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GSM Frequency Planning

Sujit Khadka
MSD, Jawalakhel

GSM Frequency Band


GSM 900
Uplink (MS to BTS): 890 915 MHz
Downlink (BTS to MS): 935 960 MHz
Frequency Band: 25 MHz
Duplex Separation (Tx-Rx difference): 45 MHz
Carrier Bandwidth: 200 KHz

GSM Frequency Band


GSM 1800
Uplink (MS to BTS): 1710 1785 MHz
Downlink (BTS to MS): 1805 1880 MHz
Frequency Band: 75 MHz
Duplex Separation (Tx-Rx difference): 95 MHz
Carrier Bandwidth: 200 KHz

GSM Channel Numbering


GSM900

FU(n) = 890 + 0.2n MHz


FD(n) = Fu(n) + 45 MHz 1 n 124

Where, n is called Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number.


GSM1800
Fu(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2(n-512) MHz
FD(n) = Fu(n) + 95 MHz

512 n 885

After the completion of the 3.5M project


the total number of the subscribers in
GSM will be more than 5M.
The total number of S444 900 MHz BTS
in KTM will be 425
The total number of S666 1800 MHz
BTS in KTM will be 239.
The planned traffic per subscriber is
35mErl.

Allocated frequency for NT in 900MHz is


7.2MHz (permanent) +4.8 MHz (temporary)
9MHz (permanent) + 6MHz (temporary) In
1800MHz
Allocated frequency for SNPL in 900MHz is 6
MHz (permanent) +2 MHz (temporary)
9MHz (permanent) + 2MHz (temporary) In
1800MHz
And for NSTPL is 9MHz in 1800MHz
For STM 2.4MHz in 900MHz

The allocated Absolute Radio Frequency


Channel Number is 1 to 36 (permanent).
And the allocated Absolute Radio
Frequency Channel Number 37 to 60
(temporary).

Prepaid
Active
subscriber

23,13,550

Postpaid
Active
subscriber

1,00,992

Total
subscriber

24,14,542

Prepaid
Active
subscriber
in KTM

11,09,688

Postpaid
Active
subscribe
r in KTM

69,741

Total
subscriber
in KTM

11,79,429

Why Cellular Networks?


To address requirement for greater capacity
For efficient use of frequency
To increase coverage
replaces a large transmitter with smaller ones in cells
smaller transmitting power
each cell serves a small geographical service area and
assigned a portion of the total frequency

Frequency Assignment Plan


S duplex channels
S channels divided into N cells
Each cell allocated a group of k channels
Total available channels S = k N
Replicate a cluster M times in the network
Total number of duplex channels, C=MkN=MS

Cell Clusters
A cluster of 7 cells

2
3

7
1
6

4
5

the pattern of cluster is repeated throughout the


network

Excitation of Cells
The location of the base station within the cell is referred to as
cell excitation
In hexagonal cells, base stations transmitters are either:
centre-excited, base station is at the centre of the cell or
edge-excited, base station at 3 of the 6 cell vertices

Frequency Reuse Distance


The following equation is used to estimate
frequency reuse distance:

D 3N * R
D frequency reuse distance
R cell radius
N frequency reuse factor.
N=9 for 33;
N=12 for 4 3
For 3/9 frequency reuse,
D=5.2R
For 4/12 frequency reuse, D=6R

Frequency Plan
Each base station is allocated a group of channels within its
geographical area of coverage called a cell
Adjacent cells are assigned completely different channel
groups to their neighbors
In same cell, the frequency distance between BCCH and TCH
is at least 400KHz
The frequency distance of TCH should be more than 400KHz

43 Frequency Reuse
D3
C1

A1
A2

C3
A1

A3
B1

B2
D2

C2
D1
D2
B3

A1

C3
B2
D3
C1

C2

B1

C1

B3
A1

A2
C3

D2

A3
B1

C3

C2
D1
D2
A1

D3

4 3 frequency reuse pattern is that each site is divided into 3 sector. 12 frequencies
form a group which are distributed to 4 different sites. Each site owns 3 frequencies.

33 Frequency Reuse
B3
C1

A1
A2

C3
A1

A3
B1

B2
A3

B2
C1
C2
B3

C1

B3
A2
C3
A1

A2

A1

C1

A3
B1

B2
A3

B2

B3
C1

C3

C2
A1
A2
A1

A3

3 3 frequency reuse pattern is that each site is divided into 3 sector. 9 frequencies
form a group which are distributed to 3 different sites. Each site owns 3 frequencies.

33 Frequency Reuse
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Frequency Hopping
Reduce co-channel interference by averaging
interference for all active users
Frequency hopping refers to the hopping of
carrier wave frequencies according to a certain
sequence in a very wide frequency range.
The carrier frequency changes under the
control of pseudo-random codes, the sequence
of which is frequency-hopping sequence.

Frequency Hopping
Baseband Hopping
RF Hopping

Baseband hopping
TRX1

Controller

Transmitter f0

TRX2

Controller

Transmitter f1

TRX3

Controller

Transmitter f2

TRX4

Controller

Transmitter f3

combiner

Bus for routing of bursts

Each TRX works at fixed frequency


Each user hops at different TRX (frequency)

RF hopping
TRX1

TRX2

TRX3

TRX4

Controller

Transmitter f0..fn

Controller

Transmitter f0..fn

Controller

Transmitter f0..fn

Controller

Transmitter f0..fn

Each TRX hops at different frequency


Each user works at fixed TRX

combiner

Co-channel interference
Frequency reuse implies that in a given coverage
area there are several cells that use the same set of
frequencies.
These cells are called co-channel interference.
Unlike thermal noise which can be combated by
simply increasing the signal noise ratio (SNR)
Co-channel interference cannot be combated by
simply increasing the carrier power of a
transmitter.

Calculation of C/I
Pown _ cell
C
6
I
Pi _ BCCH
1

Where, Pown_cell is the signal strength of


current cell;
Pi_BCCH
is BCCH signal strength of
interfering cell i measured by MS.

Co-channel Interference (C/I)


This is because an increase in carrier transmit
power increases the interference to the neighboring
co-channel cells.
To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel
cells must be physically separated by a minimum
distance to provide sufficient isolation due to
propagation
GSM specification regulates that C/I >9dB. In
implementing, it requires C/I>12dB.

Adjacent channel interference (C/A)


Interference resulting from signals which
are adjacent in frequency to the desired
signal is called adjacent channel
interference.
keeping the frequency separation between
each cell as large as possible

Adjacent channel Interference (C/A)


Interference from other cells using the
adjacent frequency ( 200 KHz)
Ratio of signal strength of serving cell to
interfering cell using adjacent frequency
C/A -6 dB

Current frequency plan in GSM


900MHz
Band width: 7.2MHz (permanent) + 2.4MHz (Temporarily
provided)+ 2.4MHz (Temporarily provided)
Frequency Number: 1~60
Frequency Reuse: 5x3 (BCCH), 1x3 (TCH)
ARFCN: 32~46(BCCH), 1~30 (TCH)
Guard Band ARFCN: 31
Guard band between TCH hopping and Micro BTS
carriers:47
Frequency number: 48-60 (for Micro BTS, Macro BTS in
highly congested area)
BTS Configuration:
S444

Current frequency plan in GSM


1800MHz
Band width: 9MHz (permanent) + 6MHz (temporarily
provided)
Frequency Number: 512~586
Frequency Reuse: 8x3 (BCCH), 1x3 (Hopping)
ARFCN: 512~535 (BCCH), 542~586 (TCH)
Guard Band Frequency: 541
Guard band between TCH hopping and Micro BTS
carriers:536
Frequency for Micro-BTS and Macro BTS in highly
congested area: 537~540
BTS Configuration:
S666

Plan for 9.6MHz

ARFCN: 1-48
Frequency Range: 1-15 (BCCH), 17-43 (TCH)
Frequency Reuse: 5x3 (BCCH), 1x3 (Hopping)
Guard band: 16
Guard band between TCH hopping and Micro
BTS carriers:44
Hopping Load: 33%
BTS Configuration: S444
4 carriers free : 45,46,47,48

Plan for 7.2MHz

ARFCN: 1-36
Frequency Reuse: 4x3 (BCCH), 1x3 (Hopping)
ARFCN: 1-12 (BCCH), 14-34(TCH)
Guard band between BCCH and TCH: 13
Hopping Load:
42.8%
Max. BTS Configuration: S444
Guard band between TCH hopping and Micro BTS:35
Available carriers for Micro BTS:36

Frequency plan for 12MHz in 900

ARFCN: 1-60
Frequency Reuse: 6x3 (BCCH), 1x3 (Hopping)
ARFCN: 1-18 (BCCH), 20-58(TCH)
Guard band between BCCH and TCH: 19
Hopping Load:
38.46%
Max. BTS Configuration:
S666
Guard band between TCH hopping and Micro
BTS:59
Available carriers for Micro BTS:60

Antenna
transform wire propagated waves into space
propagated waves.

Wave propagation

Polarization
Direction of oscillation of the electrical
field vector
Horizontal polarization
Vertical polarization

Polarization

Vertical

Horizontal

Radiation Pattern

Beamwidth
3dB Beamwidth
Peak - 3dB

60 (eg)

Peak
Peak - 3dB

Panel antenna

Antenna tilt

Non down tilt

Mechanical
downtilt

Electrical downtilt

Antenna Types
By frequency band: GSM900, GSM1800, GSM900/1800
By polarization: Vertical, Horizontal, 45 linear
polarization
By pattern:

Omni-directional, directional

By down-tilt:

mechanical, electrical
adjustment

By function:

Transmission, receiving, transceiving

GPS Receiver

Compass

Tilt meter

Mobile Set

Optimization Software

Thank you