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Chapter 1

Information Systems
in Global Business
Today

1.1

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Menjelaskan mengapa sistem informasi sangat


penting dalam bisnis saat ini.
Mendefinisikan sistem informasi baik dari teknis
dan perspektif bisnis.
Mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan tiga dimensi
sistem informasi.

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
LEARNING OBJECTIVES (Continued)

Menilai aset pelengkap yang diperlukan untuk


teknologi informasi untuk memberikan nilai bagi
bisnis.
Mengidentifikasi dan menggambarkan
pendekatan kontemporer terhadap studi sistem
informasi dan membedakan antara melek
komputer dan sistem melek informasi.

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Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Smart Systems and Smart Ways of Working Help Toyota Become Number One

Masalah: Persaingan ketat dan menuntut pelanggan.


Solusi: Agar Didesain ulang dan proses produksi
mengurangi biaya, meningkatkan pendapatan, dan
meningkatkan layanan pelanggan.
Oracle E-Business Suite memungkinkan untuk membangun
mobil dengan permintaan order dan perkiraan dan
persyaratan produksi yang lebih akurat.
Menunjukkan TI berperan dalam menganalisis tren pasar dan
pemantauan kualitas, efisiensi, dan biaya.
Menggambarkan munculnya lanskap perusahaan digital di
mana bisnis dapat menggunakan alat untuk menganalisis
data penting.
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Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Bagaimana sistem informasi yang mengubah


bisnis
Peningkatan investasi teknologi
Peningkatan tanggap terhadap permintaan
pelanggan: A "Fed-Ex" ekonomi
Pergeseran media dan periklanan
Keamanan federal yang baru dan hukum akuntansi

Peluang globalisasi
Internet telah secara drastis mengurangi biaya
operasi pada skala global
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Penanaman Modal Teknologi Informasi

Information technology investment, defined as hardware, software, and communications


equipment, grew from 34% to 50% between 1980 and 2004.
Source: Based on data in U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income
and Product Accounts, 2006.

Figure 1-1
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Di negara berkembang, perusahaan


sepenuhnya digital
Hubungan bisnis yang signifikan diaktifkan digital dan dimediasi
Proses bisnis inti dicapai melalui jaringan digital
Aset penting perusahaan dikelola secara digital

Perusahaan digital menawarkan fleksibilitas


yang lebih besar dalam organisasi dan
manajemen
Pergeseran waktu dan ruang

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Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Virtual Management at Accenture


Read the Interactive Session and then discuss the following questions:

Apa keuntungan bekerja dalam lingkungan virtual seperti


yang dibuat oleh Accenture? Apa kerugiannya?
Apakah Anda ingin bekerja di perusahaan seperti
Accenture? Mengapa atau mengapa tidak? Jelaskan
jawaban Anda.
Apa jenis perusahaan bisa mendapatkan keuntungan dari
yang dijalankan hampir seperti Accenture? Mungkinkah
semua perusahaan dijalankan hampir seperti Accenture?

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Tumbuh saling ketergantungan antara kemampuan untuk


menggunakan teknologi informasi dan kemampuan untuk
menerapkan strategi perusahaan dan mencapai tujuan
perusahaan.

Perusahaan bisnis melakukan investasi besar dalam sistem


informasi untuk mencapai enam tujuan bisnis strategis:

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Keunggulan operasional
Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis
Pelanggan dan pemasok keintiman
Peningkatan pengambilan keputusan
keunggulan kompetitif
kelangsungan hidup

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Keunggulan Operasional :
Peningkatan efisiensi untuk mencapai
profitabilitas yang lebih tinggi
Sistem informasi, teknologi alat penting dalam
mencapai efisiensi dan produktivitas
Misalnya Wal-Mart RetailLink sistem link
pemasok ke toko-toko untuk sistem pengisian
superior

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis:


Model bisnis: menggambarkan bagaimana
perusahaan memproduksi, memberikan, dan
menjual produk atau jasa untuk menciptakan
kekayaan
Sistem informasi dan teknologi utama
memungkinkan alat untuk produk baru, jasa,
model bisnis
Misalnya Apple iPod, iTunes, dan penyewaan
DVD berbasis internet Netflix
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Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Keterkaitan Pelanggan dan pemasok :


Melayani pelanggan dengan baik mengarah ke
pelanggan kembali, yang menimbulkan pendapatan
dan keuntungan
Misalnya Hotel high-end yang menggunakan komputer untuk
melacak preferensi pelanggan dan digunakan untuk memantau dan
menyesuaikan lingkungan

Keintiman dengan pemasok memungkinkan mereka


untuk memberikan masukan penting, yang
menurunkan biaya
Misalnya Sistem informasi JCPenney yang menghubungkan rekor
penjualan ke produsen kontrak
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Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Peningkatan Pengambilan Keputusan


Tanpa informasi yang akurat:
Manajer harus menggunakan perkiraan, tebakan terbaik,
keberuntungan
Menghasilkan: Kelebihan produksi, rendahnya produksi
barang dan jasa, Misalokasi sumber daya, Waktu respon
miskin
Hasil yang buruk menaikkan biaya, kehilangan pelanggan
Misalnya Dashboard digital berbasis Web Verizon untuk
menyediakan manajer dengan data real-time pada keluhan
pelanggan, performa jaringan, pemadaman baris, dll.

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Keunggulan operasional:
Peningkatan efisiensi untuk mencapai profitabilitas yang
lebih tinggi

Produk baru, jasa, dan model bisnis:


Diaktifkan oleh teknologi

Hubungan Pelanggan dan pemasok :


Melayani pelanggan menimbulkan pendapatan dan
keuntungan
Komunikasi yang lebih baik dengan pemasok
menurunkan biaya
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Keunggulan Kompetitif

Memberikan kinerja yang lebih baik


Pengisian kurang untuk produk unggulan
Menanggapi pelanggan dan pemasok secara real time
Sering dicapai ketika perusahaan mencapai salah satu
dari empat pertama keuntungan
Misalnya Dell: profitabilitas konsisten lebih dari 25
tahun, Dell tetap satu produsen yang paling efisien
dari PC di dunia.
Namun Dell telah kehilangan sebagian dari
keuntungan kepada pengikut cepat - HP

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

Kelangsungan hidup
Teknologi informasi sebagai kebutuhan bisnis
Mungkin :
Industry-level changes, e.g. Citibanks introduction
of ATMs
Governmental regulations requiring record-keeping
E.g. Toxic Substances Control Act, Sarbannes-Oxley Act

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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
The Role of Information Systems in Business Today

The Interdependence Between Organizations and


Information Technology

There is a growing interdependence between a firms information systems and its business
capabilities. Changes in strategy, rules, and business processes increasingly require
changes in hardware, software, databases, and telecommunications. Often, what the
organization would like to do depends on what its systems will permit it to do.

Figure 1-2
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Sistem Informasi:
Set komponen yang saling terkait
Mengumpulkan, memproses, menyimpan, dan
mendistribusikan informasi
Dukungan pengambilan keputusan, koordinasi,
dan pengendalian

Informasi vs Data
Data aliran fakta-fakta mentah
Informasi adalah data yang dibentuk menjadi
bentuk yang berarti
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Data and Information

Raw data from a supermarket checkout counter can be processed and organized to produce
meaningful information, such as the total unit sales of dish detergent or the total sales
revenue from dish detergent for a specific store or sales territory.

Figure 1-3
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Sistem Informasi: Tiga kegiatan organisasi


menghasilkan informasi yang dibutuhkan
Masukan: Menangkap data mentah dari
organisasi atau lingkungan eksternal
Pengolahan: Mengkonversi data mentah ke
dalam bentuk yang bermakna
Output: Transfer olahan informasi kepada
orang atau kegiatan yang
menggunakannya
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Feedback:
Output dikembalikan kepada anggota organisasi
bisnis yang tepat untuk membantu tahap input
mengevaluasi atau benar

Computer/Computer program vs.


information system
Komputer dan perangkat lunak landasan teknis
dan alat, mirip dengan bahan dan alat yang
digunakan untuk membangun rumah
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Functions of an Information System

An information system contains information about an organization and its surrounding environment. Three basic activitiesinput,
processing, and outputproduce the information organizations need. Feedback is output returned to appropriate people or activities in the
organization to evaluate and refine the input. Environmental actors, such as customers, suppliers, competitors, stockholders, and regulatory
agencies, interact with the organization and its information systems.

Figure 1-4
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Information Systems Are More Than Computers

Using information systems effectively requires an understanding of the organization,


management, and information technology shaping the systems. An information system
creates value for the firm as an organizational and management solution to challenges
posed by the environment.

Figure 1-5
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Organizational dimension of
information systems
Hierarchy of authority, responsibility

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Senior management
Middle management
Operational management
Knowledge workers
Data workers
Production or service workers

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Levels in a Firm

Business organizations are hierarchies consisting of three principal levels: senior


management, middle management, and operational management. Information systems serve
each of these levels. Scientists and knowledge workers often work with middle
management.

Figure 1-6
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Organizational dimension of information


systems (cont.)
Separation of business functions

Sales and marketing


Human resources
Finance and accounting
Production and manufacturing)

Unique business processes


Unique business culture
Organizational politics
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Management dimension of
information system
Managers set organizational strategy for
responding to business challenges
In addition, managers must act creatively:

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Creation of new products and services


Occasionally re-creating the organization

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Technology dimension of information


systems
Computer hardware and software
Data management technology
Networking and telecommunications
technology
Networks, the Internet, intranets and extranets,
World Wide Web

IT infrastructure: provides platform that


system is built on
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

UPS Competes Globally with Information Technology


Read the Interactive Session: Technology, and then
discuss the following questions:
What are the inputs, processing, and outputs of
UPSs package tracking system?
What technologies are used by UPS? How are these
technologies related to UPSs business strategy?
What problems do UPSs information systems solve?
What would happen if these systems were not
available?
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Dimensions of UPS tracking system


Organizational:
Procedures for tracking packages and managing
inventory and provide information

Management:
Monitor service levels and costs

Technology:
Handheld computers, bar-code scanners, networks,
desktop computers, etc.
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Business perspective on information


systems:
Information system is instrument for
creating value
Investments in information technology will
result in superior returns:
Productivity increases
Revenue increases
Superior long-term strategic positioning
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Business information value chain


Raw data acquired and transformed through
stages that add value to that information
Value of information system determined in part by
extent to which it leads to better decisions, greater
efficiency, and higher profits

Business perspective: Calls attention to


organizational and managerial nature of
information systems
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

The Business Information Value Chain

From a business perspective, information systems are part of a series of value-adding


activities for acquiring, transforming, and distributing information that managers can use to
improve decision making, enhance organizational performance, and, ultimately, increase firm
profitability.

Figure 1-7
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Variation in Returns on
Information Technology Investment

Although, on average, investments in information technology produce returns far above


those returned by other investments, there is considerable variation across firms.

Figure 1-8
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Investing in information technology does not


guarantee good returns
Considerable variation in the returns firms
receive from systems investments
Factors:
Adopting the right business model
Investing in complementary assets (organizational
and management capital)

1.35

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Complementary assets:
Assets required to derive value from a
primary investment
Firms supporting technology investments
with investment in complementary assets
receive superior returns
E.g.: invest in technology and the people to
make it work properly
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Complementary assets include:


Organizational investments, e.g.
Appropriate business model
Efficient business processes

Managerial investments, e.g.


Incentives for management innovation
Teamwork and collaborative work environments

Social investments, e.g.


The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure
Technology standards
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems

The study of information systems deals with issues and insights contributed from technical
and behavioral disciplines.

Figure 1-9
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems

Technical approach
Emphasizes mathematically based models
Computer science, management science,
operations research
Behavioral approach
Behavioral issues (strategic business
integration, implementation, etc.)
Psychology, economics, sociology
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems

Management Information Science


Combines computer science, management science,
operations research and practical orientation with
behavioral issues

Four main actors

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Suppliers of hardware and software


Business firms
Managers and employees
Firms environment (legal, social, cultural context)

2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems

Approach of this book:


Sociotechnical view
Optimal organizational performance
achieved by jointly optimizing both
social and technical systems used in
production
Helps avoid purely technological
approach
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2007 by Prentice Hall

Management Information Systems


Chapter 1 Information Systems in Global Business Today
Perspectives on Information Systems

A Sociotechnical Perspective on Information Systems

In a sociotechnical perspective, the performance of a system is optimized when both the


technology and the organization mutually adjust to one another until a satisfactory fit is
obtained.

Figure 1-10
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2007 by Prentice Hall