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- Question Bank on Kinematics
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Rotating Axes

Translating coordinate system

describes relative motion analysis for velocity

and acceleration

determines the motion of the points on the same

rigid body

determines the motion of points located on

several pin-connected rigid bodies

Rigid bodies are constructed such that sliding

occur at their connections

Rotating Axes

Coordinate system

Use for kinematics analysis

use for analyzing motion of two points on a

mechanism which are not located in the same rigid

body

use for specifying kinematics of particle motion

when the particle is moving along a rotating path

Rotating Axes

In the following analysis, 2 equations are

developed to relate the velocity and acceleration of

2 points, one of which is the origin of a moving

frame of reference subjected to both a translation

and rotation in the plane

The 2 points can represent either 2 points moving

independently of one another or 2 points located on

the same (or different rigid bodies)

Rotating Axes

Position

Consider 2 points A and B, whose location are

specified by rA and rB, measured from the fixed X,

Y, Z coordinate system

Rotating Axes

Base point A represent the origin of the x, y, z

coordinate system assumed to be both translating

and rotating with respect to X, Y and Z system

Position of B with respect to A is specified by the

relative position vector rB/A

Components of this vector can either be

expressed in unit vectors along the X, Y axes i.e. I,

J or by unit vectors along the x, y axes i.e. i and j

Rotating Axes

For developed rB/A will be measured relative to the

moving x, y frame of reference

If B has coordinates (xB, yB)

rB / A xB i y B j

Using vector addition,

rB rA rB / A

Rotating Axes

At the instant considered, point A has a velocity

vA and an acceleration aA, while angular velocity

and angular acceleration of the x, y and z axes are

d / dt respectively

and

All these vectors are measured from the X, Y and

Z axes of reference although they may be

expressed in terms of either I, J and K or i, j or k

components

Rotating Axes

Since planar motion is specified, by the right hand

are always directed perpendicular to

rule, and

the reference plane of motion whereas vA and aA lie

on this plane

Velocity

For velocity of point B,

drB / A

vB v A

dt

Rotating Axes

The last term of this equation is evaluated as

drB / A d

( xB i y B j)

dt

dt

dxB

di dy B

dj

i xB

j yB

dt

dt dt

dt

dxB

dyB

di

dj

i

j xB y B

dt

dt

dt

dt

Rotating Axes

The two terms in the first set of parentheses

represent the components of velocity of point B as

measured by an observer attached to the moving x,

y and z coordinate system, being denoted by

vector (vB/A)xyz

In the second set of parentheses, the

instantaneous time rate of change of unit vectors i

and j is measured by an observer located in a fixed

X, Y and Z system

Rotating Axes

These changes di and dj are due to only an

instantaneous rotation d of the x, y and z axes,

causing i to become i = i + di and j to become

j = j + dj

Magnitudes of both di and dj = 1

(d) since i = i = j = j =1

The direction of di is defined by +j

since di is tangent to the path

described by the arrowhead of i in

the limit as t dt

Rotating Axes

Likewise, dj acts in the i direction, hence

di d

( j) j

dt dt

dj d

(i ) i

dt dt

di

i

dt

dj

j

dt

Rotating Axes

Using the derivative property of the vector cross

product

drB / A

( v B / A ) xyz ( xB i yB j) ( v B / A ) xyz rB / A

dt

Hence

v B v A rB / A ( v B / A ) xyz

Rotating Axes

Acceleration

Acceleration of B, observed from the X, Y and Z

coordinate system, may be expressed in terms of

its motion measured with respect to the rotating or

moving system of coordinates by taking the time

derivative

d ( v B / A ) xyz

d

r

B

/

A

rB / A

aB a A

dt

dt

Rotating Axes

d / dt is the angular acceleration of the

Here

x, y, z coordinate system

For planar motion, is always perpendicular to

measures only

the plane of motion and therefore

the change in the magnitude of

For the derivative of drB/A/dt,

drB / A

( v B / A ) xyz ( rB / A )

dt

Rotating Axes

Finding the time derivative of (vB/A)xyz = (vB/A)xi +

(vB/A)yj

d ( v B / A ) xyz

dt

d (v B / A ) y

d (v B / A )x

i

dt

dt

di

dj

(v B / A )x (v B / A ) y

dt

dt

Rotating Axes

The first two terms in the first set of brackets

represent the components of acceleration of point

B as measured by an observer attached to the

moving coordinate system, as denoted by (aB/A)xyz

The terms in the second bracket can be simplified

by

d ( v B / A ) xyz

dt

(a B / A ) xyz ( v B / A ) xyz

Rotating Axes

Rearranging terms,

rB / A ( rB / A )

aB a A

2 ( v B / A ) xyz (a B / A ) xyz

The term 2 x (vB/A)xyz is called the Coriolis

acceleration, representing the difference in the

acceleration of B as measured from the nonrotating and rotating x, y, z axes

Rotating Axes

As indicated by the vector cross-product, the

Coriolis acceleration will always be perpendicular

to both and (vB/A)xyz

Example 16.19

At the instant = 60, the rod has an angular

velocity of 3 rad/s and an angular acceleration of 2

rad/s2. At the same instant, the collar C is travelling

outward along the rod such that when x = 2 m the

velocity is 2 m/s and the acceleration is 3 m/s 2,

both measure relative to the rod. Determine the

Coriolis acceleration and the velocity and

acceleration of the collar at the instant.

Example 16.19

Coordinate Axes.

The origin of both

coordinate systems is located at point O. Since

motion of the collar is reported relative to the rod,

the moving x, y, z frame of reference is attached to

the rod.

Kinematic Equations

vC vO rC / O ( vC / O ) xyz

rC / O ( rC / O ) 2 ( v C / O ) xyz (aC / O ) xyz

a C aO

Example 16.19

It will be simpler to express the data in terms of i, j,

k component vectors rather than I, J, K

components. Hence,

Motion of moving

Motion of C with respect

reference

to moving reference

vO 0

aO 0

3k rad / s

2k rad / s

rC / O 0.2i m

( vC / O ) xyz 2i m / s

(aC / O ) xyz 3i m / s 2

Example 16.19

Therefore Coriolis acceleration is defined as

aCor 2 ( vC / O ) xyz 2(3k ) (2i ) 12 j m / s 2

This vector is shown in figure. If desired, it may be

resolved in I, J components acting along the X

and Y respectively.

Example 16.19

The velocity and acceleration of the collar are

determined by substituting the data in the previous

2 equations and evaluating the cross products,

which yields,

vC v O rC / O ( vC / O ) xyz

0 (3k ) (0.2i ) 2i

2i 0.6 j m / s

rC / O ( rC / O ) 2 ( vC / O ) xyz (aC / O ) xyz

aC a O

0 (2k ) (0.2i ) (3k ) (3k ) (0.2i ) 2(3k ) (2i ) 3i

1.20i 12.4 j m / s 2

CHAPTER REVIEW

Rigid-Body Planar Motion

A rigid body undergoes three types of planar

motion: translation, rotation about a fixed axis and

general plane motion.

Translation

When a body has rectilinear translation, all the

particles of the body travel along straight-line

paths.

CHAPTER REVIEW

If the paths have the same radius of curvature,

then curvilinear translation occurs. Provided we

know the motion of one particles, then the motion

of all others is also known.

CHAPTER REVIEW

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

For this type of motion, all of the particles moves

along circular paths

Here, all segments in the body undergo the same

angular displacement, angular velocity and angular

acceleration.

The differential relationships between these

kinematic quantities are

d / dt

d / dt

d d

CHAPTER REVIEW

If the angular acceleration is constant, = c,

then these equations can be integrated and

become

t

0

1 2

0 0t ct

2

2 02 2 c ( 0 )

CHAPTER REVIEW

Once the angular motion of the body is known,

then the velocity of any particle a distance r from

the axis of rotation is

v r

or

v r

components. The tangential component accounts

for the change in the magnitude of the velocity

at r

or

at r

CHAPTER REVIEW

The normal component accounts for the change

in the velocity direction

an 2r

or

a n 2r

When a body undergoes general plane motion, it

simultaneously translates and rotates.

There are several types of methods for analyzing

this motion:

CHAPTER REVIEW

Absolute Motion Analysis

If the motion of a point on a body or the angular

motion of a line is known, then it may possible to

relate this motion to that of another point or line

using an absolute motion analysis

To do so, linear position coordinates s or angular

position coordinates are established (measured

from a fixed point or line).

CHAPTER REVIEW

These position coordinates are then related using

the geometry of the body .

The time derivative of this equation gives the

relationship between the velocities and/or the

angular velocities

A second time derivative relates the accelerations

and/or the angular accelerations.

CHAPTER REVIEW

Relative Velocity Analysis

General plane motion can also be analyzed using

a relative-motion analysis between two points A

and B.

This method considers the motion in parts; first a

translation of the selected base point A, then a

relative rotation of the body about point A,

measured from a translating axis.

CHAPTER REVIEW

The velocities of the teo points A and B are then

related using

vB v A vB / A

This equation can be applied in Cartesian vector

form, written as

v B v A rB / A

CHAPTER REVIEW

In similar manner, for acceleration,

a B a A (a B / A )t (a B / A ) n

or

2

a B a A rB / A rB / A

Since the relative motion is viewed as circular

motion bout the base point, point B will have a

velocity vB/A, that is tangent to the circle.

CHAPTER REVIEW

It also has two components of acceleration, (aB/A)t,

and (aB/A)n.

It is important to also realize that aA and aB may

have two components if these points move along

curved paths.

CHAPTER REVIEW

Instantaneous Center of Zero Velocity

If the base point A is selected as having zero

velocity, then the relative velocity equation

becomes

v B rB / A

In this case, motion appears as if the body is

rotating about an instantaneous axis.

CHAPTER REVIEW

The instantaneous center of rotation (IC) can be

established provided the directions of the velocities

of any two points on the body are known.

Since the radial line r will always be perpendicular

to each velocity, then the IC is at the point of

intersection of these two radial lines.

Its measured location is determined from the

geometry of the body.

CHAPTER REVIEW

Once it is established, then the velocity of any

point P on the body can be determined from v = r,

where r extends from IC to point P.

Relative Motion Using Rotating Axes

Problems that involve connected members that

slide relative to one another, or points not located

on the same body, can be analysed using a relative

motion analysis referenced from a rotating frame.

CHAPTER REVIEW

The equations of relative motion are

v B v A rB / A ( v B / A ) xyz

rB / A ( rB / A )

aB a A

2 ( v B / A ) xyz (a B / A ) xyz

In particular, the term 2 x (vB/A)xyz is called the

Coriolis Acceleration.

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