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PERCEPTION and

INDIVIDUAL DECISION
MAKING
PERCEPTION: A Process by
which individual Organize and
Interpret their Sensory
Impressions in order to Give
Meaning to their Environment
PERCEPTION

 What one Perceives can be


substantially Different from Objective
Reality.

 People’ behavior is based on their


Perception of what Reality is , and
Not on Reality itself.
FACTORS INFLUENCING
PERCEPTION
There are number of Factors which
SHAPE or DISTORT Perception.

These factors can be in the;

1. Perceiver
2. The Object of Target being
perceived
3. In the Context of the Situation in
which the perception is made
FACTORS INFLUENCING
PERCEPTION
 1. Perceiver:

Personal Characteristics that affect


perception are;
Attitudes,
Personality,
Motives,
Interests,
Past Experiences,
Expectations
PERSON PERCEPTION
Making Judgments About Others
 ATTRIBUTION THEORY:
Explains the Ways in which we Judge
people differently depending on what
meaning we Attribute to a
given Behavior.

 When we Observe any Individual’s


Behavior we attempt to determine
whether it was
INTERNALLY or EXTERNALLY
CAUSED
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Internally Caused behavior-
Under the Personal Control of Individual.

Externally Caused behavior-


Resulting from the External Causes; being
forced into the behavior by the situation

THREE DETERMINING FACTORS:


1. DISTINCTIVENESS
2. CONSENSUS
3. CONSISTENCY
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
If X arrived late today for the first time.
How would you recognize this behavior?
…… Internal or External Attribution

1. DISTINCTIVENESS:
It refers to whether an individual
displays different behavior in different
Situations.
Here we look for the UNUSUAL or
NOT UNUSUAL behavior.

Unusual Behavior----External Attribution


Not Unusual Behavior--Internal Attribution
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
 CONSENSUS
When people face similar situation
responds in the Same Way- this
behavior shows Consensus

If Consensus is High- one is expected


to give an External Attribution to the
employee’s behavior e.g.,
Absence- due to
Unavailability of public transport.
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY

 On the other hand if there was


not Consensus at that day- as
other employees from the same
locality came to office despite
strike call, the Attribution shall
be considered INTERNAL.
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY

IS the internal Attribution in the above


example Positive or Negative for the
employee?
 CONSISTENCY:
An Observer looks for CONSISTENCY in
a person’s ACTIONS.
Consistency in His/her Responses OVER
TIME.
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
CONSISTENCY:

An Observer looks for CONSISTENCY


in a person’s ACTIONS.
Consistency in His/her Responses
OVER TIME.
If an employee is rarely Absent from
duty, his being absent at any day
will be given External Attribution.
PERCEPTION:
ATTRIBUTION THEORY

 The more Consistent the


behavior, the more the observer
is inclined to attribute it to
Internal Causes.
PERCEPTION:
Shortcuts in Judging Others

 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION:

 HALO EFFECT:

 CONTRAST EFFECTS:
PERCEPTION:
Shortcuts in Judging Others

 PROJECTION:

 STEREOTYPING:
PERCEPTION:
Specific Applications of Shortcuts in
Organizations

 EMPLOYEMENT INTERVIEW

 PERFORMANCE EXPECTATION

 ETHNIC PROFILING

 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION