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Hebrew self defense Organizations in Yishuv (Hebrew community in Palestine)

Moments of Zionism (IV)

version 2011

The Beginning
"It was born in Sarajevo in Bosnia. After a period of study in Jerusalem (where become advocates of teaching Kabbala) is return in Serbia, where leads a small Hebrew Sephardic community in the town Semlim (Zemun), near Belgrade (1825). His name: Rabbi Solomon Yehuda Alkalay." Alkalay, in his work of 1834, 'Shema Yisrael' ( 'Listen to the people of Israel') starts from the idea that to deplore the Jew in exile to God by asking for expressions of His Force to be displaced again in the Holy Land' should be replaced by an organized and supported financially for Return in Eretz Israel. The Return phenomenon of the Hebrew people in Palestine, coupled with the acquisition of land, is produced in 70 years, increasing the number of Hebrew in Palestine. The price was a degradation of relations between Arab and Hebrew in Palestine. The relationship of cohabitation between them is eroded by expansion of intolerance that is causing of a massive movement of population. On the other hand an expression of disdain that those who have had the power: potentate Hebrew or Arab leaders to people who lead them towards God (either El: YHWH, Jesus, Allah). Because leaders do not know how to govern otherwise have used HATE, INTOLERANCE and confrontations ... why? God only knows!. The result was the battle between Hebrews and Arabs, to survive in Palestine.

Moments of Zionism (IV) Organizations Hebrew in self defense Yishuv (Hebrew community in Palestine)
The phenomenon development of self defense of population in Yishuv (Hebrew population in Palestine) during 1918 - 1948 was long, caused both by the conditions existing during the British occupation (1918-1920), the British mandate over Palestine (1920 -1948), and that the Hebrew people of Palestine have no experience of extremist attacks, which began in 1920, against the Hebrew settlements in the region. "To understand where they should have come, we present some excerpts from 'World Zionist Organization Declaration' made on 03.02.1919, before the session Peace Conference in Paris: "I. Palestine should be placed under such political conditions, administrative and economic establishment that will ensure the 'Hebrew National House' ... being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing us - Hebrew in Palestine or the political rights enjoyed by the status of Hebrew in any other country ."... . II. Will forever be one the most complete freedom of religion for all religious creeds in Palestine. There is no discrimination among people with regard to citizenship and civil rights on grounds of religion or race. "

"III. Palestine is not large enough to receive more than one of the Jews in the world. Most of the fourteen million, scattered through all countries must remain in their current locations... Hebrew National House will be of great value to them ..., this will inspire millions of Hebrew, often before despairing , a new hope ... will have a high standard of living for our citizens Hebrew and non Hebrew in places where they live Require setting the border is in the following coordinates: North: Mediterranean Sea south of Sidon, of Lebanon Mountains (KARAON EL) EL BIRE following the line of demarcation between the two basins: Wad El Kook and Wadi Et Teim, thence in a direction from line of demarcation between the eastern slopes of the Hermon and West. East: Hermon, NAHR MUGHANIYE following Hedjaz rail to the South Bay Akaba. South: to be negotiated with the Egyptian Government San-Remo Chart 1920 West: the Mediterranean " The peace negotiations in San Remo (Italy) will be final produce Map of SanRemo 1920' for Palestine, which ensures a clear separation of the two areas (Hebrew and Arabic) with the Jordan River border.

"This document reminds me of the essay 'Altneuland' (Our held) written by Theodor Hertzl in October 1902. He describes a Hebrew State with an economy based on new technologies, with a European culture with a developed social protection. A free country, with a complete freedom of religion, separate from political power, in which Jews and non Jews have equal rights: 'Hebrew State is not a country of national oppression but a place where the feeling of brotherhood and equality will prevail' ; wrote Hertzl the visionary Zionist forty-five years before this time. ( ) Premises were a resolution of the Jewish Return to the 'Promised Land', to form a multi racial state in which would be prospered both Jews and Arabs, with the technology and funds infused by the Jewish World. "There were, between 1918-1920, negotiations between Chaim Weitzmann, leader of the World Zionist Congress and Emir Feisal, the future king of Saudi Arabia. ( ) " In 6 February 1919 Emir Feisal, advocated in his speech before the Peace Conference, which requires independence of Arabian State, the agreement and a guarantee for Palestine: enclave of Zionist Hebrew. His hope was that Weitzmann support total the Arabs in their dispute with France for the Syrian coast, forming a Semitic Alliance . Negotiations failed in 1920, once the starting 'Arab riots' in Palestine.

"Final strike given to the opportunity of cohabitation between Arab and Hebrew is done the British Empire. In 1921 77% of Palestine is assigned to a new state: Arab Emirate of Jordan. Thus the UK ensure their control over a territory claimed by King Feisal of Saudi Arabia, giving him to a faithful Emir Hussein, the future King of Jordan. New state is supported, financially and militarily by the British Empire. Basically it was the right of the Jordan River, as the map was assigned (San Remo Map), to Arab population of Palestine.

British Mandate

SAN - REMO Chart (1920)

Tacitly Britain imposed a further division of the territory allocated Hebrew community (Yishuv) ... between Hebrews and Arabs - without the opportunity to establish a natural territorial boundary - the Jordan river. "In 1922 the United Nations granted the British Mandate government over 23% of the territory remained of Palestina. Thus, the so-called "Pax Britanica" was the germ of long fight between Arabs and Hebrews of the territory under British Mandate:

British Mandate: on a territory not enough for each of the two peoples; and the transformation of real social expectations in a bloody game 'of the cat and mouse' which is the almost one hundred years. "Between 1920 - 1947 the rate of economic growth in Palestine was: Hebrew to 13.2% (due to infusion of labor immigrants and capital) and 6.5% at Arabs. Graduation rate of normal schools and courses was 86% in Hebrew and 22% of Arabs. During this period the Arabs of Palestine were more evolved, their life is among the highest in the area, the second after the Arabs in Lebanon. From a UN statistic that in 1939, Jews in Palestine were ranked 15, the Arabs of Palestine ranked 30 (vs. Egypt - 33 Turkey - 35). It can be concluded that in terms of socio-economically, the two communities have evolved towards social welfare. Coexistence between the vast majority of Arabs and Jews "together" there, despite the Arabs extremism and later Jews extremism.

Paramilitary unit 'Bar Giora'

Paramilitary unit 'Bar Giora' - founded in 1907 - was the Hebrew clandestine organization, during the two Alya - emigration of 40,000 Hebrews in Ottoman Empire - Palestine - from 1904 to 1914 - the majority coming from Russia and Poland, countries where the social instability and pogroms against the Hebrew communities were 'blooming'. Nearly half of these immigrants leave Palestine during the First World War. " Members of organization, about 100, had aimed to replace the Arab mercenaries. Hebrews pay Arabs to protect their properties. This promote penetration and theft on these properties (in which work was performed by the Arabs). Initiator has been a group of militants of the organization 'Poale Zion' Hebrew Social Democratic Workers (Hebrew movement of workers, Marxist orientation , founded in Russia in 1901). Leaders were Itzac Ben-Zvi (the future second president of the Eretz-Israel in 1952) and Israel Schocat. They militate for a change in the optical core at the situation of that time: the result of investment bankers Edmond de Rothschild, in the period 1890 - 1910, was forming a blanket of small Hebrew landowner, owners of relatively large plantations. They use Arab agricultural workers and security guards, much 'cheaper' than the Hebrews immigrants .

Consequence: during that period was a more accelerated growth of Arab population immigrated to Ottoman Palestine, than the Hebrew immigration. This migration will have major consequences in the interwar period: the purpose of increasing the number of Arabs workers - a source of 'cannon fodder' for Arab extremism. The phenomenon we meet today in European countries where extremism is recruiting Arab followers among Muslim immigration (coming to work instead of locals 'more expensive '). In the East, is recruiting in Palestinian campuses of Arab refugees in Palestinian territory, Jordan, Iran ... Everywhere where there are Arabs living in poor conditions and hatred accumulated over a period of generations wander. "For Hebrews, the only way to become a nation was, in Ottoman Palestine to work and defend their own land. Organization name was given as a symbol of Jewish independence, to name a leader of uprisings against the Romans since 68 c.e - Simon Bar Giora. They had a banner that quoted from the poem "Habiryonim (Yaakov Cohen): 'In blood and fire Judea fell, in blood and fire Judea will revive. Members of the organization have experience in field work. Made agriculture and guard Galilee in the area Sejera and Mes'ha (Kfar Tavor). The organization will be integrated - 1909 - the organization 'Hashomer.

Paramilitary unit 'HaShomer'

Paramilitary unit 'HaShomer' ('Man of the Guard' - 'Shomrim') - Founded in 1909 by Israel Shochat, Manya Shochat, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Rachel Yanai, Mendel Portugali (founding members of the organization and 'Bar Giora'). The purpose was to provide security for all communities in Hebrew Palestine (Yishuv), eliminating Arab mercenaries, as many times uncertain. Dress port after Circazian, Bedouin or Druze. Acting on foot or horseback. Weapons were diverse: from the old Turkish musketry, mauser pistols and hunting weapons. In such a panoply was almost impossible to obtain bullets. Were tepid rudimentary small workshops manufacturing ammunition.

"Code of Conduct (written by Mendel Portugali) was to chase the intruders in the Jewish lands by gunshots fired in the air. Using directfire was in the case of self defense. "Organization has been successful in Yishuv but aroused hatred Arabs former guards, which now incite people to attack Hebrew residents. Many veterans of the Hebrew settlements feared that the presence in the territory of Shomrim will destabilize the relationship of cohabitation with the Arab population. Ottoman authorities concerned with their suspicion. During the second World War many were exiled or killed in Anatolia. They are considered as potential members of British intelligence in the region - work less confirmed by the capture of the British 'Nili group, led by Yosef Lishanski, Samuel Belkind, in which were 12 members HaShomer, but not the organization as a whole. After the First World War self defense group decide to unify in a single organization - 'Haganah'. Some of HaShomer members will join Hebrew Legion, others will join the mounted police, established by the British occupation in Palestine.


Ze'ev Jabotinski
Ze'ev Jabotinski (Vladimir Evghenievici Jabotinski ) was born on October 18 1880 in Russia, in a family of Hebrew askenazi of the middle class, in Odessa. Next primary, secondary and high school in the Russian education system. Learn Ivrid in particular. Ydish was the language they spoke in the family. Talent a journalist and it says in high school. After graduation will go in Berne and Italy

(where is the Faculty of Law at the University of Rome) as a press correspondent of Russian and Hebrew newspapers. The pogrom of April 1903 in Chishinau. Comment: The April 6, a Russian child is found murdered in the town Dubossary. Local Anti Semitic Newspapers incite to revenge against the Jews on the grounds that it would be a ritual murder - the blood to produce matzot of Easter - that was after he was killed by a relative ... Between 7-9 April Hebrew community of Chishinau is devastated: 49 dead, 59 seriously wounded, 500 wounded, 700 houses destroyed. Is no Czarist authorities, intervention during the pogrom. Manifest disdain towards the Jews is doubled along the order they are used as valve for discontents of majority population against the inefficient administration of the empire, hunger and generalized social misery of the Russian Empire . Zeev Jabotinski join the Zionist Movement. Soon says its talent how leader, orator and organizer.


In the face of pogroms and abuse often at Hebrew population in the area, will start in Odessa and establish the first self-organization of Hebrew communities across Russia. As happened with some Zionist leaders [see the case of Theodor Herzl, ] he reached in conflict with the Hebrew local conservative leaders who postponed the process of concrete realization of the self defense teams. There were reasons both local pride and a fear of further retaliation by the Russian population.

The consequence was that the pogroms of the period 1904 - 1917 found Russian Hebrew communities unprepared for self defense ... As is picturesque, he change the first name of 'Vladimir' in Ze'ev ( 'Wolf'). Also in the year 1903 became a member of the Zionist delegation from Russia to the six Zionist Congress in Basel. After the death of Theodor Herzl (1904), will be the leader of the right circle in Congress. In 1906, in Helsinki, launches sentence autonomy local ethnic minorities, as an economic viability of maintaining social, cultural communities in Russia. Congress slogan: "Work now" refers to the whole community of life, modernization of the religious and secular Hebrew schools, the protection of people in communities. He has not only been a short time after the 1917 revolution in Russia. But Ze'ev Jabotinski extend this concept and the future coexistence between Arabs and Hebrew, in Palestine: "Every ethnic community will be recognized as autonomous and equal before the law."


That has not been done is not his fault. "In the years '30, he will become head of one of the most virulent extremist Hebrew units in Palestine: Irgun Zeva'i Le'umi (National Military Organization Etzel, IZL - 1935). "During the first World War, with Joseph Trumpeldor, will contribute to establishing a first auxiliary Hebrew battalion in British Army (1915), to be distinguished in the battles at Gallipoli. He will then initiate the formation of the

three battalions of the Hebrew Legion Jabotinsk is distinguished in the battles of the Jordan Valley (1918) and is decorated for bravery with "Order of British Empire members. After the war is chosen in the first Elected Legislative Assembly of Yishuv (Hebrew communities in Palestine) and the Executive Committee of the World Zionist Organization. He participate in the defense of Jews during the Arab extremist actions in April 1920 - the first 'Arab Riot' in fact an order of Emir Feisal - the future king of Saudi Arabia - as discontent over the fall of Semitic Alliance parley with Weitzmann.
( )

Irgun organization founded - 1935 - militate for a virtually free immigration (legal or not) of Jews in Eretz Israel, the opposite way of the action promoted by Chaim Weitzmann (legal immigration). Irgun units will fight against both Arabs and members of the British army on the mandate for the period 1940 to 1948.


Joseph Trumpeldor
Joseph Trumpeldor was born on 1.12.1880 in the town of Pyatigorsk, Russia. His father, Wulf Trumpeldor, served 25 years in the Russian army, being in the War in the Caucasus. In fights data loses an arm. Being among the few Hebrew families considered "useful Jew, his family was allowed to settle in the area outside the residence of the West Russian Empire (Pale area), outside which the Jews were forbidden to live. "Joseph Trumpeldor came as a volunteer in the Russian Army in 1902. During the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905), participated in defending the Port Arthur siege of the Japanese army. Loses his left hand but asked to continue fighting. After the conquest of the port is taken prisoner by the Japanese until the cessation of hostilities. Repatriated to Russia received four medals and order Cross of St. George. In 1906 also receives the captaincy rank in the army reserve of Czar (unique case - the Jews had no right to higher degrees in Russian army). " He next Faculty of Law in St. Petersburg. In the year 1911 he made Alya with a group of young Zionist from Russia to Palestine (under the Ottoman occupation), where work on a farm. Participate in the creation of the first Kibbutz (agricultural socialist community): Degania.


At the beginning of World War I, that does not accept Turkish citizenship, it is to be expelled from Alexandria (Egypt), along with other hundreds of Russian Hebrew origin (Russia are enemy of Turkey, allied with German and Austro-Hungarian empires). This meets with Ze'ev (Vladimir) Jabotiski. Together form the basis of Hebrew Legion - a way to participate in the British war effort for the release of Palestina and Eretz Israel state building. Body is formed of Horse Zion unit (Zion mule Corp). Participate in this unit (integrated in British Army) in the battles at Gallipoli. Is again wounded in the shoulder. This unit is disbanded in 1915. Together with Jabotinski moves two years for the establishment of Hebrew Legion (1917). "In 1918 he return at Petersburg. This he form self defense squads of the Hebrew communities in acts of vandalism before the gangs that haunted Russia during the Civil War (1917 to 1921). In parallel organizations set up his young Hebrew preparing to come to Israel (HeHalutz). "Returned to Palestine (1919) became a founding member of the Movement of Socialist Zionist Yishuv. He lives in Kibbutz Kfar Gilad where lead a selfHashomer Hatzair area colony of Upper Galilee in Hebrew. On 1 March 1920, together with ten comrades, he comes to defend Kibbutz Tel Chai (Tel Hai). Dies, shot in the arm and stomach in the evening.


"He said about him: "I am an anarchist-communist and a Zionist." He militated for the formation of a trade unionist and socialist community of Hebrew in Russia. He contributed to the generation of movement for the establishment of settlements in Hebrew socialist organization (Kibbutz), which formed the backbone of the Jewish Return and units Haganah self defense, between 1920 1948. "Members Zionist movement who were in Palestine at that time were considered episode of Defense Hebrews in Tel Chai as the first major battle to defend

Hebrew settlements in Palestine. He also formed when changing mentality: from passivity to persecution to a new type: strong reaction and defense of their own resources, without waiting for others to come to give 'protection' (in this the case - the British Mandate). "Case Trumpledor hero is in itself demonstrative: from a family of Russian Hebrew 'assimilated' majority population, without knowledge of childhood Jewish tradition and Yiddish language. He went to war in the imperial Russian army, where many young Hebrew attempting to evade from service in Russian army. He excelled as a soldier to defend the citadel-Port Arthur. Seriously injured required to continue fighting. After that he is prisoner in Japan. Receives military honor - "St. George Cross and is the first Jew officer in the Russian army.


All they look at all the traditional image of the Jew : inhibited and timid in front of opponent. He stood up to the last gasp kibbutz Tel Chai and drop dead 'does not matter, it is good to die for your country' (lamut tov b'ad artseinu - words related to a comrade: Pinchas Shneiurson), words that became the national slogan for the fighters of Haganah, Irgun, Palmah, Lehi organizations and later to all the people of Eretz Israel. Marking the annual Tel Chai Day (11 Adar) was established in a ceremony at the national average - in institutions and schools, in pilgrimages. Title of 'hero amputate' (ha-ha-gibor gidem) make it glory. Day becomes a celebration of Hebrew anonymous soldier, after the establishment of Eretz Israel. The 'ritual' linked to personality of this new type of behavior the Hebrew people, was essential in forming the Eretz Israel and the behavior of reference for the thousands of 'Trumpledor' heroes and heroine who sacrifice in the battles for territorial identity, which followed.


Hebrew Legion
Hebrew Legion - Created in 1915 from 500 Russian Hebrew origin, expelled from Palestine to Egypt by the Turks. Led by Ze'ev Jabotinski and Joseph Trumpeldor is officially recognized in 1917 as Battalion 38 in British Army. Hebrew come from Russia reached more than 1,000 combatants. When he added, in April 1918 consisting of 39 Battalion. Hebrew came from the U.S. and Canada. Legion fought on the front in the Middle East, led by General Allenby, until the end of hostilities. At the end of the war have herd: 5000 soldiers in 5 battalions. According to statistics, made by Ze'ev Jabotinski: 34% were from the U.S., 30% of Palestine, 28% UK, 6% from Canada, 1% in Argentina. In June 1918, volunteers from 38 Battalion began fighting with the Turkish army, about 20 mile north of Jerusalem, the Jordan Valley. Hebrew legionnaires participated in the battle of Megiddo in mid

September 1918. They crossed the Jordan River by fighting, and were engaged in decisive battle of the conquest of Damascus. After the victory, most fighters were demobilized in November 1918. Some of them returned to their country of origin. Few have been established in Palestine to support Alya of Jews in Eretz Israel. Hebrew Legion army is maintained in the size of a British battalion, called 'First Judeans' badge with a distinctive sign 'Menora (six candle arms) and the slogan' Kadima (' Forward ').


In 1921, Legion veterans are allocated land and desert, north of where Neghev founded Avihayil moshav. Subsequently abandoned because of lack of water source. Will be embedded in 1946 in the moshav Ein Ha Oved inhabited by the Hebrew of Russia, Canada and the United States. There is now a museum of the Legion and the Veterans Legion club.

The Beginning of Arab extremism mouvement in Palestine - 1920

Extremism in Arab Palestine has its roots in the Directive" given by Emir Feisal after the fall of negotiations between him and Chaim Weitzmann. Immediately after this time are the first Arab revolt (4 April 1920) during the Spring Festival Nabi Musa (in Arabic "The prophet Moses" - the celebration of Muslim prophet in

Palestinian folklore, for seven days - was in a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to prophet tomb (regarded by the Arabs was in town Jeriho area). Pilgrimage was established by Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayy b (Saladin) in the years 1150 to counteract the Christian holidays of Easter in Jerusalem: After three days of confrontations: 5 Hebrew dead, 211 injured, 4 Arabs dead, 21 Arabs injured, seven British soldiers killed. Three hundred Hebrews are eject ('clear') in the Old City. Paradoxically, they were attacked homes of Orthodox Jews - bitter enemies of the Zionist movement ... during the commemoration of the Palestinians Arabs prophet Moses ...


Zeev Jabotinski is arrested for weapons possession and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. Sent to jail in Egypt and then to Accra. Under the pressure of Jews in England and America is switching to a year sentence. Are closed at 200 participants rebellion, 39 of which the Hebrews.
" One of the most important consequences of riot in 1920 was that the Jews of Yishuv have realized that the defense from the British occupation is uncertain in the face of Arab revolt. They reacted putting into practice the idea of self paramilitary units to ensure a consistent response to the attacks of Arab extremists on the land of Palestine. So take birth in 1921 paramilitary units 'Haganah ('Defense, in ivrid, 'HaHaganah'). These units will be accepted volens

nolens by the British mandate. This organization will convert into regular military units of the Israeli army after independence of the Eretz-Israel (14 May 1948), in 28 May 1948.


Paramilitary unit 'Haganah' - 'Ha Haganah' - 'Protection

British troops in the reaction sequence of the Arab revolt of 1920 -1921, the lack of conflict between Arab and Hebrew and to remove gangs of Arab extremists, led leaders of Yishuv (Hebrew communities in Palestine) to establish units of self defense throughout Palestine. Originally formed by former members of the Jewish Legion, the organization protecting farms (moshav and kibbutz), prevent people about possible imminent attacks of gangs, intervene in fights with these people. During 1920 -1929, Haganah has led lack of central coordination. Tenants could defend as Haganah and members of the intervention was often late. In 23-24 August 1929 is Arabs attack to Hebrew Community of Hebron, located 30 km from Jerusalem. It is the place where is located the tombs of Patriarchs and the place where King David was invested. Population (Arabic and Hebrew) coexist here over 800 years. After 1920, as in all Palestine, minor incidents provoked by Arab extremists were daily. Daily

complaints were addressed by the Jews to the British Mandate over Palestine (1921-1948).


August 15 is a demonstration in Jerusalem that claimed the young Hebrews right to pray at the Western Wall remnant of the Temple of Jerusalem (under the Esplanada of Al'Aqsa Mosque, built by Abd al-Malik and completed by his son al-Walid in 705 c.e.). Demonstration, approved by authorities, and ensured the maintenance of order, was used by Arab extremists (the rumors that have been attacked local Arabs and were utter abuse to Prophet Muhammad) to trigger the days that followed, attacks Jews on the Western Wall. A young Jew is killed. His funeral turns into new moments of confrontation. Meeting of British, Arab, Hebrew leaders (Commissioner Harry Luke, Jamal al-Husayni, and Yitzhak Ben-Zvi) does not lead to a feasible solution. As Haganah have information that will be attacked Jewish settlement in Hebron offer their support to the defenders. The Community of Hebron refused support by claiming that they will be protected by the local Arab (A'yan). Comment: It is significant Member Haganah, Baruch Katinka, who arrived ina day before the massacre with 12 fighters (10 men and 2 women) in the home of Eliezer Dan. Slon Dwek banker refuses help because the Arabs, his creditors, will defend the Hebrew. Ten of them, then follow the other two are sent back to Jerusalem. Extremists launched rumor that Jews would attack Al'Aqsa Mosque. Gangs have attacked the Hebrew people in Hebron and the territory under the British Mandate. In Hebron there were 40 police officers


(39 Arabs and a Jew). In the afternoon the day is attacked Yeshiva (Jewish religious school) in Hebron (a young person is killed). A two-and three-day Arabs attacked the Hebrew, houses. Made ferocious crimes, mutilations, rapes. Much of the Hebrew fleeing from the city, many of them are hidden by their Arab neighbors. Aid required to Jerusalem come too late. Totals: 67 Hebrews dead, Hebrew inhabitants stolen property, the community of Hebrew disbanded in Hebron (with minor restoration attempts in 1931 - 160 people back, but again evacuated during the Arab revolts 1936-1937) until the war of 1967 . In total, 195 Arabs and 34 Hebrew were sentenced by the courts of the mandate. Death sentence for 17 Arabs and 2 Hebrew, but were later switched to prison terms. Three Arabs were hung. Were offered financial compensation to families who had died by amending Arab villages which originated from criminals ... "After 1929 the self defense is reorganized by Haganah enrollment of volunteers in each location, throughout, and young adults (as an example: Ariel Sharon was 13 years observer of the emergence of groups of bandits in moshav Kfar Malal, they lived. In 17 years he enter in Haganah troops). Are purchased weapons and organized in the Hebrew settlements small craft workshops for making ammunition and grenades. Haganah becomes a powerful military 'underground' organization. In 1936 Haganah have 10,000 fighters and 40,000 reserve. During 1936-1939 they participated actively against Arab extremist.


British authority not recognized officially Haganah, but its members work with members encompassing Haganah how Auxiliary Units in the British Special Forces patrol (trained and led by British colonel Orde Wingate). They receive a full military training. Haganah members were dissatisfied with the leadership position in Hebrew Yishuv, restraint (havlagah) not to initiate attacks against Arabs the localities from which came the extremist gangs. Irgun directly supports illegal emigration, some examples: 1937 - 164 illegal immigrants in Austria 1938 - 1940 in Poland and Austria; 1939 - 1980 in Poland and Romania 1940 - 2300 in Europe 1940 to 1944 - 18000 in Europe In turn has formed the Lehi group (1940) (known as the "Stern Gang" after the name of the leader, Abraham Stern). Irgun and Lehi organizations will attack until 1948, British military objectives and centers of Arab extremism. Some of them: 6.11.1944 - Lehi kill Lord Moyne in Cairo. It was official with the highest level of British government in the area. Later, Yitzhak Shamir said that the assassination was led for his Arab extremist leaders support and affirmation in public of racial inferiority of Jews from Arab.


22.07.1946 - Irgun blow up the 'King David hotel in Jerusalem, Staff of the British army: 91 dead 46 wounded. 12.01.1947 Lehi attacked with dynamite British police station in Haifa. 4 dead and 140 wounded. 4.05.1947 - Irgun attacked fortress prison Accra. 20 prisoners Irgun and Lehi 7 prisoners are released. Are killed 9 Irgun fighters. 182 Arab prisoners manage to escape. 29.02.1948 - Lehi blow up a British military train at Northern Rehovot: 28 soldiers dead, 35 wounded. 9.04.1948 Irgun and Lehi attacked the Arab town of Deir Yassin. Are killed between 100-120 civilians. 17.09.1948 Lehi kill UN mediator Folke Bernadotte, in Jerusalem. "In 1939 British authorities set severe restrictions on Jews emigration in Palestine. That when the extermination of Jews began 6 years earlier in Germany and soon will expand throughout Europe, with the German occupation. Haganah takes care to ensure illegal Jews coming to Palestine (Palmach organization). By the end of the war, claimed to bring over 100,000 Hebrew, in which ships have broken the British naval blockade of Palestine. Many other ships were stopped, both British and German naval forces (see, for example ship 'Struma').


He held numerous protest actions against this ad hoc coalition between the German and British, by reducing the rate of legal immigration. Organizations Irgun and Lehi pass to armed action. Since 1943 the leadership of the Irgun is taken by Menahem Beghin.

Palmach military units

Start of the second World War the British determined to ask the Jews of Yishuv to contribute military units to the war effort. Are formed Palmach military units, herds of Haganah. In total 12 companies (3 battalions), 19 May 1941. Palmach members were recruited mostly from Kibbutz people, which had a strong mutual and collective education. They held the agricultural work and were mobilized according to the actions of military units belonging. They represented the tip of the spear self defense military Yishuv. Shares had a wide range: from supporting regular English troops to military action espionage, those selected were very good knowledge of Arabic language and customs of the area. After the battle of El'Alaim, Palmach units are removed by British army, but maintain cohesion in underground. Each Kibbutz provide food and accommodation of a platoon of fighters. They provided security and worked side by side with members of Kibbutz's work field. Each have 8 days of military

training, 14 days for agricultural work, 7 days off for a month.


This organization provides flexibility for self defense actions and facilitate the recruitment of new members of the settlements (Kibbutz and Moshav) raising funds for the organization for armament Haganah, formation of military trained fighters and morally motivated Zionist. "Zionist Youth Movement has agreed that every young person to perform, aged between 18 and 20 years, training by members of Palmach: sports exercises, field orientation, first aid, operations detachment of self defense training with light weapons. Most were trained in performance handling explosives and sabotage, espionage and reconnaissance, communications and radio Morse, using heavy weapons. It made firing with weapons available. So many of them ready to become members of the Nahal settlements (settlements, military reinforcement, also called 'tower and stockade', which will be implanted on the main routes of access Hebrew settlements) in the years after the Declaration of Independence (15.05.1948) . "Between 1945-1946 Palmach units will attack the British infrastructure: bridges, railroad lines, police stations and radars. "In 29.06.1946 units in the UK conducted an extensive operation to disarm Hebrew units of self defense: Haganah, Palmah, Irgun, Lehi (the number of British soldiers involved, estimated between 10,000 and 25,000). Operation was a retaliation to an attack by rail (1.06.1946 - Lehi) and six officers abduction (17.06.1946 - Irgun). Were seized hundreds of weapons, mortars, grenades and thousands of hundreds of thousands of munitions related.


Were arrested in 2500 by fighters and leaders. In negotiations that followed the release and exchange switching of death of Hebrew fighters and Palmach Haganah agreed stopping hostilities. They have continued sporadically by Irgun and Lehi. Palmach had a role in countering gangs of Arab fighters, who in turn preparing the removing of Jews from Palestine by triggering Civil War between Arab and Hebrew (1947-1948). "In the War of Independence (1948-1949) Palmach was established three combat brigades led by Yigal Alon. They fought with regular armies of five Arab countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria). "The structure and cohesion of Palmah and Haganah were the nucleus around which was founded, the new state army Eretz Israel. Drivers Palmach unit, among which we mention: Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, Yitzhak Rabin, Haim Bar-Lev, Uzi Narkiss, Ezer Weizman will become political and military leaders in the new State Eretz Israel.

Civil war between Arab and Hebrew 1947 - 1948

It started after 30.12.1947, the date on which the United Nations (General Assembly Resolution 181 UN) established on 14.05.1948 as the date of termination of the British mandate in Palestine and approved the Plan to share Palestine after mandate ended.


ONU Map 1947

Arab State Hebrew State

Each state would comprise three major sections, and the Arab enclave Iaffa. "Jews get 56% of territory (499,000 Hebrews and 438,000 Arabs). " Palestinians receive 42% of territory (818,000 Arabs and 10,000 Hebrew). "Jerusalem and Bethleem were to be administered by the UN. UN decided that by that time the British Mandate and British military units had the role to ensure order in Palestine. That produced a great joy among the Jews of Yishuv and despair among Arabs. Neither the UK was not satisfied. "Competition circumstances or premeditated strategy, applied to the scheme to demonstrate that the territory can not self govern - to provoke a civil war between Hebrew and Arabs in Palestine ... the use of the tense of the two communities. They re-start violence. Population of 2,000,000 (Arabic and Hebrew) has sustained thousands of human losses, the dead and wounded in this fight between 'cousins'.


"Were involved, fighters of Palestine and beyond. Arab Liberation Army and the extended local area attacks Jews. Arab fighters from Egypt came under the command of Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, a face without any reaction from the British army ... the thousands of volunteers recruited Arabs have achieved the blockade of 100,000 Hebrew in Jerusalem. Haganah attempts to send food and to break the blockade has resulted in thousands of Hebrew warriors, dead and wounded, hundreds of armored cars and buses destroyed. Arab attacks extend Negev and Galilee in the North. The Hebrew defend each pocket of land. " Arab propaganda convinced that Jews would soon be 'thrown into the sea failed. A hundred thousand of Palestinian Arabs refuge in camps outside of Palestine. British Gouvernment proposed annexation Palestinian area in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan)... Ben Gurion asked that every man and woman to be trained and incorporated into military units Haganah. Golda Meir obtain huge funds from Jews in the Diaspora and official support of Stalin for Zionist Movement. Are produced significant quantities of military equipment through the raising of arms exporters and Haganah agencies in Europe. They go to the theater of battle to March 1948. Ygal Yadim plan a response to the announced Arab international invasion in Palestine (The Dalet Plan).


Between 5-20 April 1918 is to unlock the battle of Jerusalem, and killed Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni. Also during this time of the Arab population massacre of Deir Yassin (organizations Irgun and Lehi), which, combined with the death of the leader Arabic (Egyptian), causes a new wave of Palestinian immigrants, 'caught in the middle' and depressed the inefficiency of the facts weapons of its leaders. Is the defeat of the Arab Liberation Army from Mishmar Ha Emek (Kibbutz; basic training Haganah units since 1942) by units Palmach fighters and the withdrawal of Arab alliance with Druze. To ensure the link between the Jewish settlements, and Haganah Irgun troops conquer towns Tiberias, Haifa, Safed, Beisan, Jaffa, crab. Another 250,000 Palestinians Arabs take out his exile. Hope those remaining was the Arab Legion of Jordan, wellequipped and trained by the British. This attack Kfar Etzion on May 13 1948. "In 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion declared independence of Israel. On the same day, the invasion by troops of the five Arab states begin first Arab-Israeli war. "In 31.05.1948 In Haganah and Palmah formally declared 'Israeli Defense Force' IDF, becoming a regular army of the State Eretz Israel.
" Thus ends with lights and shadows, the history of the movement of Jewish self defense of Yishuv (Palestine) for 41 years. A story worthy of being told of any nation, friend or foe of the Hebrew people, because:


" Is an example of adaptation and organization at a rapid initial unfavorable - numerical superiority and hatred Arab extremists, since 1920, to a population (Jews of Yishuv) morally and militarily not prepared for military struggle. " Is a mix of individual heroism of the group of Hebrew fighters. If die a leading, five other were ready to take the lead. If die an Arab leader (where Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni) to neutralize an army instantly. After many years, another Arab military leader - Osama bin Laden will incorporate 'Jewish experience' to the troops in Al Quaid ... "Is a mobilization of funds and logistical resources of the Community of Jews in the world, well managed by different Hebrew belief, the same purpose: Return on ancestral lands. What people would like to have such a group of leaders and organization to weather the tribulation! THE AUTHOR'S CONCLUSION TO "AUTO DEFENCE YISHUV" The Hebrew people example: cohesion in faith, respect of the rules, provide logistical support to brothers: from the global community, systematic training of young Hebrew in 3 in religion, general knowledge , sport; are all 'keys' to being followed, not to blame because we can not follow them. Mesaros - Anghel Vasile / June 2009

Mesaro Anghel Vasile " NCEPUTUL LUPTEI EVREILOR CRE TINI PENTRU EVANGHELIA LUI IISUS Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile "APOSTOLI AI SIONISMULUI - Clipe de Sionism (I) Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile "NCEPUTUL LUPTEI EVREILOR PENTRU REANTOARCERE - Clipe De Sionism (II) Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile " HARTA SAN REMO 1920 O ALIAN SEMITIC RATAT - Clipe de Sionism (III) Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile " ORGANIZA II EVREIE TI DE AUTO AP RARE N PALESTINA (YI UV) - Clipe de Sionism (IV) Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile "BREVIAR DE FAPTE ISTORICE - EVREI CRE TINI I MUSULMANI LA IERUSALIM Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile " LEGILE SOCIALE ANTICE ALE LUI MOISE DIN 'DEUTERONOM' Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile " DOI CAVALERI AI APOCALIPSEI SECOLULUI XX NICOLAE B LAN I ALEXANDRU AFRAN Adresa link: Mesaro Anghel Vasile " ANGELO RONCALLI - PAPA IOAN AL XXIII CLIPE DE VIA Adresa link: Mesaros Anghel Vasile Volumul I LUPTA EVREILOR CRE TINI PENTRU EVANGHELIA LUI IISUS' / 2011 Adresa Video Text Audio Integral: Mesaros Anghel Vasile Volumul II EVREI, CRE TINI I MUSULMANI LA IERUSALIM / 2011 Adresa Video Text Audio Integral: Mesaros Anghel Vasile Volumul III EVREI I CRE TINI FAPTE / 2011 Adresa Video Text Audio Integral:

Dumnezeu este Unul, Oamenii l-au fcut mai mul i: Unul Iudeu, Unul Cre tin, Unul Musulman. God is ONE; mankind made him many: One Mosaic, one Christian, one Muslim.

ABOUT AUTHOR PROFILE: Name: Vasile Mesaro Anghel Age: 64 ani Proffesion: IT Trainer Studies: " University of Bucarest Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics (1971) " System Analyst - Graduate - C.E.P.E.C.A. (1975) Work Motivation: " Documentation of issues that concerned me in recent years.

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AMV Dessign/2011

To my Mother: Thaci Raisa Gher hovici