosts, and
is responsible for endto-end error recovery
and flow control. It
ensures complete data
transfer.

Network Layer

Routing and forwarding


are functions of this
layer, as well as
addressing,
internetworking, error
handling,
congestion
control
and
packet
sequencing.

Data Link

At this layer, data


packets are encoded
and decoded into bits. It
furnishes transmission
protocol knowledge and
management
and
handles errors in the
physical layer, flow
control
and
frame
synchronization.

Physical Layer

This layer conveys the


bit stream - electrical
impulse, light or radio
signal -- through the
network at the electrical
and mechanical level. It
provides the hardware
means of sending and
receiving data on a
carrier,
including
defining cables, cards
and physical aspects.

TCP/IP

Technically, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet


Protocol (IP) are two distinct network protocols.
TCP and IP are so commonly used together, though, that TCP/IP
has become standard terminology to refer to either *or* both of
the protocols.
IP roughly corresponds to the Network layer (layer 3) in the OSI
model
TCP corresponds to the Transport layer (layer 4) in OSI.
TCP/IP refers to network communications where the TCP
transport is used to deliver data across IP networks.

TCP/IP

TCP/IP is basically a protocol suit which consists of two protocols TCP


and IP. It is also referred to as a protocol stack ie a group of protocols
that all work together to allow software or hardware to perform a
function. It uses four layers that map to the OSI model as follows:

IP Addressing

An IP address consists of 32 bits.


These are Divided into 4 Octets of 8 bits each.
Each octet is separated by a period symbol to improve
readability.
eg. 11001100.10101010.00001111.11001100
To make them easier to remember ip addresses are expressed in
dotted decimal numbers format
eg. 205.54.55.106.

IP Addressing

Each IP address includes a network ID and a host ID.


The network ID (also known as a network address) identifies the
systems that are located on the same physical network bounded
by IP routers. All systems on the same physical network must
have the same network ID. The network ID must be unique to the
internetwork.
The host ID (also known as a host address) identifies a
workstation, server, router, or other TCP/IP host within a network.
The address for each host must be unique to the network ID.

IP Addressing

There can be 232 or 4,294,967,296 unique values.


The decimal value of each octet can vary from 0 to 28 1 or 255.
For the Internet, where every computer should have a unique IP
address, InterNIC now known as Network Solutions allots IP
Address.
IP addresses are classified according to the size of the network.
These classes are -

Class A Networks
Network
(0)xx

yyy

Host
yyy

yyy

First octet for Networks and last three for nodes.


There can be 16,777,214 (224 -2) possible hosts in each network.
First bit of first octet is always zero. Hence the decimal value of
first octet can be from 0 to 127 (27 1). (0 and 127 are not used).
There can be a total of 126 networks.

Class B Networks
Network
(10)xx
xxx

Host
yyy

yyy

First Two octet for Networks and last Two for nodes.
There can be 65,534 (216 -2) possible hosts in each
network.
First two bits of first octet is always 10. Hence the
decimal value of first octet can be from 128 to 191.
There can be a total of 16,384 (214) networks.

Class C Networks
(110)xx

Network
xxx

xxx

Host
yyy

First 3 octet for Networks and last for nodes.


There can be 254 (28 -2) possible hosts in each
network.
First three bits of first octet are always 110. Hence
the decimal value of first octet can be from 192 to
223.
There can be a total of 2,097,152 (221) networks.

Class D Networks

First Four bits of first octet are always 110. Hence the decimal
value of first octet can be from 224 to 239.
These IP addresses are reserved for a Multicast. Multicast is a
mechanism for defining groups of nodes and sending IP
messages to that group rather than to every node on the LAN
(broadcast) or just one other node (unicast).

Special Reserved IP Address

255.255.255.255 is a special limited broadcast IP address. This


address is used by nodes to broadcast on Local LAN. The range
255.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 is reserved for broadcast.
127.0.0.1 is the loopback address in IP. Loopback is a test
mechanism of network adapters. Messages sent to 127.0.0.1 do
not get delivered to the network. Instead, the adapter intercepts
all loopback messages and returns them to the sending
application. IP applications often use this feature to test the
behavior of their network interface. The complete Range
127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 is reserved.

Special Reserved IP Address

0.0.0.0 to 0.255.255.255 are the Zero Addresses and are not


considered part of the normal Class A range. 0.x.x.x addresses
serve no particular function in IP, but nodes attempting to use
them will be unable to communicate properly on the Internet.
X.X.X.0 refers to a complete range from X.X.X.0 to X.X.X.255,
hence it is not assigned to a node. It may also be written as
X.X.X
X.X.X.255 is the broadcast address and is not assigned to a
node.
X.X.X.1 is conventionally used for the router or gateways.

Special Private IP Addresses


The IP standard defines specific address ranges within Class A,
Class B, and Class C reserved for use by private networks
(intranets). The table below lists these reserved ranges of the IP
address space.

Class
A
B
C

Start Address
10.0.0.0
172.16.0.0
192.168.0.0

Finish Address
10.255.255.255
172.31.255.255
192.168.255.255

What is a SUBNET

A portion of a network that shares a common address


component. On TCP/IP networks, subnets are defined as all
devices whose IP addresses have the same prefix. For example,
all devices with IP addresses that start with 100.100.100. would
be part of the same subnet. Dividing a network into subnets is
useful for both security and performance reasons. IP networks
are divided using a subnet mask.

SUBNET MASK

Also referred to as an address mask is a 32-bit value which is


used to distinguish the network ID from the host ID in an arbitrary
IP address. The bits of the subnet mask are defined as:
All bits that correspond to the network ID are set to 1.
All bits that correspond to the host ID are set to 0.
Each host on a TCP/IP network requires a subnet mask even on
a single-segment network.
Subnet masks are frequently expressed in dotted decimal
notation.

To Summarize
Class

Value for Network ID


st
Portion
1 octet

Host ID
Portion

Available
Networks

Hosts per
Network

1126

x.y.z

126

16,777,214

128191

w .x

y.z

16,384

65,534

192223

w .x.y

2,097,152

254

Class

Bits for Subnet Mask

Subnet Mask

11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000

255.0.0.0

11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000

255.255.0.0

11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 255.255.255.0

Why Name Resolution?

IP Address is hard to remember for humans.


Relating a number to a person or service is difficult.
Applications frequently require computer names for host
identification.
users prefer the friendly name www.yahoo.com, instead of its IP
address, 216.109.118.66.

Domain Name System Name


Resolution

DNS name resolution is used on the Internet to map friendly


names to IP addresses, and vice versa.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a global, distributed
database based on a hierarchical naming system.
DNS replaces the functionality of the Hosts file, which requires
manual maintenance at each workstation.
In previous versions of Windows, NetBIOS was used as the
primary method of name-to-IP resolution.
In Windows 2000, DNS is the default name resolution method.

Some Terms

Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

The FQDN is a DNS name that uniquely identifies the


computer on the network.
By default, it is a concatenation of the host name, the
primary DNS suffix, and a period.
The fully qualified domain name is also known as the full
computer name.
For example, an FQDN might be client1.reskit.com.

Dynamic Host Configuration


Protocol

DHCP is a TCP/IP standard that reduces the complexity and


administrative overhead of managing network client IP address
configuration.
DHCP runs on a server computer ie. any computer running the
DHCP service.
It enables the automatic, centralized management of IP
addresses and other TCP/IP configuration settings for the
network's client computers.

Why DHCP?

Every device on a TCP/IP-based network must have a unique IP


address.
IP configuration must be done for

all new computers.


computers moving from one subnet to another.
computers removed from the network.
By deploying DHCP in a network, this entire process is
automated and centrally managed.

How DHCP Works?


The network administrator
establishes one or more
DHCP servers that maintain
TCP/IP configuration
information and provide
address configuration to
DHCP-enabled clients in
the form of a lease offer.

How DHCP Works?

The DHCP server stores the configuration information in a database,


which includes:
Valid TCP/IP configuration parameters for all clients on the network.
Valid IP addresses, maintained in a pool for assignment to clients, as
well as reserved addresses for manual assignment.
Duration of the lease offered by the serverthe length of time for which
the IP address can be used before a lease renewal is required.
A DHCP-enabled client, upon acceptance of a lease offer, receives:
A valid IP address for the network it is joining.
Additional TCP/IP configuration parameters, referred to as DHCP
options.

DHCP Lease Process

A DHCP-enabled client obtains


a lease for an IP address from
a DHCP server.
Before the lease expires, the
DHCP server must renew the
lease for the client or the client
must obtain a new lease.
Leases are retained in the
DHCP server database
approximately one day after
expiration.

Installing TCP/IP

In Control Panel, double-click Network and Dial-up


Connections.
Right-click the connection you want to modify.
Select Properties.
On the General tab, click Install.
Select Protocol.
Click Add.
In Network Protocol, select TCP/IP and click OK.
When prompted, click Yes to restart the computer.

Choose IP addressing method

If automatic host configuration is desired, and a DHCP server is


available, enable DHCP.
If automatic IP address assignment is desired, but no DHCP
server is available, enable DHCP to use Automatic Private IP
Addressing (APIPA).
If DHCP or APIPA cannot be used, configure IP address
manually.

Configure IP Address Manually


In Control Panel, open Network and Dial-up Connections.
Right-click the local area connection you want to modify.
Select Properties.
In the General dialog box, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
Click Properties.
In the General dialog box, select the Use the following IP address
option.
Type the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway in the
respective boxes.
The network administrator must provide these values for individual users,
based on the IP addressing plan for your site.
Click OK to save the IP addressing information.
Click OK to save the connection properties.

Configuring TCP/IP
(Step 1)
In Network and Dial-up Connections, right-click the local area
connection, and then click Properties.

Configuring TCP/IP
(Step 2)
In Local Area Connection Properties, select
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click Properties.

Configuring TCP/IP
(Step 3)

If you want IP settings to be assigned


automatically, click Obtain an IP
address automatically, and then click
OK.
If you want to specify an IP address or a
DNS server address, do the following in
the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Properties dialog box

Click Use the following IP address,


and in the IP address field, type the
IP address.

Click Use the following DNS server


addresses, and in Preferred DNS
server and Alternate DNS server,
type the IP addresses of the
preferred and alternate DNS servers.

Local Area Connection Status


icon in System Tray
Icon

None

Description
The local area connection is
active.
The cable is unplugged from
your computer, or from the
wall or hub.
The cable is unplugged from
your computer, or from the
wall or hub.
The driver is disabled.
The network adapter was not
detected.

Location
Network and Dial-up
Connections folder
Network and Dial-up
Connections folder
Taskbar

Network and Dial-up


Connections folder
No icon appears in the
Network and Dial-up
Connections folder

Connectivity Devices and OSI


Layers
Device

OSI Layer

Hub

Physical

Switch

Data Link

Router

Network