A discussion of interpretations and misinterpretations of quantum mechanis

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A discussion of interpretations and misinterpretations of quantum mechanis

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So

Interpretations and Misinterpretations of

Quantum Theory

John Stachel

14

Faculty of Sciences (AMU)

Marseille, 15-18 July 2014

It Ain't Necessarily So

by George Gershwin

It ain't necessarily so

It ain't necessarily so

The t'ings dat yo' li'ble

To read in de Bible,

It ain't necessarily so.

show,

It ain't nece-ain't nece

Ain't nece-ain't nece

Ain't necessarily ... so !

My Apologies in

Advance

Time limits require brevity and

brevity is the mother of

dogmatism.

None of my statements should

be interpreted dogmatically

they are all meant to stimulate

critical thinking and further

discussion.

For a copy of my PowerPoint

Examples of

Misinterpretations from

Two Widely Praised

2013 Books

1)What is the

Copenhagen

interpretation?

2)Are Duality and

Complementarity the

same?

Princeton University

Press, 2013

Quantum

Stone attacks

the Copenhagen

interpretation,

focusing on

Borns probabilistic

interpretation of the wavefunction, Heisenbergs

uncertainty principle and Bohrs

mysterious complementarity

Quantum

Einsteins later critiques of

quantum theory focused less on

its indeterminacy and more on

its strange epistemological

status. In quantum mechanics

the actual act of measurement

is part of the theory; these

magic coins just mentioned exist

in a state of (heads, tails)-(tails,

heads) uncertainty until they

Heisenbergs

Copenhagen

Interpretation

aware that he is giving

Heisenbergs interpretation of

quantum mechanics, which is

quite different from Bohrs

interpretation.

You dont have to take my word

for this:

mechanics, Daniel F. Styer et

al, Am. J. Phys. 70 (2002): pp.

288-297

[O]f the two primary architects

of the Copenhagen

interpretation, Werner

Heisenberg maintained that

observation of the position will

alter the momentum by an

unknown and undeterminable

amount, whereas Niels Bohr

warned specifically against

phrases, often found in the

mechanics, Daniel F. Styer et

al, Am. J. Phys. 70 (2002): pp.

288-297

The wave function should be

regarded as a mathematical tool

for calculating the outcomes of

observations, not as a physically

present entity existing in space

such a football, or a nitrogen

molecule, or even an electric

field.

Examples of

Misinterpretations from

Two Widely Praised

2013 Books

1)What is the

Copenhagen

interpretation?

2)Are Duality and

Complementarity the

same?

Pegasus Books,

2013

Farewell to

Reality

Danish physicist

Niels Bohr and

German Werner Heisenberg

argued that particles and waves

are merely the shadowy

projections of an unfathomable

reality into our empirical world

of measurement and perception.

. This approach to quantum

theory became known as the

Copenhagen interpretation.At

the heart of this interpretation

They Are Not

Since Bohr introduced

and developed the

concept of

complementarity in

quantum mechanics, on

this one Ill let Bohr speak

for himself:

Atomic Physics (1938)

It is true that the duality

between the undulatory and

corpuscular conceptions exists

for matter as well as for light,

but this is only one aspect of a

symbolical formalism and its

interpretation must be found in

the classical conceptions. Just as

the mass and charge of the

electron can only be defined

classically, the description of

Atomic

Physics

(1938)

The concepts of the photon and

the material wave are on the

contrary purely abstract

methods of considering the

general nature of

complementarity that exists, by

reason of the individuality of the

quantum of action, between the

spatio-temporal representation

and the principle of

DUALITY

CLASSICAL (h=0)

Radiation

Matter

Waves

Particles

MATHEMATICAL

REPRESENTATION

Characteristics

Trajectories

(wave fronts)

characteristic strips)

DUALS

Bicharacteristics

(world lines,

Ensemble of

COMPLEMENTARITY

SPACE-TIME DESCRIPTION

CONSERVATION OF

(x,t)

ENERGY- MOMENTUM

(E, p)

CLASSICAL (h=0)

Both can be defined and measured for an

individual system

Either can be chosen to define a complete

ensemble

QUANTUM MECHANICAL

(h>0)

Outline of the

Talk:

1) Some

background

information

on my

Traditional

View

A theory is a

conceptual framework

providing predictions .

The results of

experiments or

observations decide

whether the theory is

Gaston Bachelard

(1884-1962)

Scientific Spirit (1938)

In order to include new

experimental tests, it is

necessary to deform the

original concepts, study

their conditions of

applicability, and above all

incorporate the conditions

of applicability of a concept

Spirit (translation

1934).

carefully selected, filtered and

purified; they must be cast in

the mold of scientific

instruments and produced at

the level of these instruments.

Now instruments are just

materialized theories. The

phenomena that come out of

them bear on all sides the

Bachelard

Dont separate

meaning and

measurement:

Incorporate the

conditions of

applicability of a

concept into the

Outline of the

Talk:

2)

Measurability

Analysis

Measurability

Analysis

Measurability analysis

identifies those concepts that

a theory defines as meaningful

within some context and

investigates to what extent

the values associated with

these concepts are ideally

measurable in the defining

context (e.g. concepts of

hardness and viscosity in the

Peter G. Bergmann

Collaborator of

Einstein

Pioneer in study

of quantization

of generally

covariant

theories,

including GR

1982 Measurability Analysis for

the Linearized Gravitational

Field

Measurability analysis

identifies those dynamic field

variables that are susceptible

to observation and

measurement (observables),

and investigates to what

extent limitations inherent in

their experimental

determination are consistent

with the uncertainties

Quantum

Gravity (Stachel 2007)

[M]easurability analysis is

based on the relation between

formalism and observation; its

aim is to shed light on the

physical implications of any

formalism: the possibility of

formally defining any

physically significant quantity

should coincide with the

possibility of measuring it in

principle; i.e., by means of

Warning!

This is not

operationalism Its

not real because its

measurable, it must

be measurable

because its real!

Simple Classical

Example

Hardness and

Viscosity can be

applied to any

substance, but not

simultaneously. If it is

in solid state,

hardness applies; if it

Outline of the

Talk:

3)What

quantization

is and is not

Claimed

Quantization only makes

sense when applied to

fundamental

structures or entities.

Quantum Mechanics

Anything touched by this

formalism thereby seems to be

elevated or should it be

lowered? to a fundamental

ontological status. The very

words quantum mechanics

conjure up visions of electrons,

photons, baryons, mesons,

neutrinos, quarks and other

exotic building blocks of the

Quantum Mechanics

(contd)

But the scope of the quantum

mechanical formalism is by no

means limited to such

(presumed) fundamental

particles. There is no

restriction of principle on its

application to any physical

system. One could apply the

formalism to sewing machines

if there were any reason to do

What IS

Quantization?

Quantization is just a way

accounting for the effects of h,

the quantum of action, on any

process involving some

system,

or rather on theoretical models

of such a system-fundamental or

composite, in which the

Some Non-fundamental

Quanta

1) quasi-particles: particle-like

entities arising in certain

systems of interacting

particles, such as phonons and

rotons in hydrodynamics

(Landau 1941)

2) phenomenological photons:

quantized electromagnetic

waves in a homogeneous,

isotropic dielectric (Ginzburg

Two Kinds of

There are

relations, in which

Relations

the things are primary and

their relation is secondary:

relations between things

There are relations, in which

the relation is primary

while the things are

secondary: things

between relations

Particles, Field

The particlesQuanta

of non-relativistic QM

lack inherent individuality

They are only individuated (to the

extent that they are) by some

process (Feynmans word) or

phenomenon (Bohrs word), in

which they are involved.

Bosons and Fermions can be

arbitrarily permuted without

changing the probability amplitude

for any process, and so are things

Successful

Quantization

Successful

quantization of

some classical formalism does

not mean that one has

achieved a deeper

understanding of reality or

better, an understanding of a

deeper level of reality. It

means that one has

successfully understood the

effects of the quantum of

In my Fathers house

are many mansions-Having passed

beyond the

John 14:2

to explore how to apply

quantization techniques to

various formulations of a

theory without the need to

single one out as the unique

right one. One might say:

Let a hundred flowers

1) Relation Between

Quantizns

If two such quantizations at

one may then investigate the

relation between them

Example: Crenshaw

demonstrates: A limited

equivalence between

microscopic and macroscopic

quantizations of the

electromagnetic field in a

1) (contd)

If two such quantizations at

the same level are carried out,

one may also investigate the

relation between them

Example: the relation between

loop quantization and field

quantization of the

electromagnetic field: If you

thicken the loops, they are

2) Dont Go

Fundamental

The search for a method of

quantizing space-time

structures associated with

the Einstein equations is

quite distinct from:

The search for an

underlying theory of all

fundamental interactions

3) Dont go Exclusive

An attempt to quantize one

set of space-time

structures does not negate,

and need not replace,

attempts to quantize

another set of space-time

structures. Everything

depends on the utility of

Atomic Physics, I.I.I.C.,

Warsaw

The essential

lesson1938

of the analysis of

measure-ments in quantum theory is

thus the emphasis on the necessity,

in the account of the phenomena, of

taking the whole experimental

arrangement into consideration, in

complete conformity with the fact

that all unambiguous interpretation

of the quantum mechanical formalism

involves the fixation of the external

conditions, defining the initial state

of the atomic system concerned and

A Well-defined

Phenomenon

Any measurement in quantum

theory can in fact only refer

either to a fixation of the initial

state or to the test of such

predictions, and it is first the

combination of measurements of

both kinds which constitutes a

well-defined phenomenon.

Human Knowledge

On the lines of objective

description, it is indeed more

appropriate to use the word

phenomenon to refer only to

observations obtained under

circumstances whose description

includes an account of the whole

experimental arrangement. In

such terminology, the

observational problem in

Human Knowledge

and we are, moreover, directly

reminded that every atomic

phenomenon is closed in the

sense that its observation is

based on registrations obtained

by means of suitable

amplification devices with

irreversible functioning such as,

for example, permanent marks

on a photographic plate, caused

Definability and

Measurability

One must always establish a

qualitative and quantitative

consonance between the

concept of an entity, for which

physical significance is

claimed, and an ideal

measurement procedure for

that entity.

If it is a quantum concept, h

(the quantum of action) must

Centenary Talk

It must not be forgotten

that only the classical ideas

of material particles and

electromagnetic waves

have a field of

unambiguous application,

whereas the concepts of

photon and electron waves

Centenary Talk

Their applicability is

essentially limited to cases in

which, on account of the

existence of the quantum of

action, it is not possible to

consider the phenomenon

observed as independent of

the apparatus utilized for their

observation. . [T]he photon

idea is essentially one of

Science: Confusion in

Warsaw

Time Magazine

June 1938 to

No remarkable

new,13

contributions

physical theory came out of Warsaw,

Poland last week, and none was

expected. Nevertheless, an

International Conference on New

Theories in Physics, sponsored by the

League of Nations International

Institute of Intellectual Cooperation,

was in session there, attended by

some 30 giants of theoretical physics.

On hand were Denmark's Niels Bohr

Science: Confusion in

The physicists'Warsaw

talk was lively and brilliant.

But they spent most of their time trying to

find some way to mend the painful gap

between Relativity and Quantum Mechanics,

bickering politely about the validity and

application of physical theories, asking

themselves what physical reality is after all.

Bohr criticized de Broglie and almost

everyone present criticized Sir Arthur

Eddington. Altogether they gave the

impression of giants wallowing in a

quagmire.

Paul Langevin

1872-1946

Realistic Trends in the

Philosophy of Physics

only because it fixes an ideal that is impossible to

attain, but because it excludes the observer from

the system observed, because it separates the

mind from the matter which it tries to penetrate.

describes a system and which allows us to

calculate the probability depending both upon

the system and upon our information about it; it

introduces both the observer and the observed,

the subject and the obect, and every time we

obtain new information, the wave function

appears to change. There are therefore as many

wave functions as observers. .

Bohr on Langevin 1)

[I]n order to avoid any

misunderstanding concerning

the significance of the word

indeterminism, recall that

in quantum effects we were not

dealing with behaviour

independent of the objects, but

that the observable phenomena

essentially depend upon the

interaction of these objects with

the measuring instruments

Bohr on Langevin 1)

That is the reason why we find

ourselves faced by quite a new

situation in physics in which the

traditional conceptions of

determinism or indeterminism

are not univocally applicable. It

is really wonderful that in spite

of this we can, with the help of

mathematical abstractions, put

so much order into a domain so

vast and so rich with

Langevins Response to

Bohr 1)

. He thought that the use

of the word corpuscle

[particle], weighed down by

old associations was

sometimes a source of

confusion and difficulty.

[T]here is a kind of

intermediate picture that

would suit the corpuscle better

than that of an individual

object taken over from

Bohr on Langevin 2)

Professor Bohr wished, with

regard to the use of the

corpuscle idea, to draw

attention to the danger there

would be in confusing the

problem of the individuality of

the photon, which is entirely

quantic, with the corpuscular

properties of the electron, which

can be related to an entirely

Bohr on Langevin 2)

It is true that the duality

between the undulatory and

corpuscular conceptions exists

for matter as well as for light,

but this is only one aspect of a

symbolical formalism and its

interpretation must be found in

the classical conceptions. Just as

the mass and charge of the

electron can only be defined

classically, the description of

Bohr on Langevin 2)

The concepts of the photon and

the material wave are on the

contrary purely abstract

methods of considering the

general nature of

complementarity that exists, by

reason of the individuality of the

quantum of action, between the

spatio-temporal representation

and the principle of

conservation of momentum and

Bohr on Langevin 2)

In fact we might say that from

this point of view the difference

between matter and light is as

fundamental in quantum theory

as in the classical one.

September 18, 1939

I do not believe that the light-quanta

have reality in the same immediate

sense as the corpuscles of electricity

[i.e., electrons]. Likewise I do not believe

that the particle-waves have reality in

the same sense as the particles

themselves. The wave-character of

particles and the particle-character of

light will-- in my opinion-- be understood

in a more indirect way, not as immediate

physical reality."

DUALITY

CLASSICAL (h=0)

Radiation

Matter

Waves

Particles

MATHEMATICAL

REPRESENTATION

Characteristics

Trajectories

(wave fronts)

characteristic strips)

DUALS

Bicharacteristics

(world lines,

Ensemble of

COMPLEMENTARITY

SPACE-TIME DESCRIPTION

CONSERVATION OF

(x,t)

ENERGY- MOMENTUM (E, p)

Going Beyond

Bohr

UNDERLYING SPACE-TIME

STRUCTURES

Metric tensor

Affine

connection

compatibility conditions

ROLE OF MASS

Question, See FFP12

Photons: Their

Emission and Detection

Under what conditions will

an (ideal) device be able to

register?

the emission of a photon

(must be non-destructive);

the detection of a photon

(may be destructive)

Photons: Their

Emission and Detection

The device used must contain

a system with a series of

discrete energy and/or

momentum levels, the

differences between which are

proportional to h so that it can

emit or absorb photons of

energy h and momentum h/,

linked to a system sufficiently

complex that it is able to

Tale

Without interaction

with

a mass-ive system

having discrete quantum levels, neither the

electro-magnetic nor the

gravitational field will

ever manifest their

discrete, particulate

Outline of the

Talk

4) Processes

are Primary,

States are

Secondary

Lee Smolin

Gravity

[R]elativity theory and

quantum theory each ... tell

us-- no, better, they scream at

us-- that our world is a history

of processes. Motion and

change are primary. Nothing

is, except in a very

approximate and temporary

sense. How something is, or

some purposes, but if we want to

think fundamentally we must not

lose sight of the essential fact

that 'is' is an illusion. So to speak

the language of the new physics

we must learn a vocabulary in

which process is more important

than, and prior to, stasis.

Primacy of Process

Phrases such as "at any

moment of time", "at any

given time are appropriate

in Newtonian-Galileian

physics, which is based on a

global absolute time. But

from SR on to GR, this phrase

involves a convention

defining a global time.

Primacy of Process

The only conventioninvariant things are

processes, each involving a

space-time region. This

suggests-- as do many other

considerations-- that the

fundamental entities in

quantum theory are the

transition amplitudes, and

Primacy of Process

And this is true of our

measurements as well: any

measurement involves a finite

time interval and a finite 3dimensional spatial region.

Sometimes, we can get away

with neglecting this, and talking,

for example in NR QM, about

instantaneous measurements.

Primacy of Process

But sometimes we most

definitely cannot, as Bohr and

Rosenfeld demonstrated for

QFT, where the basic quantities

defined by the theory are spacetime averages. Their critique of

Landau and Peierls shows what

happens if you forget this!

indeterminateness for the relativistic

quantum theory"

L. Landau and R. Peierls,

Z. Phys. 69,

Lev Davidovich

56 (1931).

Landau

Rudolf Peierls

Indeterminacy in Measurements by

Charged Particles, Jens Lindhard

Indeterminacy in Measurements

by Charged Particles

In 1931, Landau and Peierls raised

doubts about the consistency of the

quantum theory of electromagnetic

fields, doubts which, if true, were

expected to deprive the theory of

any physical basis. They maintained

that, due to quantal uncertainty

relations, it was not possible to

measure electromagnetic radiation

fields by means of charged particles.

Indeterminacy in Measurements

by Charged Particles

Soon after, Bohr and Rosenfeld

criticized this derivation and went on

to show that electromagnetic fields

could indeed be measured if the

point-like particles of Landau and

Peierls were replaced by spatially

extended charge distributions [and

the measurement extended over a

finite time interval- JS].

Zur Frage der Messbarkeit der elektromagnetischen Feldgrssen, Bohr & Rosenfeld 1933

Niels Bohr

Leon Rosenfeld

On the Measurability of

Electromagnetic Field

Magnitudes (Bohr-Rosenfeld

In their analysis of the co1933)

measurability of electric and

magnetic field components,

rather than Landau-Peierls

test point particles, to get

finite results they had to use

averages over test bodies

occupying finite space-time

regions, paralleling their

similar averaging of the

To Sum It Up:

A quantum process

involves three stages:

preparation,

interaction,

registration.

Big question: How does

h figure in the

Outline of the

Talk

5)

Commutation

Relations in

Quan-tum

Commutation

Relations

One central method of taking

into account the quantum of

action is by means of

introducing commutation

relations between various

particle (non-rel QM) or field

(SR QFT) quantities

(observables) into the

formalism.

But these commutation

in

Quantum

Gravity

JS the

Within

quantum

mechanics,

uncertainty relations-- or better,

using a direct translation of the

German term Unbestimmheit,

the indeterminacy relations-assert that there is a limit to the

simultaneous measurability of a

pair of classical canonically

conjugate variables such as the

position and momentum of a

system.

Some Measurement

Problems in Quantum

Gravity JS

great pains to demonstrate in

his little book "Physical

Principles of Quantum Theory,"

the limit set by the theory on

the simultaneous

measurement of any pair of

canonically conjugate variables

agrees perfectly with the limits

set by any idealized measure-

Philosophy

Introduction by Paul Davies

It is essential to appreciate

that this uncertainty is

inherent in nature and not

merely the result of

technological limitations in

measurement. It is not that the

experimenter is merely too

clumsy to measure position

and momentum

simultaneously. The particle

simply does not possess

Philosophy

Introduction by Paul Davies

One is used to uncertainty in

many physical processes for

example, in the stock market

or in thermodynamics but in

these cases the uncertainty is

due to missing information

rather than to any

fundamental limitation in what

may be known about these

systems.

Outline of the

Talk

6)

Commutation

Relations in

Quan-tum

interval between two events

(Amelino-Camelia and JS 2007)

emphasized by Heisenberg

and Bohr and Rosenfeld, that

the limits of definability of a

quantity within any formalism

should coincide with the limits

of measurability of that

quantity for all conceivable

(ideal) measurement

procedures. For wellestablished theories, this

criterion can be tested. For

example, in spite of a serious

Olivier Darrigol

measurability of quantum

fields (JS transln)

The discussion of these

fundamental difficulties at the

1930 Solvay Congress was

dominated by Bohrs viewpoint

[T]he scope of these

problems and the nature of

their solutions had to be

uncovered by a critique of the

basic concepts of the

threatened theories,

measurability of quantum

fields

by an evaluation of the

possibilities of definition and

of observation within them.

Bohrs main message: On can

only judge the coherence of

the symbolic method by

examining the limits of

observability in the usual

sense

New Heisenberg

Relations?

Heisenberg had been the first to

consider the problem of field

measurements in his Chicago

lectures of spring 1929. [I]n his

analysis of the x-ray microscope, he

tended to privilege the corpuscular

and discontinuous viewpoint above

that of the wave viewpoint. Bohr

had succeeded, not without

difficulty, in convincing him that

the evaluation of the limits of the

corpus-cular viewpoint necessarily

involved calling upon the wave

New Heisenberg

Relations?

But then it became important

for Heisen-berg to show that,

reciprocally, the domain of

applicability of the electromagnetic field concept must be

limited by the existence of

corpuscular aspects. He

provided new uncertainty

relations

ExHy hc/(l)

for the averages of the electric

New Heisenberg

Relations?

should have taken account

not only of the spatial

extension of the field

measurements, but also of

their duration, essential for

the estimation of the role

of quantum fluctuations of

the field.

New Heisenberg

Relations?

arguments of Heisenberg

the Bohr-Rosenfeld article

contains the rigorous proof

that

ExHy = 0

if Ex and Hy are measured in

the same [fourdimensional] domain.

Conceptual Foundations of

Quantum Field Theory

By 1960 on the quantum field

theory side, theorists taught

their students to proceed along

four steps:

1. Specify an interaction

Hamiltonian in terms of

quantum fields.

2. Derive propagators for these

fields from the fields equations

Why Hamiltonians

and Equal-Time

Commutation

Relations?

Tradition!!

(1999)

Bryce DeWitt

When expounding the

fundamentals of quantum field

theory physicists almost

universally fail to apply the

lessons that relativity theory

taught them early in the

twentieth century. Although they

usually carry out their

calculations in a covariant way,

in deriving their calculational

rules they seem unable to wean

which are holdovers from the nineteenth

century, and are tied to the cumbersome

(3+1)-dimensional baggage of conjugate

momenta, bigger-than-physical Hilbert

spaces and constraints. One of the

unfortunate results is that physicists,

over the years, have almost totally

neglected the beautiful covariant

replacement for the canonical Poisson

bracket that Peierls invented in 1952.

DeWitt-Morette,

(Cambridge 2006)

A Legacy, by Pierre

Cartier

Bryce DeWitt constructs the operator

formalism of quantum physics from the

Peierls bracket which leads to the

Schwinger variational principle and to

functional integral representations.

The bracket invented by Peierls in 1952

is a beautiful, but often neglected,

covariant replacement for the canonical

Poisson bracket, or its generalizations,

used in canonical quantization.

Memoirs of Bryce DeWitt from 1946 to 2004

Gravity,

Peierls brackets is that they do

not depend for their definition

on the introduction of a

canonical formalism. They are

completely determined by the

laws of propagation of Jacobi

fields, and their definition

emphasizes the global spacetime

view of dynamics.

When I first realized that Bohr

[T]he PeierlsGravity,

bracket is the

appropriate concept for analyzing

the quantum mechanical limitations

on measurement accuracy. This

analysis says that measurements

can, in principle, always be made to

an accuracy equal to but no better

than that allowed by the a priori

uncertainties implied by the

quantum mechanical formalism.

The Problem of

Quantum Gravity

We need a theory that

can somehow

encompass the

achievements of both

Quantum Field Theory

(background-dependent)

& General relativity

(background-

Story!

Thank You !

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