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DESIGNATION

&
SELECTION OF WELDING
CONSUMABLES

Selections of SMAW
Welding Electrodes

COVERED ARC WELDING


(SMAW) ELECTRODES
Fast Freeze Electrodes
Cellulosic
Fast solidification, low rate of deposition, deep penetration e.g.
E6010, E6011

Fill-Freeze Electrode
Rutile
Medium rate of deposition, medium penetration
e.g. E6012, E6013

Fast-Fill Electrodes
Iron Powder
High rate of deposition, low penetration, greater % recovery
e.g. E7024

Low Hydrogen Electrodes


Basic
Low H2 10 ml/100 g
e.g. E7016, E7018

Fast Freeze Electrodes

For Positional Welding


Require skill
Flatter bead, distinct ripples, light slag
Use for:

Pipe welding
Vertical up & Overhead
Maintainance
Galvanised & plated
Deep penetration application
4

Fill-Freeze Electrode
Compromising characteristics of Fast
Freeze & Fast Fill
For general welding application
For all positional welding
Able to weld uneven fit-up

Fast-Fill Electrodes
For down-hand (Flat Position) application
Plate thickness > 5 mm
Bead surface smooth, free of ripples, flat
or slight convex, low spatters, heavy slag
Drag welding possible
Use for:
Production welds
6

Low Hydrogen Electrodes


Use for:

X-ray quality weld


Crack sensitive applications e.g. joint restraint
Thick plate welding
High alloying elements
Plate having tensile strength > 70,000 psi
Multi-passes, vertical & overhead even with MS

Fast Fill & Fill freeze characteristics


Dense welds, good notch toughness
Good ductility
Suitable for HCS & low alloy steel
Available in sealed container, require baking
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AWS SMAW ELECTRODE


DESIGNATION AND CODING
Min.Tensile Strength
60,000 psi

E
electrode

60 1

Current/flux
coating

1 all position
2 flat position

AWS SMAW Welding Electrode Codes/Designations for Covered Arc Welding Electrodes
Designation

Covering Type

Current

Remark

EXX10

DC+ only

Organic 0

EXX11

AC or DC+

Organic 1

EXX12

AC or DC-

Rutile

High sodium/potassium

Fill freeze

EXX13

AC or DC

Rutile

High titanic

Fill freeze

EXX14

AC or DC

Rutile, iron powder 4


(approx. 30%)

Fast fill

EXX15

DC+ only

Low-hydrogen 5

basic

Low H2

EXX16

AC or DC+

Low-hydrogen 6

basic

Low H2

EXX18

AC or DC+

Low-hydrogen, iron powder 7, 8


(approx. 25%)
basic

EXX20

AC or DC

Organic + high iron-oxide

EXX24

AC or DC

Rutile, iron powder


(approx. 50%)

EXX27

AC or DC

Mineral (iron oxide), iron powder


(approx. 50%)

High cellulose

Fast freeze
Fast freeze

Low H2
Fill Freeze
Fast freeze (downhand)
Fast fill (downhand)
Low H2
Fast Fill

EXX28

AC or DC

Low hydrogen, iron powder (approx.


50%)

Low H2

a.The prefix E designates electric arc welding electrode


b.The first two digits of four-digit numbers and the first three digits of five-digit numbers indicate minimum tensile strength:
E60XX . 60,000 psi Minimum Tensile Strength
E70XX . 70,000 psi Minimum Tensile Strength
E110XX ... 110,000 psi Minimum Tensile Strength
a.The next-to-last digit indicates position:
EXX1X . All positions
EXX2X . Flat position and horizontal fillets
a.The suffix (Example: EXXXX-A1) indicates the approximate alloy in the weld deposit.

JIS
0 all position
1 all position
2 flat position

electrode

D 43 1 3
43 kgf/mm2

Current/flux
coating

Tensile strength
60,000 psi

10

Welding
Rods

Welding
Position

Polarity

Penetrati
on

Bead
Appearanc
e

Ductility

Notch Toughness

D4301
Ilmenite

F,V,OH,H

AC or
DC ()

Deep

Good

Good

Good

D4303
Lime Titania

F,V,OH,H

AC or
DC ()

Excellent

Good

D4311
High
Cellulose

F,V,OH,H

AC or
DC (+)

Deep

D4313
High
Titanium
Oxides

F,V,OH,H

AC or
DC (-)

Shallow

D4316
Basic Low
Hydrogen

F,V,OH,H

AC or
DC (+)

D4324
Iron powder
Titania

F, H-Fil

AC or
DC ()

Excellent

D4326
Iron powder
Low H2

F, H-Fil

AC or
DC (+)

D4327
Iron Powder
Iron Oxide

F, H-Fil

F: AC or
DC ()
H-Fil: AC
or DC (-)

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Excellent

Good

Excellent

Excellent

11

British Standard
e.g. E5133 B160 20(H)
Process:
covered MMA
electrode

First group
(Table C1)

E 51
Efficiency: %
recovery to
nearest 10%
(110)

Second group
(Table C2 and
C3)

33
Position digit
(Table C5)

Covering
(Table C4)

B 160
Electrical digit
(Table C6)

(H)

Indicates hydrogencontrolled (10 ml/100 g)

12

Table C1 First group


Electrode designation

Tensile strength (N/mm2)

Minimum yield stress (N/mm2)

E43

430 550

330

E51

510 650

360

Table C2 Second group, first digit


First digit

Minimum elongation (%)


E43

Temperature for impact value of


28J (C)

E51
Not specified

Not specified

20

18

+20

22

18

24

20

-20

24

20

-30

24

20

-40

13

Table C3 Second group, second digit


Second digit

Minimum elongation (%)

Impact properties

Impact value (J)


E43
0

E51
Not specified

E43

E51

Not specified

Not specified

Temperature
(C)

22

22

47

47

+20

22

22

47

47

22

22

47

47

-20

Not
relevant

18

Not
relevant

41

-30

47

-50

18

Table C4 Covering
A
AR

Acid (iron oxide)


Acid (rutile)

Basic

Cellulosic

Oxidising

Rutile )medium-coated)

RR
S

Rutile (heavy-coated)
Other types

14

Table C5 Position digit


1

All positions

All positions except vertical-down

Flat and, for fillet welds, horizontal-vertical

Flat

Flat; vertical-down; and, for fillet welds, horizontal-vertical

Any position or combination of positions not classified above

Table C6
Electrical
Codedigit

Direct current

Alternating current

Recommended
electrode polarity

Minimum open-circuit voltage (V)

Polarity as
recommended by
manufacturer

Not suitable for use with a.c.

+ or -

50

50

50

+ or -

70

70

70

+ or -

90

90

90

15

STUDENT HOME ASSIGNMENT


1. Is E6010 Low Hydrogen Welding
Electrode? Why?
2. Suggest which SMAW electrode suitable
for welding in 4G. Why?
3. What type of flux found in E6013. What
are the main contents in the flux?
4. Which electrode suitable for welding thick
section of Low Alloy Steels? Why?
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