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16.

8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Translating coordinate system
describes relative motion analysis for velocity
and acceleration
determines the motion of the points on the same
rigid body
determines the motion of points located on
several pin-connected rigid bodies
Rigid bodies are constructed such that sliding
occur at their connections

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Coordinate system
Use for kinematics analysis
use for analyzing motion of two points on a
mechanism which are not located in the same rigid
body
use for specifying kinematics of particle motion
when the particle is moving along a rotating path

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
In the following analysis, 2 equations are
developed to relate the velocity and acceleration of
2 points, one of which is the origin of a moving
frame of reference subjected to both a translation
and rotation in the plane
The 2 points can represent either 2 points moving
independently of one another or 2 points located on
the same (or different rigid bodies)

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Position
Consider 2 points A and B, whose location are
specified by rA and rB, measured from the fixed X,
Y, Z coordinate system

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Base point A represent the origin of the x, y, z
coordinate system assumed to be both translating
and rotating with respect to X, Y and Z system
Position of B with respect to A is specified by the
relative position vector rB/A
Components of this vector can either be
expressed in unit vectors along the X, Y axes i.e. I,
J or by unit vectors along the x, y axes i.e. i and j

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
For developed rB/A will be measured relative to the
moving x, y frame of reference
If B has coordinates (xB, yB)
rB / A xB i y B j
Using vector addition,
rB rA rB / A

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
At the instant considered, point A has a velocity
vA and an acceleration aA, while angular velocity
and angular acceleration of the x, y and z axes are
d / dt respectively
and
All these vectors are measured from the X, Y and
Z axes of reference although they may be
expressed in terms of either I, J and K or i, j or k
components

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Since planar motion is specified, by the right hand
are always directed perpendicular to
rule, and
the reference plane of motion whereas vA and aA lie
on this plane
Velocity
For velocity of point B,
drB / A
vB v A
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
The last term of this equation is evaluated as
drB / A d
( xB i y B j)
dt
dt
dxB
di dy B
dj

i xB
j yB
dt
dt dt
dt
dxB
dyB
di
dj

i
j xB y B
dt
dt
dt
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
The two terms in the first set of parentheses
represent the components of velocity of point B as
measured by an observer attached to the moving x,
y and z coordinate system, being denoted by
vector (vB/A)xyz
In the second set of parentheses, the
instantaneous time rate of change of unit vectors i
and j is measured by an observer located in a fixed
X, Y and Z system

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
These changes di and dj are due to only an
instantaneous rotation d of the x, y and z axes,
causing i to become i = i + di and j to become
j = j + dj
Magnitudes of both di and dj = 1
(d) since i = i = j = j =1
The direction of di is defined by +j
since di is tangent to the path
described by the arrowhead of i in
the limit as t dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Likewise, dj acts in the i direction, hence
di d

( j) j
dt dt

dj d

(i ) i
dt dt

Viewing the axes in 3D, noting that = k,


di
i
dt

dj
j
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Using the derivative property of the vector cross
product
drB / A
( v B / A ) xyz ( xB i yB j) ( v B / A ) xyz rB / A
dt
Hence
v B v A rB / A ( v B / A ) xyz

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Acceleration
Acceleration of B, observed from the X, Y and Z
coordinate system, may be expressed in terms of
its motion measured with respect to the rotating or
moving system of coordinates by taking the time
derivative
d ( v B / A ) xyz
d
r
B
/
A
rB / A
aB a A

dt
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
d / dt is the angular acceleration of the
Here
x, y, z coordinate system
For planar motion, is always perpendicular to
measures only
the plane of motion and therefore
the change in the magnitude of
For the derivative of drB/A/dt,
drB / A

( v B / A ) xyz ( rB / A )
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Finding the time derivative of (vB/A)xyz = (vB/A)xi +
(vB/A)yj
d ( v B / A ) xyz
dt

d (v B / A ) y
d (v B / A )x

i
dt
dt

di
dj

(v B / A )x (v B / A ) y
dt
dt

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
The first two terms in the first set of brackets
represent the components of acceleration of point
B as measured by an observer attached to the
moving coordinate system, as denoted by (aB/A)xyz
The terms in the second bracket can be simplified
by
d ( v B / A ) xyz
dt

(a B / A ) xyz ( v B / A ) xyz

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
Rearranging terms,
rB / A ( rB / A )
aB a A
2 ( v B / A ) xyz (a B / A ) xyz
The term 2 x (vB/A)xyz is called the Coriolis
acceleration, representing the difference in the
acceleration of B as measured from the nonrotating and rotating x, y, z axes

16.8 Relative-Motion Analysis Using


Rotating Axes
As indicated by the vector cross-product, the
Coriolis acceleration will always be perpendicular
to both and (vB/A)xyz

Example 16.19
At the instant = 60, the rod has an angular
velocity of 3 rad/s and an angular acceleration of 2
rad/s2. At the same instant, the collar C is travelling
outward along the rod such that when x = 2 m the
velocity is 2 m/s and the acceleration is 3 m/s 2,
both measure relative to the rod. Determine the
Coriolis acceleration and the velocity and
acceleration of the collar at the instant.

Example 16.19
Coordinate Axes.
The origin of both
coordinate systems is located at point O. Since
motion of the collar is reported relative to the rod,
the moving x, y, z frame of reference is attached to
the rod.
Kinematic Equations
vC vO rC / O ( vC / O ) xyz
rC / O ( rC / O ) 2 ( v C / O ) xyz (aC / O ) xyz
a C aO

Example 16.19
It will be simpler to express the data in terms of i, j,
k component vectors rather than I, J, K
components. Hence,
Motion of moving
Motion of C with respect
reference
to moving reference
vO 0
aO 0
3k rad / s
2k rad / s

rC / O 0.2i m

( vC / O ) xyz 2i m / s
(aC / O ) xyz 3i m / s 2

Example 16.19
Therefore Coriolis acceleration is defined as
aCor 2 ( vC / O ) xyz 2(3k ) (2i ) 12 j m / s 2
This vector is shown in figure. If desired, it may be
resolved in I, J components acting along the X
and Y respectively.

Example 16.19
The velocity and acceleration of the collar are
determined by substituting the data in the previous
2 equations and evaluating the cross products,
which yields,
vC v O rC / O ( vC / O ) xyz
0 (3k ) (0.2i ) 2i

2i 0.6 j m / s
rC / O ( rC / O ) 2 ( vC / O ) xyz (aC / O ) xyz
aC a O
0 (2k ) (0.2i ) (3k ) (3k ) (0.2i ) 2(3k ) (2i ) 3i
1.20i 12.4 j m / s 2

CHAPTER REVIEW
Rigid-Body Planar Motion
A rigid body undergoes three types of planar
motion: translation, rotation about a fixed axis and
general plane motion.
Translation
When a body has rectilinear translation, all the
particles of the body travel along straight-line
paths.

CHAPTER REVIEW
If the paths have the same radius of curvature,
then curvilinear translation occurs. Provided we
know the motion of one particles, then the motion
of all others is also known.

CHAPTER REVIEW
Rotation about a Fixed Axis
For this type of motion, all of the particles moves
along circular paths
Here, all segments in the body undergo the same
angular displacement, angular velocity and angular
acceleration.
The differential relationships between these
kinematic quantities are

d / dt

d / dt

d d

CHAPTER REVIEW
If the angular acceleration is constant, = c,
then these equations can be integrated and
become
t
0

1 2
0 0t ct
2

2 02 2 c ( 0 )

CHAPTER REVIEW
Once the angular motion of the body is known,
then the velocity of any particle a distance r from
the axis of rotation is
v r

or

v r

The acceleration of the particle has two


components. The tangential component accounts
for the change in the magnitude of the velocity
at r

or

at r

CHAPTER REVIEW
The normal component accounts for the change
in the velocity direction
an 2r

or

a n 2r

General Plane Motion


When a body undergoes general plane motion, it
simultaneously translates and rotates.
There are several types of methods for analyzing
this motion:

CHAPTER REVIEW
Absolute Motion Analysis
If the motion of a point on a body or the angular
motion of a line is known, then it may possible to
relate this motion to that of another point or line
using an absolute motion analysis
To do so, linear position coordinates s or angular
position coordinates are established (measured
from a fixed point or line).

CHAPTER REVIEW
These position coordinates are then related using
the geometry of the body .
The time derivative of this equation gives the
relationship between the velocities and/or the
angular velocities
A second time derivative relates the accelerations
and/or the angular accelerations.

CHAPTER REVIEW
Relative Velocity Analysis
General plane motion can also be analyzed using
a relative-motion analysis between two points A
and B.
This method considers the motion in parts; first a
translation of the selected base point A, then a
relative rotation of the body about point A,
measured from a translating axis.

CHAPTER REVIEW
The velocities of the teo points A and B are then
related using
vB v A vB / A
This equation can be applied in Cartesian vector
form, written as
v B v A rB / A

CHAPTER REVIEW
In similar manner, for acceleration,
a B a A (a B / A )t (a B / A ) n
or
2

a B a A rB / A rB / A
Since the relative motion is viewed as circular
motion bout the base point, point B will have a
velocity vB/A, that is tangent to the circle.

CHAPTER REVIEW
It also has two components of acceleration, (aB/A)t,
and (aB/A)n.
It is important to also realize that aA and aB may
have two components if these points move along
curved paths.

CHAPTER REVIEW
Instantaneous Center of Zero Velocity
If the base point A is selected as having zero
velocity, then the relative velocity equation
becomes
v B rB / A
In this case, motion appears as if the body is
rotating about an instantaneous axis.

CHAPTER REVIEW
The instantaneous center of rotation (IC) can be
established provided the directions of the velocities
of any two points on the body are known.
Since the radial line r will always be perpendicular
to each velocity, then the IC is at the point of
intersection of these two radial lines.
Its measured location is determined from the
geometry of the body.

CHAPTER REVIEW
Once it is established, then the velocity of any
point P on the body can be determined from v = r,
where r extends from IC to point P.
Relative Motion Using Rotating Axes
Problems that involve connected members that
slide relative to one another, or points not located
on the same body, can be analysed using a relative
motion analysis referenced from a rotating frame.

CHAPTER REVIEW
The equations of relative motion are
v B v A rB / A ( v B / A ) xyz
rB / A ( rB / A )
aB a A
2 ( v B / A ) xyz (a B / A ) xyz
In particular, the term 2 x (vB/A)xyz is called the
Coriolis Acceleration.