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IFS310: Week 3

BIS310: Structured
Analysis and Design

Process Modeling and


Data Flow Diagrams

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IFS310: Week 3

Overview
Discussion

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Systems Theory (Input-Process-Output)


Process Modeling and Mechanics of DFDs
Current System Process Modeling
Future System Process Modeling

IFS310: Week 3

Systems Theory and Process


Concepts
A System is a Process
The simplest process model of a system is based on
inputs, outputs, and the system itself viewed a
process.
The process symbol defines the boundary of the
system.
The system is inside the boundary; the environment
is outside that boundary.
The system exchanges inputs and outputs with its
environment
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IFS310: Week 3

input
input
input

The
System
Process
Feeback and
Control Loop

The System's Environment


(constantly changing)

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output
output
output

IFS310: Week 3

System Models
Logical models show what a system is or does. They are
implementation-independent; that is, they depict the system
independent of any technical implementation. As such, logical
models illustrate the essence of the system. Popular synonyms
include essential model, conceptual model, and business
model.
Physical models show not only what a system is or does,
but also how the system is physically and technically
implemented. They are implementation-dependent because
they reflect technology choices, and the limitations of those
technology choices. Synonyms include implementation model
and technical model

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IFS310: Week 3

What is Process Modeling ?


Process modeling is a technique for organizing and
documenting the structure and flow of data through a systems
PROCESSES and/or the logic, policies, and procedures to be
implemented by a systems PROCESSES.
Process modeling originated in classical software engineering
methods.
A systems analysis process model consists of data flow
diagrams (DFDs).
A data flow diagram (DFD) is a tool that depicts the flow of
data through a system and the work or processing performed by
that system. Synonyms include bubble chart, transformation
graph, and process model.
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IFS310: Week 3

Data Flow Diagram


There are only three symbols and one connection:
The rounded rectangles represent processes or work to
be done.
The squares represent external agents the boundary of
the system.
The open-ended boxes represent data stores,
stores sometimes
called files or databases, and correspond to all instances
of a single entity in a data model.
The arrows represent data flows,
flows or inputs and outputs,
to and from the processes.
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IFS310: Week 3

Logical Processes
You should be left only with logical processes that:

Process Name

Gane &
Sarson
Process
Shape

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Perform computations (e.g., calculate grade point


average)
Make decisions (determine availability of ordered
products)
Sort, filter or otherwise summarize data (identify
overdue invoices)
Organize data into useful information (e.g., generate a
report or answer a question)
Trigger other processes (e.g., turn on the furnace or
instruct a robot)
Use stored data (create, read, update or delete a record)

IFS310: Week 3

Data Flows
Data in Motion
A data flow is data in motion.
A data flow represents an input of data to a process, or the
output of data (or information) from a process. A data
flow is also used to represent the creation, deletion, or
update of data in a file or database (called a data store on
the DFD).
A data flow is depicted as a solid-line with arrow.

Name of data-flow

Gane & Sarson


Data Flow Shape
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IFS310: Week 3

System Concepts for Process


Modeling
External Agents
An external agent defines a person, organization unit, other
system, or other organization that lies outside of the scope of
the project, but which interacts with the system being studied.
External agents provide the net inputs into a system, and
receive net outputs from a system. Common synonyms include
external entity.
External Agent

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Gane & Sarson


External Agent
Shape

IFS310: Week 3

System Concepts for Process


Modeling
Data Stores
A data store is an ``inventory of data. Synonyms
include file and database (although those terms are
too implementation-oriented for essential process
modeling).

D1 Data-store name

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Gane & Sarson


Data Store
Shape

IFS310: Week 3

Data Flow Diagramming Definitions


Context Diagram
A data flow diagram (DFD) of the scope of an
organizational system that shows the system
boundaries, external entities that interact with the
system and the major information flows between the
entities and the system

Level-0 Diagram
A data flow diagram (DFD) that represents a systems
major processes, data flows and data stores at a high
level of detail
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IFS310: Week 3

Decomposition of DFDs
Functional decomposition
Act of going from one single system to many
component processes
Repetitive procedure

Level-N Diagrams
A DFD that is the result of n nested decompositions of
a series of subprocesses from a process on a level-0
diagram
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IFS310: Week 3

Guidelines for Drawing DFDs


Completeness
DFD must include all components necessary
for system
Each component must be fully described in the
project dictionary or CASE repository

Consistency
The extent to which information contained on
one level of a set of nested DFDs is also
included on other levels
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IFS310: Week 3

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Figure 3.2
An unbalanced set of data flow diagrams
(a) Context diagram
(b) Level-0 diagram

IFS310: Week 3

Common Mechanical Errors


Membership
application

Employee
Bank statement

Existing account

3.1.1
Generate an
employee bank
statement

3.1.2
Create a new
member account
Employee
status

Employee address
Employees

Member Accounts

New account status

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3.1.3
Freeze member
account number

Frozen account notification

Accounts
Receivable
Department

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Illegal Data Flows


Corrected
data
flows

Illegal
data
flows

B1

B1

DS1

DS1

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B2

DS1

B1

DS2

B1

a process is
needed to
exchange data
flows between
boundaries

B1

a process is
needed to
update (or
use) a data
store

DS1

a process is
needed to
present data
from a data
store

DS1

a process is
needed to
move data
from one data
store to
another

B1

DS1

B1

DS2

IFS310: Week 3

Logical Processes
Logical processes are work or actions that must be
performed no matter how you implement the system.
Even for the future system, at the definition phase, the
process model should be logical.

In the study phase, the current system was analyzed


in three levels of models:
Context Diagram
System Diagram
Event Diagrams

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IFS310: Week 3

Context Diagram

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IFS310: Week 3

System Diagram

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IFS310: Week 3

Event (Child) Diagram(s)

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IFS310: Week 3

How to Model a New System


Step 1: Identify the changes in functional
requirements for the new system
Step 2: Establish the context for the new
system
Step 3: Create a new system diagram
Step 4: Create necessary child diagrams

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IFS310: Week 3

Identify the changes in functional


requirements for the new system
Source: Problem Statement (Cause/Effect)
Prioritize the System Objectives based on the
urgency/importance of the effects
Regroup the objectives into changes in functional
requirements
e.g.,
Operational requirements,
Reporting/Inquiry requirements
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IFS310: Week 3

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IFS310: Week 3

Establish the context for the new


system
Analyze the new functional requirements in terms
of necessary input/output of data
i.e.,
Is there any new input?
Is it necessary to produce new output?
Is it going to allow new functions to external
entities?

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IFS310: Week 3

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New Context Diagram

IFS310: Week 3

Create a new system diagram


Principles for creating new DFD
Keep the model simple
Try to use data stores to connect all the processes

Identify the functions that must be affected by the


new functional requirements
Determine the boundary of the new system

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IFS310: Week 3

New System Diagram

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IFS310: Week 3

Create necessary child diagrams


Explode each function to depict the flow of data
within the function
A list of events within the function will be helpful
Add necessary data stores

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IFS310: Week 3

A New Event (Child) Diagram

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IFS310: Week 3

Group Project (Assignment 2)


Objectives
The goal for this assignment is having all
leveled data flow diagrams (logical). Do your
best to decompose the system (process) into as
detail as you can, using assumptions from your
common sense to the wildest imagination. You
may use Visio, or any other graphical
processors (e.g., Word, or PowerPoint) to create
the diagrams.
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