Anda di halaman 1dari 56

NDT PART 2

Wave forming

Sending a bundle with a conventional


UT probe (EMISSION) :

Sending a bundle with a


Phased-Array UT probe
(EMISSION) :

Pointing an acoustic bundle


according to Huyghens principle

Exact time delays are


electronically generate, so
that a certain angle is
determined

Pointing an acoustic bundle according to


Huyghens principle
Sole introduces diverse time delays so that a
certain angle is determined

Principles of Phased Array


Possibilities of Phased Array Technology
This example illustrates a linear PA probe
Beam Deviation

Beam Focalisation

Beam Deviation +
Beam Focalisation

Combined bundle
processing
The phased-array technology makes it possible to
use almost every combination of bundle
processing's like:
focusing + sending
linear scanning + sending

Contemporary Medical
PA

Example of Phased Array equipme

Omniscan

X: 0 Y: 0

Channel name

Scale Y

Zoom Y

Color palette

End Y

Begin Y

End X
Begin X
Scale X
Zoom X

ASME BPV Code Section VIII div.1 & 2


edition 2001 Code Case 2235-6 and API
620

Vinottes approach on Carbon Steel;


By using linear phased array probes, the
volume will be inspected with multiple TOFD
channels

ASME BPV Code Section VIII div.1 & 2


edition 2001 Code Case 2235-6 and API
620
Vinottes approach on C/St.;
In addition to the two TOFD channels, Phased
Array PE will be applied from both sides to compensate
the limitations of TOFD at the surface and width

Probe movement

Data Visualization for TOFD and PE


Combined

45-SW(left) 60 SW (left)

TOFD

60-SW(right)

45-SW(right)

Justification of the use of


TRL PA probes on stainless
steel
The use of piezocomposite, twin, side by side, phased array
UT probes, gives a good response to all of the
diffuculties that are encountered in stainless steel welds /
casts.
With these TRL PA probes, multiple laws can be
simultaneously generated (with variable refracted angle,
variable focalisation depth and variable skew angle), as
illustrated below :
Variable Refracted Angle
Variable Focalisation Depth
Variable
Skew Angle

Variation of Refracted Angle

Variation of Focal Depth

Variation of Skew Angle

FOCAL DEPTH

ANGLE = 0

SKEW = 0

Page 9

Vinottes approach
on Stainless
Using low frequency TRL PA probes,
PE channels from both sides for volumetric inspection

Applications of TRL PA Probes


Illustration of the volume coverage
using a set of 48 laws
Examination of the inner surface

Examination of the upper surface

Searching for defects at the inner surface

Searching for defects at the upper surface

Elements 65-127

Elements 1-64

Elements 65-127

Elements 1-64

Real Image
Complemenary Image
30 mm

Refracted Angle = 0

30 mm

Refracted Angle = 8
14.5 mm
14.5 mm

14.5 mm

30 mm

searching without skip

searching after skip

Searching for embedded defects without skip

Searching for embedded defects after skip

Elements 65-127

Elements 1-64

Elements 65-127

Elements 1-64

Real Image
Complemenary Image
30 mm

Refracted Angle = 39

30 mm

Refracted Angle = 37
14.5 mm
14.5 mm

14.5 mm

30 mm

Applications of TRL PA Probes


Influence of these different components is simulated
Beam simulations using CIVA 7 and PASS softwares

Finite element code for piezoelectric structure design

Inspection on HHA
(back scatter technique)
Micro cracks at the grain boundaries scatter
ultrasound,
Example with conventional ultrasound equipment

Inspection on HHA
(back scatter technique)
Micro cracks at the grain boundaries scatter
ultrasound,
Example with Phased Array equipment

Welding:
T-Joint Corner
Crack weld

Corner Crack

Inspection of rotors and blades

UT Pipeline
inspections
Principles & Industrial
Applications

Combination PE - TOFD

Combination PE - TOFD

Combination PE - TOFD

TOFD-PE Phased Array

Turbines disk, blade attachments Turbine bore

Upper Pressuriser weld

Turbines disk

CANDU feeder tubes

3D simulations
Validation Work

High-speed pipe weld inspection

Inspection Of Pressure Vessels

RPV welds
BWR core shroud, BMW,
CCSS, & other austenitic welds

Advanced training
Flexible PA Probes

CRDM head penetrations


UT of SG tubes
BMK Fuel Channels

Corrosion mapping
The efficient way to present, visualize
and measure corrosion and erosion

Conventional thickness
measurements
After calibration a time
measurement is done and it
takes the sound 4,194..s to
get back to the receiver:
4,194..s x 5,96mm/s =
25mm
After calibration a time
measurement is done and it
takes the sound 2,097..s to
get back to the receiver:
2,097.. s x 5,96mm/s =
12,55mm

25,00

12,50

Corrosion mapping

Corrosion mapping

Examination possible on complex geometries by positioning of probe


with infrared camera or pattern recognition
Analysis with help of computer
Proof of entire examination
Thin zones are directly visualized in a given color
High reproducibility for repeated examinations
No ionizing radiation ( On Streams)
No interference with other activities (no evacuation/transport)
No environment damaging waste
Permanent data saving in digital format in on line produced C-scan
High inspection speed
Direct available information, automatic report printing
Easy distinction between corrosion and laminations

DEPEC
Detection and Evaluation of
Piping Erosion/Corrosion
Carbon Steel piping 4 to 10
Evaluation of corrosion under pipe
supports

DEPEC
DEPEC
Way to inspect under piping support
Lower costs
Removes the risk of damage during lifting
DEPEC is able to detect corrosion or erosion on large surfaces in a fast
way
Wall thickness diminutions will form an obstruction for the sound passage
Analysis is done by looking at the A-scan characteristics
Data can be analyzed on-line or afterwards by saving a B-scan

Disadvantages
With this method its only possible to evaluate the quality of the erosion /
corrosion signs, i.e. reporting the gravity of the corrosion :

no discrimination between erosion/corrosion


slight corrosion
serious corrosion (thickness decrease larger than 35% of the nominal thickness)
The gravity of erosion according to graphics

Digital Radiography
A radiographic pattern is exposed on reusable phosphor
plates, which creates a latent image
This latent image is read and digitalized in a CR Reader, and
can be viewed on site => No reshoots
This data is processed and can form a digital radiographic
image => Data can be used in data base (RBI)
Immediate follow up.
No chemicals, no darkroom
D5/D4 film type image quality
Exposure time 2 to 20 times less than with conventional
radiography, depending on necessary image quality

Digital Radiography

RawContrast
Image enhancement
Sharpeningwindow/level
Emboss inby
ROI

Change
contrast
Measure

WT-Scope for On-Stream applications


Wall Thickness measurement :

Source set up for tray 3


Diameter of tower (bottom section) : 7m400
Phospor Plates
Wall thickness : 20 mm
Inside 4 trays of 3 mm thickness each
In normal condition a few centimetres of liquid on the trays and in the downcomer
Downcomer
Operating temperature : 400C
TRAY 3

Co-60 Isotope
( positioned 50 cm below tray level )

North-East View of 3rd Tray

Wide gap between two panels

Downcomer

North-West View of 3rd Tray

Wide gap between two panels

Source set up for tray 2


Phosphor Plates
Downcomer

TRAY 2

Co-60 Isotope
( positioned 50 cm below tray level )

North-East View of 2nd Tray

Panels missing from tray 2

North-West View of 2nd Tray

Panels missing from tray 2

Digital Radiography
Digitizing Films

Positive Material Identification

Positive Material Identification


Positive Material Identification
(PMI) is one of the more
specialized non-destructive
testing methods. With Positive
Material Identification the alloy
composition of materials can be
determined. If a material
certificate is missing or it is not
clear what the composition of a
material is, then PMI offers the
solution. PMI is particularly
used for high-quality metals like
stainless steel and high alloy
metals. While engineers push
the boundaries of material
capacities to their limits in the
design, assurance that the
proper material is used
becomes ever more important.

Eddy Current
Heat exchanger pipes (ferritic and non
ferritic)
Surface and near-surface defects

UT - ET
Eddy Current

Ultrasonic

Good at detecting surface


defects

Poor at detecting surface


defects

Near sub-surface defects


reasonable to detect

Near sub-surface defects


difficult to detect

Deep sub-surface defect


detection is impossible

Good sub-surface defect


detection

Probes are less sensitive


to flaw orientation

Signal is strongly
influenced by flaw
orientation

No couplant needed,
stable results

Couplant is needed
between probe and
material causing cariable
results

Probe can be made wide


and profiled to cover
wear face

Defect must be on probe


centre line

Faster inspection speeds

Slow inspection speeds

Materials
Material structure
Macro structure
Micro structure
Corrosion

Materials
Material analysing

Destructive testing
Hardness testing
Replicas
Certification
Welding & Welders
certification
..

Other
Other:

Assessment

Inspection of
rotating machines
Measurements using a
dilatometer
Machines
Vibration analysis
Tele-visual inspections
Pipe Current Mapper (PCM)
Storage Tanks Vacuum testing
Tightness Helium tightness
studies
Coating inspection
Roughness ISO 805

NON INTRUSIVE INSPECTIONS


POTENTIAL BENEFITS ARE:
Improved safety for inspection personnel, by averting vessel entry
Increased confidence in plant integrity
Basis for plant life extension
Critical flaw size can be quantified for future purpose
Intrusive inspection can be averted, saving operational and
maintenance costs
The method (s) applied are:

Systematic
Fully auditable
Compliant with applicable regulations
Derived using competent personnel throughout
Cost effective

RISK BASED INSPECTION

Risk Based Inspection is the explicit use of Risk


Assessment to plan, justify and aid the assessment of
results from inspection, testing and monitoring regimes.

Our NDT & Inspection clients /


services

Petro- Chemical

Construction

Training

Pipelines

Power Generation

Energy
Storage tanks

Off shore

Vinotte
Thank you for your attention
:

:
:
:
:

Cross point
Leuvensesteenweg 248
1800 Vilvoorde
+31 (0)2 536 84 31
+31 (0)2 536 84 42
WWW.Vincotte.com
BVerhagen@vincotte.be

:
:
:
:

Heusing 2,
Postbus 6869
4802 HW Breda
+31 (0)76 571 22 88
+31 (0)76 587 47 60
WWW. Vincotte.com
Verhagen@vincotte.nl